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Scrotal ultrasound

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865524/ultrasound-emergencies-of-the-male-pelvis
#1
Kimberly Weatherspoon, Stanley Polansky, Tara Catanzano
Male pelvic emergencies are uncommon, and symptoms typically include scrotal pain, scrotal enlargement, or a palpable scrotal mass or all of these. Ultrasound is often the first-line modality for evaluation of male pelvic emergencies, which may be stratified into vascular, infectious, or traumatic causes. Entities such as testicular torsion, Fournier gangrene, and testicular dislocation are surgical emergencies and should not be missed or misdiagnosed, as this may cause a significant delay in urgently necessary treatment...
August 2017: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856105/a-case-of-compartment-syndrome-in-the-scrotum-and-inguinal-area-complicating-idiopathic-nephrotic-syndrome-of-childhood
#2
Rola S Saqan, Rami S Alazab, Mohammed Allouh
Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) is a kidney disease characterized by massive proteinuria. Protein loss leads to decreased oncotic pressure shifting the fluids into the interstitial space causing edema, complications such as infections and thromboembolism occur. We report a 7-year-old, diagnosed with NS presenting with a relapse. He developed ascites and scrotal edema followed by severe scrotal pain and redness, progressing rapidly to ecchymosis in the inguinal areas not in continuity with the scrotum. Ultrasound with color Doppler was inconclusive, scrotal exploration was done along with skin incision in the inguinal areas and scrotum, which appeared to relieve the condition rapidly...
November 2017: Urology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840738/-primary-testicular-lymphoma
#3
Monika Motyčková, Vladimíra Vosáhlová, David Belada, Martin Šimkovič, Pavel Žák
Primary testicular lymphoma (PTL) is a rare form of extranodal lymphoma and accounts for approximately 1 to 2 % of all non-Hodgkins lymphoma and 5 % of testicular malignancies. PTL typically affects patients older than 60 years. The most common clinical symptom is painless scrotal swelling. The ultrasound of testicles followed by orchiectomy and histological and imunohistochemical examinations are the most important tools for diagnostic assessment. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common histological type of PTL...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831324/use-of-diagnostic-laparoscopy-for-identification-of-bilateral-noncommunicating-hydroceles-in-an-infant-with-right-sided-abdominoscrotal-mass-and-left-sided-scrotal-mass
#4
Kian Asanad, Pooya Banapour, Monica Metzdorf
Infantile abdominoscrotal hydrocele (ASH) is a rare condition characterized by a dumbbell-shaped cystic mass extending from the scrotum to the abdomen. We present the case of a 4-month-old infant who presented with progressively enlarging bilateral scrotal swelling and a tense, ballotable right-sided abdominal mass with extension into the scrotum. Scrotal ultrasound revealed bilateral hydroceles but exam and ultrasound could not rule out communication. At the time of planned hydrocelectomy, initial diagnostic laparoscopy was used to identify a massive right-sided ASH extending from the internal ring to the umbilicus and a large noncommunicating left-sided hydrocele that was visible with application of pressure to the left side of the scrotum...
2017: Case Reports in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815058/testicular-microlithiasis-is-associated-with-ethnicity-and-socioeconomic-status
#5
Malene R Pedersen, Emily C Bartlett, Søren R Rafaelsen, Palle J Osther, Peter Vedsted, Maria E Sellars, Paul S Sidhu, Henrik Møller
BACKGROUND: There are limited studies about testicular microlithiasis (TML) and background information such as health, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status. PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of TML in relation to socioeconomic status and ethnicity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From a database of scrotal ultrasound examinations in a single institution, all men who underwent routine ultrasound examinations for a variety of symptoms from 1998 to 2015 were included...
August 2017: Acta Radiologica Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812465/melanotic-neuroectodermal-tumor-of-infancy-presenting-with-fast-growing-scrotal-swelling-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
Corinthia Fabien-Dupuis, Benjamin Niver, Nick Shillingford, Larry Wang, Paul J Kokorowski, Shengmei Zhou
Testicular melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) is extremely rare, with 2 cases reported in the literature. Its rarity and rapid and infiltrative growth pattern pose a diagnostic challenge. A previously healthy 3-month-old male, presented with a history of worsening left hemiscrotal swelling for 1 week. An outside ultrasound was suggestive of testicular torsion. Left orchiectomy demonstrated a mass occupying almost entire testicle with a variegated cut surface, with areas of pigmentation, necrosis, and hemorrhage...
September 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797399/a-54-year-old-man-with-anasarca-dyspnea-and-recurrent-bilateral-pleural-effusions
#7
Pradnya D Patil, Yvette M Cua, Carol Farver, Rafael L Perez, Atul C Mehta, Tanmay S Panchabhai
A 54-year-old African-American man presented with 2 years of progressively worsening dyspnea and anasarca. Over the past 6 months he gained 30 lbs with worsening lower extremity, abdominal wall, and scrotal edema. A recent workup for cardiac, renal, and liver disease, including two-dimensional echocardiogram, liver and renal function tests, and abdominal ultrasound, was unremarkable. He reported a 15-pack year history of smoking and quit 3 years ago. Chest radiograph at that time revealed bilateral pleural effusions that were both reportedly milky in appearance when drained by thoracenteses...
August 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789946/prevalence-and-management-of-incidental-small-testicular-masses-discovered-on-ultrasonographic-evaluation-of-male-infertility
#8
Jared M Bieniek, Tristan Juvet, Myles Margolis, Ethan D Grober, Kirk C Lo, Keith A Jarvi
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the safety of surveillance of small testicular masses incidentally discovered during evaluation of male infertility. MATERIALS & METHODS: Retrospective review of a prospectively-collected database to identify male infertility patients found to have incidental small testicular masses (hypoechoic lesions <10mm) on scrotal ultrasonography. Men were offered close surveillance with interval imaging and office follow-up. Patient and imaging characteristics were collected for comparisons between surveillance and surgical groups with additional comparisons between benign and malignant pathologies to elucidate predictors of underlying malignancy...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782322/congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-with-11-beta-hydroxylase-deficiency-with-testicular-adrenal-rest-tumour
#9
Archana Sonawale, Anjali Rajadhyaksha, Siddharth Warrier, Rohit Shriwastav, Nilakshi H Sabnis
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia refers to the non-malignant enlargement of adrenal gland tissue as a result of deficiency of one of several enzymes involved in adrenal hormone synthesis, secondary to a genetic mutation. 11 - Beta hydroxylase is one such enzyme, and its deficiency is a rare cause of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia. We describe the case of an 18-year old man who presented to us with an acute right ganglio-capsular bleed, hypertension and bilateral scrotal swelling. Investigations revealed hypokalemia, and normal renal and cardiac functions...
June 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752065/serous-borderline-tumor-of-the-testis-and-associated-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings
#10
Alan Hsieh, Mitchell Miller, Wenlei He, David Shin
Serous borderline tumor (SBT) of the testis is a rare, ovarian epithelial-type tumor of the testis. We present a case of SBT after radical orchiectomy in a 59-year-old man who had 3-month progressive enlargement of his right hemi-scrotum, negative testicular tumor markers and scrotal ultrasound equivocal for malignancy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pelvis was obtained to aid with evaluation and showed marked hyperintensity on T2-weighted images with frond-like nodular peripheral enhancement within right testis mass...
September 2017: Urology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725240/appraisal-of-testicular-volumes-volumes-matching-ultrasound-values-referenced-to-stages-of-genital-development
#11
Juan F Sotos, Naomi J Tokar
BACKGROUND: Testicular volumes obtained with orchidometers or external linear measurements in the scrotum (centimeter ruler or calipers) grossly over-estimate ultrasound volumes, have much variability and may not be accurate or reproducible. The reference of the values obtained by orchidometers or US, to age or Tanner stages is not useful to determine the normal values for stages of puberty, because overlapping of ages and values. Pubertal development is determined by two events, genital and pubic hair development, that should be analyzed independently because one could be out of step with the other...
2017: International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713006/ultrasonographic-findings-in-the-epididymis-of-pediatric-patients-with-testicular-torsion
#12
C E Afsarlar, R Elizondo, E Yilmaz, E Cakmakci, D J Ballow, E Demir, G Guney, C J Koh
INTRODUCTION: Although grayscale ultrasound and color Doppler ultrasound characteristics of the torsed testis are well established in the literature, less is known about its anatomic partner: the epididymis. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the ultrasound characteristics of the epididymis in pediatric patients with testicular torsion, and to describe their potential role as prognostic criteria for testicular salvage outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: During a retrospective review of 217 pediatric patients with acute testicular torsion during 2009-2016, morphological features of the epididymis from scrotal ultrasounds (size, parenchymal characteristics, and vascular flow of both epididymis heads), as well as patient demographics, time duration, surgical outcomes, histopathology results, and follow-up periods were analyzed...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705576/scrotal-ultrasound-for-pain-low-frequency-of-absolute-surgical-indications
#13
James A Kashanian, Daniel J Mazur, Marah C Hehemann, Christopher D Morrison, Daniel T Oberlin, Valary T Raup, Andrew W Choi, Brian Trinh, Mohammed A Said, Mary Kate Keeter, Robert E Brannigan
OBJECTIVE: To examine the results of scrotal ultrasounds (US) conducted for scrotal or testicular pain and review the pathologic findings of orchiectomies done for lesions that were suspicious for malignancy on US. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the indications and findings of all scrotal US completed at our institution from 2002 to 2014. If a patient underwent an orchiectomy for an intratesticular lesion that was concerning for malignancy on US, the pathology report was also reviewed...
July 10, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676275/testicular-adrenal-rest-tumor-tart-in-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#14
Hatice Ozisik, Banu Sarer Yurekli, Ilgin Yildirim Simsir, Ilker Altun, Utku Soyaltin, Ezgi Guler, Huseyin Onay, Banu Sarsik, Fusun Saygili
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is one of the most common autosomal recessive genetic disorders. Testicular adrenal tumors are significant complications of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. We would like to present two patients of testicular adrenal rest tumors. Patient 1 24 year-old male, he was diagnosed with congenital adrenal hyperplasia at the age of 8 due to precocious puberty. He received hydro-cortisone treatment until the age of 18. Testicular mass had been detected and right radical orchiectomy had been applied 6 months ago and reported as testicular adrenal rest tumor...
July 1, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658877/bilateral-testicular-metastases-from-occult-primary-prostate-cancer-in-a-young-adult-a-rare-case-report
#15
Vijaya Rajesh Kamble, Purva Mahesh Agrawal
Testicular metastases are detected incidentally in upto 4% cases after orchiectomy for Prostate Carcinoma (PCa). Most of the secondaries to testes are due to PCa, only few patients have clinically manifested metastases to bilateral testes. Metastases to bilateral testis is unusual while unilateral involvement of the testis is seen usually. We report a case of primary PCa with bilateral testicular metastases which presented with palpable mass in the right testis. A 43-year-old male patient presented with two-month history of swelling in right inguino-scrotal region...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645010/a-rare-case-of-male-pseudohermaphroditism-persistent-mullerian-duct-syndrome-with-transverse-testicular-ectopia-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#16
Aashish Rajesh, Mohammed Farooq
INTRODUCTION: Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a rare type of male pseudohermaphroditism. Transverse testicular ectopia (TTE) is characterized by one testis moving to the opposite side and both testes traversing the same inguinal canal. CASE PRESENTATION: An 11-month-old boy presented with bilateral cryptorchidism. The left testis was not palpable; the right testis was canalicular with a right inguinal hernia. Ultrasound showed both testes located in the right inguinal canal...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639925/causes-of-avascular-hypoechoic-testicular-lesions-detected-at-scrotal-ultrasound-can-they-be-considered-benign
#17
Weining Ma, Debra Sarasohn, Junting Zheng, Hebert A Vargas, Ariadne Bach
OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to determine the cause of avascular hypoechoic lesions detected at scrotal ultrasound and to assess usefulness of sonographic and clinical features in differentiating benign from malignant etiologic factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 58 patients with avascular hypoechoic lesions detected at testicular ultrasound. The sonographic features recorded were lesion size and margins and presence of peripheral vascularity and focal calcifications...
July 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639144/rural-versus-urban-compliance-in-the-management-of-cryptorchidism-is-there-a-difference
#18
Dana Point, Chad Morley, Ali Tourchi, Sunil Reddy, Pokket Sirisreetreerux, John Gearhart, Osama Al-Omar
The authors compared the age and referral patterns of pediatric patients undergoing surgical intervention for cryptorchidism at a rural, West Virginia University, versus urban, Johns Hopkins University, tertiary center. A retrospective review of patients undergoing surgical evaluation for cryptorchidism was performed. Patients treated for reasons unrelated to cryptorchidism or referred for multiple urologic diagnoses were excluded. The patients at each institution were then divided into four groups based on their corrected gestational age at time of surgery...
August 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638814/congenital-urogenital-abnormalities-in-children-with-congenital-hypothyroidism
#19
Parsa Yousefi Chaijan, Fatemeh Dorreh, Mojtaba Sharafkhah, Mohammad Amiri, Mohsen Ebrahimimonfared, Mohammad Rafeie, Fatemeh Safi
Background: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH), as one of the most common congenital endocrine disorders, may be significantly associated with congenital malformations. This study investigates urogenital abnormalities in children with primary CH (PCH). Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 200 children aged three months to 1 year, referred to Amir-Kabir Hospital, Arak, Iran. One hundred children with PCH, as the case group, and 100 healthy children, as the control group, were selected using convenient sampling...
2017: Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615391/practical-approach-to-evaluating-testicular-status-in-infants-and-children
#20
REVIEW
Elke E Mau, Michael P Leonard
OBJECTIVE: To review the differences between normal, retractile, ectopic, ascended, and undescended testes and to describe the optimal way to perform a testicular examination to distinguish one from the other, as well as to demonstrate that ultrasound imaging is not necessary and to clarify when to consider specialist referral. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: This paper is based on selected findings from a MEDLINE search on undescended testes and orchiopexy referrals, and on our experience at the Urology Clinic at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario in Ottawa, including review of referrals to our clinic for undescended testes and the resultant findings of normal variants versus surgical cases...
June 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
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