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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075653/serum-creatine-kinase-elevations-in-ultramarathon-runners-at-high-altitude
#1
Danielle Magrini, Morteza Khodaee, Inigo San Millan, Tamara Hew-Butler, Aaron J Provance
OBJECTIVES: Creatine kinase (CK) is a sensitive enzyme marker for muscle damage in athletes. Elevated CK levels have been reported in many endurance physical activities. The consequence and possible long-term sequela of the CK elevation in athletes is unknown. There is a paucity of literature stating actual numerical values of CK associated with competing in an ultramarathon with extreme environmental conditions. Our hypothesis was that the serum CK levels increase significantly as a result of running a 161km ultramarathon at high altitude...
January 11, 2017: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067808/effects-of-beetroot-juice-supplementation-on-cardiorespiratory-endurance-in-athletes-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Raúl Domínguez, Eduardo Cuenca, José Luis Maté-Muñoz, Pablo García-Fernández, Noemí Serra-Paya, María Carmen Lozano Estevan, Pablo Veiga Herreros, Manuel Vicente Garnacho-Castaño
Athletes use nutritional supplementation to enhance the effects of training and achieve improvements in their athletic performance. Beetroot juice increases levels of nitric oxide (NO), which serves multiple functions related to increased blood flow, gas exchange, mitochondrial biogenesis and efficiency, and strengthening of muscle contraction. These biomarker improvements indicate that supplementation with beetroot juice could have ergogenic effects on cardiorespiratory endurance that would benefit athletic performance...
January 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065583/left-ventricular-contraction-pattern-in-chronic-aortic-regurgitation-and-preserved-ejection-fraction-simultaneous-stress-strain-analysis-by-three-dimensional-echocardiography
#3
Kaspar Broch, Stefano F de Marchi, Richard Massey, Jonny Hisdal, Svend Aakhus, Lars Gullestad, Stig Urheim
BACKGROUND: The role of speckle-tracking echocardiography in the assessment of chronic aortic regurgitation (AR) is not established. Load dependency may encumber the interpretation of strain measurements in the chronically overloaded left ventricle. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of left ventricular (LV) contraction patterns in asymptomatic patients with moderate to severe AR and preserved ejection fractions. METHODS: In this prospective, cross-sectional study, 31 patients with moderate to severe AR, 15 elite endurance athletes, and 17 healthy control subjects were examined using three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography...
January 5, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062686/the-gstp1-c-313a-g-polymorphism-in-russian-and-polish-athletes
#4
Aleksandra Zarebska, Zbigniew Jastrzębski, Ildus I Ahmetov, Piotr Zmijewski, Pawel Cieszczyk, Agata Leonska-Duniec, Marek Sawczuk, Katarzyna Leznicka, Grzegorz Trybek, Ekaterina A Semenova, Agnieszka Maciejewska-Skrendo
The GSTP1 gene encodes glutathione S-transferase P1 which is a member of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) that are a family of enzymes playing an important role in detoxification and in the antioxidant defense system. There were some the evidence indicating that GSTP1 c.313A>G polymorphism may be beneficial for exercise performance. Therefore, we have decided to verify the association between the frequency of GSTP1 c.313A>G variants, physical performance and athlete's status in two cohorts: in a group of Russian athletes (n=507) and in an independent population of Polish athletes (n=510) in a replication study...
January 6, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056786/immune-adaptation-to-chronic-intense-exercise-training-new-microarray-evidence
#5
Dongmei Liu, Ru Wang, Ana R Grant, Jinming Zhang, Paul M Gordon, Yuqin Wei, Peijie Chen
BACKGROUND: Endurance exercise training, especially the high-intensity training, exhibits a strong influence on the immune system. However, the mechanisms underpinning the immune-regulatory effect of exercise remain unclear. Consequently, we chose to investigate the alterations in the transcriptional profile of blood leukocytes in young endurance athletes as compared with healthy sedentary controls, using Affymetrix human gene 1.1 ST array. RESULTS: Group differences in the transcriptome were analyzed using Intensity-based Hierarchical Bayes method followed by a Logistic Regression-based gene set enrichment method...
January 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044282/are-prepubertal-children-metabolically-comparable-to-well-trained-adult-endurance-athletes
#6
REVIEW
Sébastien Ratel, Anthony J Blazevich
It is well acknowledged that prepubertal children have smaller body dimensions and a poorer mechanical (movement) efficiency, and thus a lower work capacity than adults. However, the scientific evidence indicates that prepubertal children have a greater net contribution of energy derived from aerobic metabolism in exercising muscle and reduced susceptibility to muscular fatigue, which makes them metabolically comparable to well-trained adult endurance athletes. For example, the relative energy contribution from oxidative and non-oxidative (i...
January 2, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040320/semimembranosus-tenosynovitis-diagnosis-and-management-of-a-commonly-missed-cause-of-posteromedial-knee-pain
#7
Joel K Melton, Arman Memarzadeh, William H Dunbar, Mervyn J Cross
BACKGROUND: In orthopedic and sports medicine literature there is minimal information regarding accurate diagnosis and the treatment options for tenosynovitis of the distal semimembranosus tendon. After reviewing the literature, the authors question both the etiology and treatment of this condition. Previous descriptions have associated the condition primarily with the endurance athlete but we have noted multiple cases in which this is a condition common to the 'sprinter' as well. There has been very little mention of this condition in recent literature but the most recent complete description of operative treatment for this condition recommends both tendon transfer and concomitant arthroscopy...
December 28, 2016: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039126/are-olympic-athletes-free-from-cardiovascular-diseases-systematic-investigation-in-2352-participants-from-athens-2004-to-sochi-2014
#8
Antonio Pelliccia, Paolo Emilio Adami, Filippo Quattrini, Maria Rosaria Squeo, Stefano Caselli, Luisa Verdile, Viviana Maestrini, Fernando Di Paolo, Cataldo Pisicchio, Roberto Ciardo, Antonio Spataro
CONTEXT: Olympic athletes represent model of success in our society, by enduring strenuous conditioning programmes and achieving astonishing performances. They also raise scientific and clinical interest, with regard to medical care and prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) abnormalities. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the prevalence and type of CV abnormalities in this selected athlete's cohort. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 2352 Olympic athletes, mean age 25±6, 64% men, competing in 31 summer or 15 winter sports, were examined with history, physical examination, 12-lead and exercise ECG and echocardiography...
December 30, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039074/caffeine-stimulates-voluntary-wheel-running-in-mice-without-increasing-aerobic-capacity
#9
Gerald C Claghorn, Zoe Thompson, Kristianna Wi, Lindsay Van, Theodore Garland
The "energy drink" Red Bull and the "sports drink" Gatorade are often marketed to athletes, with claims that they cause performance gains. However, both are high in sugars, and also consumed by non-athletes. Few studies have addressed the effects of these drinks or their biologically active components in rodent exercise models. We used three experiments to test effects on both voluntary exercise behavior and maximal aerobic capacity in lines of mice known to differ in "athletic" traits. Mice from four replicate High Runner (HR) lines have been selectively bred for voluntary running on wheels, and run approximately three times as many revolutions per day as do mice from four non-selected Control (C) lines...
December 28, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034442/electrocardiographic-changes-induced-by-endurance-training-and-pubertal-development-in-male-children
#10
Flavio D'Ascenzi, Marco Solari, Francesca Anselmi, Francesca Valentini, Riccardo Barbati, Paola Palmitesta, Marta Focardi, Marco Bonifazi, Sergio Mondillo
Training-induced electrocardiographic changes are common in adult athletes. However, a few data are available on electrocardiogram (ECG) in preadolescent athletes and little is known about the potential changes induced by training on 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) at rest. Twelve-lead ECGs at rest and complete echocardiographic examinations were performed in 94 children (57 endurance athletes, 37 sedentary controls; mean age 10.8 ± 0.2 and 10.2 ± 0.2 years, respectively) at baseline and after 5 months of growth and training in athletes and of natural growth in controls...
December 3, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033124/variances-in-strength-and-conditioning-practice-in-elite-rugby-union-between-the-northern-and-southern-hemispheres
#11
Thomas W Jones, Andrew Smith, Lindsay S Macnaughton, Duncan N French
The strength and conditioning (S&C) practices in elite Rugby Union (RU) have previously been detailed. There is also research which indicates playing styles can differ between Northern hemisphere (NH) and Southern hemisphere (SH) teams. It is not presently known if these variances in playing styles are reflected in the S&C practices of those supporting NH and SH teams. As such, the present study examines any variances in S&C practices between those supporting NH and SH elite level teams. A validated questionnaire was employed that comprised 7 sections; personal details, physical testing, strength and power development, concurrent training, unique aspects of the programme and any further relevant information regarding prescribed training programmes...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030533/physical-and-physiological-profile-of-wrestler-athletes-short-review
#12
Helmi Chaabene, Yassine Negra, Raja Bouguezzi, Bessem Mkaouer, Emerson Franchini, Ursula Julio, Younés Hachana
Wrestling is one of the oldest combat sports, disputed since the ancient Greek Olympic Games. This combat sport discipline has caught the attention of scientists since 1943 which is the date that matches the appearance of the first scientific research dealing with wrestling. The current short review aimed to summarize and critically analyze the scientific literature related to wrestling's physical and physiological attributes and to provide practical recommendations for testing/training together with new perspective and areas of future scientific research...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018241/master-athletes-are-extending-the-limits-of-human-endurance
#13
REVIEW
Romuald Lepers, Paul J Stapley
The increased participation of master athletes (i.e., >40 years old) in endurance and ultra-endurance events (>6 h duration) over the past few decades has been accompanied by an improvement in their performances at a much faster rate than their younger counterparts. Aging does however result in a decrease in overall endurance performance. Such age-related declines in performance depend upon the modes of locomotion, event duration, and gender of the participant. For example, smaller age-related declines in cycling performance than in running and swimming have been documented...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018192/differences-in-resting-state-functional-connectivity-between-young-adult-endurance-athletes-and-healthy-controls
#14
David A Raichlen, Pradyumna K Bharadwaj, Megan C Fitzhugh, Kari A Haws, Gabrielle-Ann Torre, Theodore P Trouard, Gene E Alexander
Expertise and training in fine motor skills has been associated with changes in brain structure, function, and connectivity. Fewer studies have explored the neural effects of athletic activities that do not seem to rely on precise fine motor control (e.g., distance running). Here, we compared resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of adult male collegiate distance runners (n = 11; age = 21.3 ± 2.5) and a group of healthy age-matched non-athlete male controls (n = 11; age = 20.6 ± 1.1), to test the hypothesis that expertise in sustained aerobic motor behaviors affects resting state functional connectivity in young adults...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012184/low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-impairs-exercise-economy-and-negates-the-performance-benefit-from-intensified-training-in-elite-race-walkers
#15
Louise M Burke, Megan L Ross, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert, Ida A Heikura, Sara G Forbes, Joanne G Mirtschin, Louise E Cato, Nicki Strobel, Avish P Sharma, John A Hawley
We investigated the effects of adaptation to a ketogenic low-carbohydrate (CHO), high-fat diet (LCHF) during 3 wk of intensified training on metabolism and performance of world-class endurance athletes. We controlled three isoenergetic diets in elite race walkers: High CHO availability (8.6 g.kg(-) 1.d(-1) CHO, 2.1 g.kg(-) 1.d(-1) protein; 1.2 g.kg(-) 1.d(-1) fat) consumed before/during/after training (HCHO, n = 9): identical macronutrient intake, periodised within/between days to alternate between low and high CHO availability (PCHO, n = 10); LCHF (<50 g...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011098/serum-igf-i-igfbp-3-and-als-concentrations-and-physical-performance-in-young-swimmers-during-a-training-season
#16
H Tourinho Filho, M Pires, E F Puggina, M Papoti, R Barbieri, C E Martinelli
INTRODUCTION: The GH/IGF-I axis is a system of growth mediators, receptors, and binding proteins that regulate somatic and tissue growth; and it has been shown that exercise programs are related to the anabolic function of this axis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the changes of serum IGF-I concentration and that of its binding proteins IGFBP-3 and ALS in adolescent swimmers at different stages of a training season, and compare them with physical performance parameters and body composition of the athletes...
December 18, 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009787/prevalence-of-exercise-induced-arterial-hypoxemia-in-distance-runners-at-sea-level
#17
Keren Constantini, David A Tanner, Timothy P Gavin, Craig A Harms, Joel M Stager, Robert F Chapman
PURPOSE: It has been reported that ~50% of endurance-trained men demonstrate exercise induced arterial oxyhemoglobin hypoxemia (EIAH) during heavy exercise. However, this often-cited prevalence rate comes from a single study using a cohort of 25 highly trained men who completed maximal cycle ergometry. As arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2) during maximal exercise is reported to be significantly lower during treadmill vs. cycle ergometry in the same subjects, we hypothesized that the prevalence of EIAH would be greater than previously reported (and commonly referenced) in a larger cohort of highly endurance-trained men during maximal treadmill running...
December 22, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997264/decrease-in-ionized-and-total-magnesium-blood-concentrations-in-endurance-athletes-following-an-exercise-bout-restores-within-hours-potential-consequences-for-monitoring-and-supplementation
#18
Rieneke Terink, Michael G J Balvers, Maria T Hopman, Renger F Witkamp, Marco Mensink, Jacqueline M T Klein Gunnewiek
Magnesium is essential for optimal sport performance, generating an interest to monitor its status in athletes. However, before measuring magnesium status in blood could become routine, more insight into its diurnal fluctuations and effects of exercise itself is necessary. Therefore, we measured the effect of an acute bout of exercise on ionized (iMg) and total plasma magnesium (tMg) in blood obtained from 18 healthy well-trained endurance athletes (age, 31.1 ± 8.1 yr.; VO2max, 50.9 ± 7.5 ml/kg/min) at multiple time points, and compared this with a resting situation...
December 20, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997257/solid-gel-and-liquid-carbohydrate-format-effects-on-gut-comfort-and-performance
#19
Mathilde Guillochon, David S Rowlands
Carbohydrate sports drinks produce worthwhile benefits to endurance performance compared with non-caloric controls. However, athletes now consume carbohydrate in a range of formats, including gels and bars, but the comparable performance outcomes are unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the relative effects of drink, gel, bar, and mixed carbohydrate formats on intense cycling performance. In a treatment-apparent randomised crossover design, 12 well-trained male cyclists completed 4 trials comprising a 140-min race simulation, followed by a double-blind slow-ramp to exhaustion (0...
December 20, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990227/effects-of-a-pre-workout-energy-drink-supplement-on-upper-body-muscular-endurance-performance
#20
Mitchel A Magrini, Ryan J Colquhoun, J Jay Dawes, Doug B Smith
The use of pre-workout beverages is becoming an increasingly common method of improving performance during exercise in athletic and recreationally active populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a commercially available energy drink on exercise performance. Thirty-one healthy males (n=23) and females (n=8) participated in this study and were separated into two groups: supplement (SU; n=16) or placebo (PL; n=15). Subjects visited the laboratory on 2 occasions separated by no more than 7 days...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
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