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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932816/altitude-training-in-endurance-running-perceptions-of-elite-athletes-and-support-staff
#1
Gareth Turner, Barry W Fudge, Jamie S M Pringle, Neil S Maxwell, Alan J Richardson
This study sought to establish perceptions of elite endurance athletes on the role and worth of altitude training. Elite British endurance runners were surveyed to identify the altitude and hypoxic training methods utilised, along with reasons for use, and any situational, cultural and behaviour factors influencing these. Prior to the 2012 Olympics Games, 39 athletes and 20 support staff (coaches/practitioners) completed an internet-based survey to establish differences between current practices and the accepted "best-practice"...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930409/-association-between-speed-and-endurance-performance-with-sleep-duration-in-children-and-adolescents
#2
T Q Chen, B Dong, W J Zhang, D S Gao, Y H Dong, J Ma, Y H Ma
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between sleep duration and athletic performance, and provide scientific basis to improve the 50 m and endurance performance in children and adolescents. METHODS: All the 119 462 subjects aged 9-15 years in both genders were sampled from 2014 National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance by using stratified random cluster sampling method, to measure the height, weight, 50 meters and endurance performance and investigate sleep duration with questionnaire...
June 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922392/correlation-between-match-performance-and-field-tests-in-professional-soccer-players
#3
Paulo E Redkva, Mauro R Paes, Ricardo Fernandez, Sergio G da-Silva
The aim of this study was to investigate possible correlations between aerobic and anaerobic fitness (in field tests) with performance during a 90 min friendly match, through the following variables: total distance covered, maximal running speed, number of high-intensity actions and number of sprints. Eighteen professional soccer players from a Brazilian elite team (age 23 ± 3 years, body mass 77.5 ± 8.9 kg) participated in the study. The athletes performed a Yo-Yo Endurance Test (aerobic fitness) and a Running Anaerobic Sprint Test (six maximal 35 m efforts separated by 10 s of passive recovery, anaerobic fitness)...
June 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921524/impact-loading-history-modulates-hip-fracture-load-and-location-a-finite-element-simulation-study-of-the-proximal-femur-in-female-athletes
#4
Shinya Abe, Nathaniel Narra, Riku Nikander, Jari Hyttinen, Reijo Kouhia, Harri Sievänen
Sideways falls impose high stress on the thin superolateral cortical bone of the femoral neck, the region regarded as a fracture-prone region of the hip. Exercise training is a natural mode of mechanical loading to make bone more robust. Exercise-induced adaptation of cortical bone along the femoral neck has been previously demonstrated. However, it is unknown whether this adaption modulates hip fracture behavior. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of specific exercise loading history on fall-induced hip fracture behavior by estimating fracture load and location with proximal femur finite element (FE) models created from magnetic resonance images (MRI) of 111 women with distinct exercise histories: 91 athletes (aged 24...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912079/impact-of-physical-performance-and-anthropometric-characteristics-on-serve-velocity-in-elite-junior-tennis-players
#5
Janina Fett, Alexander Ulbricht, Alexander Ferrauti
Fett, J, Ulbricht, A, and Ferrauti, A. Impact of physical performance and anthropometric characteristics on serve velocity in elite junior tennis players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study aimed to investigate the impact of physical performance components and anthropometric characteristics on serve velocity (SV) in elite junior tennis players depending on the sex and age group. A sample of the best 1,019 (male = 625, female = 394) junior squad tennis players of the German Tennis Federation participated in the study involving complex anthropometric measurements (body height, body mass, sitting height, and arm span) and physical tests (e...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910315/topical-and-ingested-cooling-methodologies-for-endurance-exercise-performance-in-the-heat
#6
REVIEW
Russ Best, Stephen Payton, Iain Spears, Florence Riera, Nicolas Berger
This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess studies which have investigated cooling methodologies, their timing and effects, on endurance exercise performance in trained athletes (Category 3; VO2max ≥ 55 mL·kg·min-1 ) in hot environmental conditions (≥28 °C). Meta-analyses were performed to quantify the effects of timings and methods of application, with a narrative review of the evidence also provided. A computer-assisted database search was performed for articles investigating the effects of cooling on endurance performance and accompanying physiological and perceptual responses...
February 2, 2018: Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901435/sex-dependent-responses-to-exertional-heat-stroke-in-mice
#7
Christian K Garcia, Alex J Mattingly, Gerard P Robinson, Orlando Laitano, Michelle A King, Shauna M Dineen, Lisa R Leon, Thomas L Clanton
With increasing participation of females in endurance athletics and active military service, it is important to determine if there are inherent sex-dependent susceptibilities to exertional heat injury or heat stroke. In this study we compared responses of male and female adult mice to exertional heat stroke (EHS). All mice were instrumented for telemetry core temperature measurement and were exercise-trained for 3 weeks prior to EHS. During EHS, environmental temperature was 37.5{degree sign}C (35% RH) while the mice ran on a forced running wheel, using incremental increases in speed...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899711/unchanged-erythrocyte-profile-after-exposure-to-cryogenic-temperatures-in-elder-marathon-runners
#8
Jadwiga Szymura, Magdalena Wiecek, Marcin Maciejczyk, Joanna Gradek, Malgorzata Kantorowicz, Zbigniew Szygula
Objective: Endurance runners may experience "sports anemia" resulting from intravascular hemolysis. In addition, aging has negative impact on hematopoiesis and rheological properties of blood, and erythrocyte membranes in older people are more vulnerable to oxidative damage, which together can lead to anemia. Whole-body cryostimulation (WBCST) is increasingly used in the elderly as a method of biological regeneration of athletes or therapy and preventive treatment. That is why the aim of the study was to determine whether repeated WBCST had an effect on the erythrocyte system in master marathon runners, compared to non-training men...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894642/acute-modulation-in-dietary-behavior-following-glycogen-depletion-and-post-exercise-supplementation-in-trained-cyclists
#9
Hsuan-Yu Wan, Jonathon L Stickford, Emily Dawkins, Alice K Lindeman, Joel M Stager
We investigated the influence of immediate post-exercise dietary supplementation on the subsequent food consumption pattern and endurance exercise performance in physically trained individuals. On two occasions, trained male cyclists performed a glycogen-depleting exercise bout followed by a 2-hour nutritional supplementation period, 28 hours of free-living recovery, and a subsequent 40-km cycling time trial. During the 2-hour post-exercise supplementation, subjects consumed equal volumes of reduced-fat chocolate milk (CM) or a sports beverage (SB) in a single-blind, randomized design...
June 12, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893381/isoprostanes-as-markers-for-muscle-aging-in-older-athletes
#10
Claire Vinel, Ophélie Pereira, Aude Dupuy, Justine Bertrand-Michel, Dalila Laoudj-Chenivesse, Yves Rolland, Daniel Rivière, Philippe Valet, Cédric Dray, Fabien Pillard
Introduction: Production of isoprostanes (IsoPs) is enhanced after acute, intense, and prolonged exercise, in untrained subjects. This effect is greater in older subjects. The present study aims to delineate the profile of acute-exercise-induced IsoPs levels in young and older endurance-trained subjects. Methods: All included subjects were male, young (n = 6; 29 yrs ± 5.7) or older (n = 6; 63.7 yrs ± 2.3), and competitors. The kinetics of F2 -IsoPs in blood-sera was assessed at rest, for the maximal aerobic exercise power (MAP) corresponding to the cardio-respiratory fitness index and after a 30-min recovery period...
June 2018: Biochimie Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893180/potential-adverse-cardiac-remodelling-in-highly-trained-athletes-still-unknown-clinical-significance
#11
Luigi Gabrielli, Marta Sitges, Mario Chiong, Jorge Jalil, María Ocaranza, Silvana Llevaneras, Sebastian Herrera, Rodrigo Fernandez, Rodrigo Saavedra, Fernando Yañez, Luis Vergara, Alexis Diaz, Sergio Lavandero, Pablo Castro
Moderate endurance exercise has long been considered an essential element to maintain cardiovascular health, and sedentary behaviour in the general population has been related to a significant increase in all-causes of mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality and cardiovascular disease incidence. However, a growing group of people performs an intense exercise that leads to multiple heart adaptive changes that are collectively called "athlete's heart". In this review, we discussed the evidence of cardiac remodelling process secondary to repetitive and strenuous exercise in some predisposed athletes that produces intense and probably deleterious changes in cardiac morphology and function with no clear clinical significance in long-term follow-up...
June 12, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891251/exercise-and-atrial-fibrillation-prevention-or-causation
#12
Adrian D Elliott, Dominik Linz, Christian V Verdicchio, Prashanthan Sanders
Regular exercise contributes to improved cardiovascular health and reduced cardiovascular mortality. Previous studies have shown that regular physical activity and high cardiorespiratory fitness both contribute to a reduction in incident atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the risk of AF appears to be paradoxically increased by participation in endurance exercise. Although the mechanisms are not well understood, exercise-induced changes in autonomic tone alongside the development of an arrhythmogenic atrial substrate, appear to contribute to an excess of AF amongst athletes, despite an overall reduction in cardiovascular disease incidence...
May 8, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890328/cortical-processing-of-breathing-perceptions-in-the-athletic-brain
#13
Olivia K Faull, Pete J Cox, Kyle T S Pattinson
Athletes regularly endure large increases in ventilation and accompanying perceptions of breathlessness. Whilst breathing perceptions often correlate poorly with objective measures of lung function in both health and clinical populations, we have previously demonstrated closer matching between subjective breathlessness and changes in ventilation in endurance athletes, suggesting that athletes may be more accurate during respiratory interoception. To better understand the link between exercise and breathlessness, we sought to identify the mechanisms by which the brain processing of respiratory perception might be optimised in athletes...
June 8, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889868/increasing-effort-without-noticing-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-study-about-the-ergogenic-placebo-effect-in-endurance-athletes-and-the-role-of-supplement-salience
#14
Ellen K Broelz, Sebastian Wolf, Patrick Schneeweiss, Andreas M Niess, Paul Enck, Katja Weimer
PURPOSE: Previous research shows that endurance performance can be enhanced by placebo ergogenic aids. This study investigates the ergogenic placebo response, which we define as an increase in objective and physiological effort without an increase in subjective effort, in competitive cyclists. The primary objective of this study is to explore the role of supplement salience in the ergogenic placebo response, while the secondary aim is to assess whether believing to have taken an inactive placebo supplement attenuates the desired ergogenic effect...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889151/energy-availability-macronutrient-intake-and-nutritional-supplementation-for-improving-exercise-performance-in-endurance-athletes
#15
Gretchen A Casazza, Ashley P Tovar, Christine E Richardson, Angela N Cortez, Brian A Davis
Endurance athletes use nutritional guidelines and supplements to improve exercise performance and recovery. However, use is not always based on scientific evidence of improved performance, which type of athlete would benefit most, or the optimal dose and timing of a particular supplement. Health professionals that give advice to athletes need to target their recommendations on the energy systems and muscle fiber types used for the athlete's sporting event, the goal of the training block, the time of the competitive season, and the characteristics and food preferences of the individual athlete...
June 2018: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889150/core-and-back-rehabilitation-for-high-speed-rotation-sports-highlight-on-lacrosse
#16
Heather K Vincent, Kevin R Vincent
Lacrosse is a fast-paced game that incorporates elements from multiple sports, such as soccer, basketball, baseball, tennis, and hockey. The sport involves rapid changes of direction, endurance, sprinting, physical contact, rotational movement, passing, and shooting. Passing and shooting are further complicated by having a weighted object (ball) at the end of a long moment arm (crosse) which places increased stress on the body segments. Thus, it is important to properly prepare for sport participation by improving strength, endurance, and dynamic stability of the postural and core stability muscles...
June 2018: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889149/advanced-concepts-in-hip-morphology-associated-pathologies-and-specific-rehabilitation-for-athletic-hip-injuries
#17
Carlo J E Milani, Peter J Moley
Hip and groin injuries comprise up to 17% of athletic injuries and can pose rehabilitation challenges for many athletes. Injuries involving abnormal femoral acetabular morphology, reduced range of motion, and decreased lumbopelvic strength and endurance also may increase the risk of injury to lower extremities and delay return to play if proper rehabilitation does not take place. The rehabilitation of athletic hip injuries requires a multifaceted interdisciplinary approach that manages the interplay of multiple factors to restore preinjury function and facilitate return to play...
June 2018: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879362/sex-differences-in-the-clinical-incidence-of-concussions-missed-school-days-and-time-loss-in-high-school-student-athletes-part-1
#18
Abigail C Bretzin, Tracey Covassin, Meghan E Fox, Kyle M Petit, Jennifer L Savage, Lauren F Walker, Daniel Gould
BACKGROUND: Sports-related concussion (SRC) injury rates are well established in collegiate athletics through epidemiological studies using the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System. However, few studies have examined sex differences, time loss, and missed school days in high school athletes, especially at the state level. PURPOSE: To identify sex differences in the clinical incidence of SRCs, missed school days, and time loss in high school student-athletes...
June 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876876/the-effect-of-acute-caffeine-ingestion-on-endurance-performance-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Kyle Southward, Kay J Rutherfurd-Markwick, Ajmol Ali
BACKGROUND: Caffeine is a widely used ergogenic aid with most research suggesting it confers the greatest effects during endurance activities. Despite the growing body of literature around the use of caffeine as an ergogenic aid, there are few recent meta-analyses that quantitatively assess the effect of caffeine on endurance exercise. OBJECTIVES: To summarise studies that have investigated the ergogenic effects of caffeine on endurance time-trial performance and to quantitatively analyse the results of these studies to gain a better understanding of the magnitude of the ergogenic effect of caffeine on endurance time-trial performance...
June 6, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875696/protein-and-the-adaptive-response-with-endurance-training-wishful-thinking-or-a-competitive-edge
#20
Pim Knuiman, Maria T E Hopman, Conor Verbruggen, Marco Mensink
The significance of carbohydrates for endurance training has been well established, whereas the role of protein and the adaptive response with endurance training is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this perspective is to discuss the current evidence on the role of dietary protein and the adaptive response with endurance training. On a metabolic level, a single bout of endurance training stimulates the oxidation of several amino acids. Although the amount of amino acids as part of total energy expenditure during exercise is relatively low compared to other substrates (e...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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