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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214618/deep-neck-flexor-endurance-in-the-adolescent-and-young-adult-normative-data-and-associated-attributes
#1
Nathan F Jarman, Toby Brooks, C Roger James, Troy Hooper, Mark Wilhelm, Jean-Michel Brismée, Manuel A Domenech, Stanley J Kotara, Phillip S Sizer
BACKGROUND: Deep neck flexor (DNF) muscles stabilize the neck and contribute to head acceleration control. The function of DNF in cervical spine dynamic stabilization has not been examined in athletes of any age group, including adolescents. This investigation was necessary prior to studying the DNF muscles' role in cervical spine injury patterns. OBJECTIVES: (1) To determine average Deep Neck Flexor Endurance Test (DNFET) time scores in high school and university-aged subjects (ages 14-22); and (2) To establish the relationship between gender and age for adolescent DNFET time scores...
February 15, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208581/macronutrient-intakes-in-553-dutch-elite-and-sub-elite-endurance-team-and-strength-athletes-does-intake-differ-between-sport-disciplines
#2
Floris Wardenaar, Naomi Brinkmans, Ingrid Ceelen, Bo Van Rooij, Marco Mensink, Renger Witkamp, Jeanne De Vries
Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires were obtained from 553 Dutch well-trained athletes. The total energy and macronutrient intake was compared between discipline-categories (endurance, team, and strength) within gender, and dietary inadequacy, i.e., too low or high intakes, according to selected recommendations and guidelines, was evaluated by applying a probability approach. On average, 2.83 days per person were reported with a mean energy intake of 2566-2985 kcal and 1997-2457 kcal per day, for men and women, respectively...
February 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194734/physical-and-physiological-profiles-of-brazilian-jiu-jitsu-athletes-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Leonardo Vidal Andreato, Francisco Javier Díaz Lara, Alexandro Andrade, Braulio Henrique Magnani Branco
BACKGROUND: Brazilian jiu-jitsu is a grappling combat sport that has intermittency as its core element; in other words, actions of high, moderate and low intensity are interspersed during matches, requiring a high level of conditioning to support optimal levels of performance for the total match time. The athletes perform from four to six matches during a day of competition, and this number may increase if the open-class competition, which is held parallel to the competition by weight class, is considered...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194116/dynamic-and-static-exercises-differentially-affect-plasma-cytokine-content-in-elite-endurance-and-strength-trained-athletes-and-untrained-volunteers
#4
Leonid V Kapilevich, Anna N Zakharova, Anastasia V Kabachkova, Tatyana A Kironenko, Sergei N Orlov
Extensive exercise increases the plasma content of IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and several other cytokines via their augmented transcription in skeletal muscle cells. However, the relative impact of aerobic and resistant training interventions on cytokine production remains poorly defined. In this study, we compared effects of dynamic and static load on cytokine plasma content in elite strength- and endurance-trained athletes vs. healthy untrained volunteers. The plasma cytokine content was measured before, immediately after, and 30 min post-exercise using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186201/speed-versus-endurance-tradeoff-in-plants-leaves-with-higher-photosynthetic-rates-show-stronger-seasonal-declines
#5
Yong-Jiang Zhang, Lawren Sack, Kun-Fang Cao, Xue-Mei Wei, Nan Li
We tested for a tradeoff across species between plant maximum photosynthetic rate and the ability to maintain photosynthesis under adverse conditions in the unfavorable season. Such a trade-off would be consistent with the observed trade-off between maximum speed and endurance in athletes and some animals that has been explained by cost-benefit theory. This trend would have importance for the general understanding of leaf design, and would simplify models of annual leaf carbon relations. We tested for such a trade-off using a database analysis across vascular plants and using an experimental approach for 29 cycad species, representing an ancient plant lineage with diversified evergreen leaves...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185706/training-induced-right-ventricular-remodelling-in-pre-adolescent-endurance-athletes-the-athlete-s-heart-in-children
#6
Flavio D'Ascenzi, Antonio Pelliccia, Francesca Valentini, Angela Malandrino, Benedetta Maria Natali, Riccardo Barbati, Marta Focardi, Marco Bonifazi, Sergio Mondillo
AIMS: Little is known about the adaptation of the right ventricle (RV) to endurance exercise in children. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 5months of intensive training on RV morphology and function in preadolescent endurance athletes. METHODS: Ninety-four children were evaluated in this study. Fifty-seven male competitive swimmers (aged 10.8±0.2years) were evaluated before (baseline) and after 5months of the training (peak-training), and compared to 37 age- and sex-matched non-athlete children evaluated at baseline and after 5months of natural growth...
January 27, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181710/on-field-prediction-vs-monitoring-of-aerobic-capacity-markers-using-submaximal-lactate-and-heart-rate-measures
#7
Ibai Garcia-Tabar, Mikel Izquierdo, Esteban M Gorostiaga
This study aimed to validate the use of a single blood lactate concentration measurement taken following a 5-min running bout at 10 km·h(-1) (BLC10 ) and the speed associated with 90% of maximal heart rate (S90 ) to predict and monitor fixed blood lactate concentration (FBLC) thresholds in athletes. Three complementary studies were undertaken. Study-I: A cross-sectional study examining the associations of BLC10 and S90 with running speeds at FBLC of 3 (S3mM) and 4 mmol·L(-1) (S4mM) in 100 athletes. Study-II: A cross-validation study assessing the predictive capacity of BLC10 and S90 to estimate FBLC thresholds in real practice...
February 9, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177711/the-influence-of-genetic-polymorphisms-on-performance-cardiac-and-hemodynamic-parameters-among-brazilian-soccer-players
#8
Thiago José Dionísio, Carlos Rogério Thiengo, Daniel Thomas Brozoski, Evandro José Dionísio, Guilherme Augusto Talamoni, Roberto Braga Silva, Gustavo Pompermaier Garlet, Carlos Ferreira Santos, Sandra Lia Amaral
This study investigated whether ACTN3 R577X, AMPD1 C34T, I/D ACE and M235T AGT polymorphisms can affect performance tests such as jumping, sprinting and endurance in 220 young male athletes from professional minor league soccer team from São Paulo Futebol Clube, Brazil. I/D ACE and M235T AGT polymorphisms were also analyzed according to cardiac and hemodynamic parameters. Athletes were grouped or not by age. DNA from saliva and Taqman® assays were used for genotyping 220 athletes and the results were associated with performance tests...
January 24, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174540/the-influence-of-mid-event-deception-on-psychophysiological-status-and-pacing-can-persist-across-consecutive-disciplines-and-enhance-self-paced-multi-modal-endurance-performance
#9
Daniel Taylor, Mark F Smith
Purpose: To examine the effects of deceptively aggressive bike pacing on performance, pacing, and associated physiological and perceptual responses during simulated sprint-distance triathlon. Methods: Ten non-elite, competitive male triathletes completed three simulated sprint-distance triathlons (0.75 km swim, 500 kJ bike, 5 km run), the first of which established personal best "baseline" performance (BL). During the remaining two trials athletes maintained a cycling power output 5% greater than BL, before completing the run as quickly as possible...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165641/effects-of-nitrate-supplementation-in-trained-and-untrained-muscle-is-modest-with-initial-high-plasma-nitrite-levels
#10
Peter M Christensen, Nanna K Petersen, Signe N Friis, Eddie Weitzberg, Lars Nybo
Nitrate (NO3(-) ) supplementation resulting in higher plasma nitrite (NO2(-) ) is reported to lower resting mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and oxygen uptake (VO2 ) during submaximal exercise in non-athletic populations, whereas effects in general are absent in endurance trained individuals. To test whether physiological effects of NO3(-) supplementation depend on local muscular training status or cardiovascular fitness, male endurance-trained cyclists (CYC, n=9, VO2 -max: 64±3 ml/min/kg; mean±SD) and recreational active subjects serving as a control group (CON, n=8, 46±3 ml/min/kg), acutely consumed nitrate-rich beetroot-juice ([NO3(-) ] ~9 mmol) (NIT) or placebo (PLA) with assessment of resting MAP and energy expenditure during moderate intensity (~50% VO2 -max) and incremental leg cycling (LEG-ex) and arm cranking exercise (ARM-ex)...
February 6, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161898/the-relationship-between-loading-history-and-proximal-femoral-diaphysis-cross-sectional-geometry
#11
Sirpa Niinimäki, Nathaniel Narra, Laura Härkönen, Shinya Abe, Riku Nikander, Jari Hyttinen, Christopher Knüsel, Harri Sievänen
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between loading history and bone biomechanical properties used in physical activity reconstructions. These bone properties included bone bending and torsional strength (J), cortical area (CA), the direction of the major axis (theta angle), and element shape ratios determined from cross sections of standardized bone length. In addition, we explored the applicability of anatomically determined cross sections. METHODS: Our material consisted of hip and proximal thigh magnetic resonance images of Finnish female athletes (N = 91) engaged in high-jump, triple-jump, endurance running, swimming, power-lifting, soccer and squash; along with a group of active non-athlete individuals (N = 20)...
February 5, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161872/total-energy-expenditure-energy-intake-and-body-composition-in-endurance-athletes-across-the-training-season-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Juliane Heydenreich, Bengt Kayser, Yves Schutz, Katarina Melzer
BACKGROUND: Endurance athletes perform periodized training in order to prepare for main competitions and maximize performance. However, the coupling between alterations of total energy expenditure (TEE), energy intake, and body composition during different seasonal training phases is unclear. So far, no systematic review has assessed fluctuations in TEE, energy intake, and/or body composition in endurance athletes across the training season. The purpose of this study was to (1) systematically analyze TEE, energy intake, and body composition in highly trained athletes of various endurance disciplines and of both sexes and (2) analyze fluctuations in these parameters across the training season...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153693/breathing-parameters-associated-to-two-different-external-nasal-dilator-strips-in-endurance-athletes
#13
Giancarlo Ottaviano, Andrea Ermolao, Ennio Nardello, Flavio Muci, Vittorio Favero, Marco Zaccaria, Lorenzo Favero
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate and compare the effects of two different external nasal dilator strips (ENDS) on nasal respiratory flow, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), nasal VO2max, time to exhaustion and subjective nasal obstruction in adult triathletes participating in exhaustive, controlled physical exercise tests. METHODS: Thirteen healthy triathletes without nasal symptoms were recruited and randomly tested in three different conditions: without ENDS, wearing the Breathe Right(®) dilator strip and wearing the Master-aid Roll-flex(®) strip...
January 30, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153106/isolated-subepicardial-right-ventricular-outflow-tract-scar-in-athletes-with-ventricular%C3%A2-tachycardia
#14
Jeroen Venlet, Sebastiaan R D Piers, Jan D H Jongbloed, Alexander F A Androulakis, Yoshihisa Naruse, Dennis W den Uijl, Gijsbert F L Kapel, Marta de Riva, J Peter van Tintelen, Daniela Q C M Barge-Schaapveld, Martin J Schalij, Katja Zeppenfeld
BACKGROUND: High-level endurance training has been associated with right ventricular pathological remodeling and ventricular tachycardia (VT). Although overlap with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) has been suggested, the arrhythmogenic substrate for VTs in athletes is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to evaluate whether electroanatomic scar patterns related to sustained VT can distinguish exercise-induced arrhythmogenic remodeling from ARVC and post-inflammatory cardiomyopathies...
February 7, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152331/comparison-of-immunohematological-profile-between-endurance-and-power-oriented-elite-athletes
#15
José P Morgado, Catarina N Matias, Cristina P Monteiro, Francisco Alves, Joana F Reis, Diana A Santos, Analiza M Silva, Fátima Martins, Maria T Seixas, Petronila Rocha-Pereira, Luís B Sardinha, Maria J Laires
There is general perception that elite athletes are highly susceptible to changes in immunohematological profile. The objective of this study was to compare immunohematological parameters of elite athletes of different aerobic and muscular strength sports and analyze changes over 2 months. Sixteen judoists and 14 swimmers were evaluated 2 months before (M1) and immediately prior to competition (M2). Hemogram and lymphocytes subpopulations were assessed with automatic counter and flow cytometry, respectively...
November 9, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150178/the-effect-of-concurrent-plyometric-training-versus-submaximal-aerobic-cycling-on-rowing-economy-peak-power-and-performance-in-male-high-school-rowers
#16
Julian D Egan-Shuttler, Rohan Edmonds, Cassandra Eddy, Veronica O'Neill, Stephen J Ives
BACKGROUND: Plyometric training has been shown to increase muscle power, running economy, and performance in athletes. Despite its use by rowing coaches, it is unknown whether plyometrics might improve rowing economy or performance. The purpose was to determine if plyometric training, in conjunction with training on the water, would lead to improved rowing economy and performance. METHODS: Eighteen male high school rowers were assigned to perform 4 weeks of either plyometric training (PLYO, n = 9) or steady-state cycling below ventilatory threshold (endurance, E, n = 9), for 30 min prior to practice on the water (matched for training volume) 3 days per week...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150069/influence-of-gender-on-right-ventricle-adaptation-to-endurance-exercise-an-ultrasound-two-dimensional-speckle-tracking-stress-study
#17
Maria Sanz-de la Garza, Geneviève Giraldeau, Josefa Marin, Gonzalo Grazioli, Montserrat Esteve, Luigi Gabrielli, Carlos Brambila, Laura Sanchis, Bart Bijnens, Marta Sitges
BACKGROUND: Characteristic right ventricle (RV) remodelling is related to endurance exercise in male athletes (MAs), but data in female athletes (FAs) are scarce. Our aim was to evaluate sex-related influence on exercise-induced RV remodelling and on RV performance during exercise. METHODS: Forty endurance athletes (>10 training hours/week, 50% female) and 40 age-matched controls (<3 h moderate exercise/week, 50% female) were included. Echocardiography was performed at rest and at maximum cycle-ergometer effort...
February 1, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149428/analysis-of-tests-evaluating-sport-climbers-strength-and-isometric-endurance
#18
Mariusz Ozimek, Robert Staszkiewicz, Robert Rokowski, Arkadiusz Stanula
The present study was designed to determine which types of specific tests provide an effective evaluation of strength and endurance in highly trained competitive sport climbers. The research process consisted of three basic components: the measurement of selected somatic characteristics of the climbers, the assessment of their physical conditioning, and a search for correlations between the anthropometric and "conditioning" variables on the one hand, and climber's performance on the other. The sample of subjects consisted of 14 experienced volunteer climbers capable of handling 7a- 8a+/b on-sight rock climbing grades...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149413/left-atrial-enlargement-in-young-high-level-endurance-athletes-another-sign-of-athlete-s-heart
#19
Wojciech Król, Ilona Jędrzejewska, Marcin Konopka, Krystyna Burkhard-Jagodzińska, Andrzej Klusiewicz, Andrzej Pokrywka, Jolanta Chwalbińska, Dariusz Sitkowski, Mirosław Dłużniewski, Artur Mamcarz, Wojciech Braksator
Enlargement of the left atrium is perceived as a part of athlete's heart syndrome, despite the lack of evidence. So far, left atrial size has not been assessed in the context of exercise capacity. The hypothesis of the present study was that LA enlargement in athletes was physiological and fitness-related condition. In addition, we tried to assess the feasibility and normal values of left atrial strain parameters and their relationship with other signs of athlete's heart. The study group consisted of 114 international-level rowers (17...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149399/a-systematic-review-of-the-main-factors-that-determine-agility-in-sport-using-structural-equation-modeling
#20
Vladimir Hojka, Petr Stastny, Tomas Rehak, Artur Gołas, Aleksandra Mostowik, Marek Zawart, Martin Musálek
While tests of basic motor abilities such as speed, maximum strength or endurance are well recognized, testing of complex motor functions such as agility remains unresolved in current literature. Therefore, the aim of this review was to evaluate which main factor or factor structures quantitatively determine agility. In methodological detail, this review focused on research that explained or described the relationships between latent variables in a factorial model of agility using approaches such as principal component analysis, factor analysis and structural equation modeling...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
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