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Testicular ultrasound

Mirjana Kocova, Vesna Janevska, Violeta Anastasovska
BACKGROUND: Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) are found in 30-94% of adult males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We sought to explore TART appearance through yearly ultrasound examination of testes in young boys with CAH, and its association with metabolic control and genetic mutations. METHODS: Twenty-five boys with 21-hydroxylase deficiency in the age group 4-18 years diagnosed during the period 2001-2016 were included in the study. ACTH, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione and testosterone were measured at 4-month intervals...
March 12, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Qingqiang Gao, Jianhuai Chen, Yutian Dai
BACKGROUND: In the past 20 years, the incidence of prostate cancer has risen rapidly. It has been ranked as the third most common malignant tumor of the male genitourinary system. Testicular metastasis is uncommon in prostate cancer. Most cases are incidentally found in the treatment of prostate cancer with orchiectomy. Therefore, we believed it was necessary to report the case of our patient with this disease. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 69-year-old Han Chinese man with a high total prostate-specific antigen level...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Rostyslav V Bubnov, Maria V Drahulian, Polina V Buchek, Tamara P Gulko
Background: Liver fibrosis (LF) is a chronic disease, associated with many collateral diseases including reproductive dysfunction. Although the normal liver has a large regenerative capacity the complications of LF could be severe and irreversible. Hormone and sex-related issues of LF development and interactions with male reproductive have not been finally studied. The aim was to study the reproductive function of male rats in experimental CCl4 -induced liver fibrosis rat model, and the capability for restoration of both the liver and male reproduction system...
March 2018: EPMA Journal
Molinaro Francesco, Cobellis Giovanni, Cerchia Elisa, Ferrara Francesco, Tallarico Rosella, Sica Marina, Noviello Carmine, Martino Ascanio, Angotti Rossella, Messina Mario
Background: The varicocele is the most commonly diagnosed pre-pubertal andrological condition with an incidence of 10%-15% between adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of retroperitoneoscopic varicocelectomy (RV) in two Italian centres with particular attention to post-operative testicular volume and semen analysis after 18 years of life. Materials and Methods: From 1999 to 2010, 286 adolescents underwent retroperitoneoscopic left varicocelectomy...
April 2017: African Journal of Paediatric Surgery: AJPS
Alessandra Rota, Battista Puddu, Chiara Sabatini, Duccio Panzani, Anne-Lyse Lainé, Francesco Camillo
In male donkeys, puberty and the related events have been poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the age at which male donkeys reach puberty, and characterize age associated changes in testicular size, testicular blood flow, serum testosterone concentration and semen quality. Every two months, starting at 6 months and finishing at 24 months of age, five male donkeys born in May to July were subjected to B-mode ultrasound examination to assess testicular size and scrotum content and blood serum sampling for testosterone concentration...
February 24, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Alicia R Jones, Alan McNeil, Christopher Yates, Bala Krishnamurthy, Peter S Hamblin
A variety of neoplastic, inflammatory and congenital conditions can cause pituitary stalk thickening. Differentiating between these causes is important as targeted treatment may be offered. Diagnostic work-up consists of a thorough history, examination, biochemical analysis and imaging. We present the case of a 33-year-old male who presented with diabetes insipidus and had pituitary stalk thickening on magnetic resonance imaging. Further investigations revealed an elevated CSF βhCG, which raised the possibility of an intracranial germ cell tumor...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Anke Peil-Grun, Corinna Trenker, Konrad Görg, Albrecht Neesse, Jörg Haasenritter, Christian Görg
Value of contrast-enhanced-ultrasound (CEUS) in the evaluation of residual lesions (RL) after therapy in patients with malignant lymphomas (ML) and testicular cancer (TC) with regard to tumor activity. From May 2004-October 2010, in n = 52 patients with ML (n = 34) or TC (n = 18) and RL, B-mode-imaging and CEUS of the RL was performed. In CEUS, differentiation was made between high-enhancement (HE), low-(LE) or no-enhancement (NE) of the RL after therapy. Data were retrospectively evaluated. A positive test result (HE) was found in n = 13 (25%); a negative test result (LE/NE) in n = 39 (75%) patients...
February 27, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Volkan Ülker, Hasan Anıl Atalay, Çağlar Çakır, Aytül Sargan
We present a case of malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the testis in a 59 year- old male who admitted to our hospital with left testicular painless mass presenting for two months. A scrotal ultrasound examination and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 9 cm left testicular solid mass. Serum tumor markers were unremarkable. The patient underwent left radical orchiectomy. Histopathologic diagnosis was giant cell variant of malignant fibrous histiocytoma which composed of varying amounts of a mixture of spindled, rounded and osteoclastic type giant cells...
January 2018: Turkish Journal of Urology
Rumman Ahmed, Konrad Wolfe, Peter Acher, Sidath Liyanage
Granulomatous bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) infection, both localized and disseminated, as a complication of intravesical therapy for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder is a recognized but highly unusual phenomenon. We report the case of an 89-year-old gentleman with a history of bladder transitional cell carcinoma and subsequent intravesical BCG instillation of the bladder who presented to his general practitioner with a non-tender lump in his left testis. Histopathologic and microbiological evaluation of the subsequent orchidectomy specimen revealed granuloma formation secondary to BCG infection...
December 2017: Radiology Case Reports
Boaz Karmazyn, David L Weatherly, Stephen J Lehnert, Mark P Cain, Rong Fan, S Gregory Jennings, Fangqian Ouyang, Martin Kaefer
INTRODUCTION: Testicular tumors in children have two peaks with different types of tumors; in the first 4 years of life a third to half are benign with increased risk of malignancy during puberty. The pathology of testicular tumors between these peaks, at the age of 5-12 years, is not known. We hypothesized that because of the low level of testosterone at this time, the incidence of malignant tumors is very low. OBJECTIVE: To compare malignancy risk of primary testicular tumors in children in the prepubertal period (5-12 years) compared with younger (0-4 years) and pubertal (13-18 years) children...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
S Zundel, P Szavay, H-W Hacker, S Shavit
BACKGROUND: Varicocele is a common urologic anomaly in adolescent males; however, evidence-based treatment guidelines do not exist. Hydroceles are known to be a common complication after surgical therapy, with a wide variation in the reported incidence between 1 and 40%. AIM: This study aimed to introduce a standardized indication-to-treat protocol and prove its efficacy by analyzing the outcome of patients. Secondly, it aimed to better define postoperative hydroceles because the wide variation of reported incidence is attributed to a lack of definition...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Beat Roth, Ioannis Giannakis, Meret Elisabeth Ricklin, George Niklaus Thalmann, Aristomenis Konstantinos Exadaktylos
Objectives: We sought to identify a simplified approach for the rapid differential diagnosis of patients presenting with acute scrotum. Methods: A total of 440 patients referred to the emergency department of the University Hospital of Bern, Switzerland, with acute scrotum between 2003 and 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Simple and multiple binary logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate clinical and laboratory parameters that may help to distinguish between genital/paragenital infection and acute testicular torsion...
January 2018: Oman Medical Journal
D I Chu, K Gupta, T Kawal, J P Van Batavia, D K Bowen, M R Zaontz, T F Kolon, D A Weiss, S A Zderic, D A Canning
INTRODUCTION: In testicular torsion, ischemia time from pain onset impacts testicular salvage. A tunica albuginea fasciotomy to relieve compartment pressure followed by a tunica vaginalis flap (TVF) may enhance salvage. OBJECTIVE: To define the optimal window of ischemia time during which TVF may be most beneficial to avoid orchiectomy. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of males presenting with testicular torsion at a single tertiary-care institution from January, 2003 to March, 2017...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Alessia Gloria, Augusto Carluccio, Laura Wegher, Domenico Robbe, Claudio Valorz, Alberto Contri
Background: Semen evaluation is used to estimate the testicular function. In bulls, the spermatozoa present in the ejaculate are the result of a process that begun more than 2 mo earlier, bequeathing a delayed depiction of the actual function of the testis. Since testis vascularization might be critical for the gonad function, selected pulse wave Doppler ultrasound parameters were assessed in this study, for instance the peak systolic velocity, the end diastolic velocity and the resistive index of the testicular artery along the spermatic cord, the marginal portion of the testicular artery and the intratesticular branches of the testicular artery both in healthy adult and young bulls...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Michael J H Clarke, Samuel Crocker, David G Bartle, John Apsey
A male neonate born after uncomplicated vaginal delivery at 36 weeks' gestation was noted to have large and firm testicles bilaterally on routine examination. A testicular ultrasound scan was subsequently organised that showed detailed appearances consistent with bilateral testicular torsion. This was thought to have taken place antenatally and as such was unfortunately not suitable for intervention. The patient was therefore managed conservatively with the testicles left to involute naturally. He was started on testosterone replacement therapy after follow-up when gonadotrophin levels were found to be raised and testosterone low (suggesting absent testicular function) and will be closely followed up regarding his future development which is normal to this point...
February 7, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
E J Redmond, F T Mac Namara, S K Giri, H D Flood
OBJECTIVES: EAU and AUA guidelines recommend urgent surgical exploration in cases of suspected testicular rupture. However, the management of rupture to other encapsulated organs (e.g. kidney) is primarily non-operative. The aim of this study was to evaluate the conservative management of blunt scrotal trauma. METHODS: Standard practice in our Level II trauma centre is to manage all blunt scrotal injuries conservatively with analgesia, antibiotics and scrotal support...
February 8, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Adrian Rhudd, Masood Moghul, Gareth Reid
One of the most common differentials for the acute scrotum is an epididymo-orchitis (EO), which can mimic the presentation of testicular torsion. We present a case of a 37-year-old man presented to the Emergency department with a 3-day history of progressive left testicular pain. A Doppler ultrasound was done which revealed increased flow to the left testicle with no evidence of testicular torsion and he was discharged. He was re-admitted with worsening pain and a repeat scan showed that the penile arterial diastolic flow had reversed, indicating testicular infarction...
October 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
Bruno Donadille, Muriel Houang, Irene Netchine, Jean-Pierre Siffroi, Sophie Christin-Maitre
Human 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency (3b-HSD) is a very rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia resulting from HSD3B2 gene mutations. Its estimated prevalence is less than 1/1,000,000 male neonates. It leads to steroidogenesis impairment in both adrenals and gonads. Few data are available on adult testicular function in such patients. Therefore, we evaluated gonadal axis and testicular function in a 46,XY adult patient, carrying a HSD3B2 mutation. The patient presented at birth with neonatal salt wasting syndrome, a micropenis, perineal hypospadias and intrascrotal testes...
February 2, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Andrea Palicelli, Pierluigi Neri, Giansilvio Marchioro, Paolo De Angelis, Gianmarco Bondonno, Antonio Ramponi
Primary extratesticular seminomas exceptionally occur in the epididymis or in the paratesticular region/spermatic cord. Some old papers included poor histological description or insufficient photographic documentation, reducing the number of faithful cases: an up-to-date systematic review is lacking. We report the 4th primary seminoma of the paratesticular region/spermatic cord in a 35-year-old man, including the first echographic description. We provide review of the literature and etiopathogenetic discussion...
February 7, 2018: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Vasileios Rafailidis, Mary Arvaniti, Dimitrios Rafailidis, Dimitrios Sfoungaris
Polyorchidism is a rare condition usually incidentally discovered in young patients investigated with ultrasound for unrelated reasons. It is characterized by the presence of unilateral or, rarely, bilateral supernumerary testes which, depending on the type of polyorchidism, may have their own epididymis and vas deferens. Ultrasound, including B-mode and color Doppler technique, represents the primary imaging modality for the evaluation of scrotal diseases, including the characterization of supernumerary testes, which normally appear identical to the ipsilateral testicular parenchyma on every ultrasonographic technique performed...
August 2017: Ultrasound: Journal of the British Medical Ultrasound Society
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