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Flu vaccine

Yuan Luo, Teena Mohan, Wandi Zhu, Chao Wang, Lei Deng, Bao-Zhong Wang
Seasonal influenza vaccines have proven to be effective against well-matched viruses in healthy adults. However, rapid accumulation of mutations in the main antigenic surface proteins of influenza can compromise the efficiency of flu vaccines. Occasionally, influenza pandemics arise and present a different type of challenge to current seasonal vaccines. Novel vaccination strategies that can educate the host immune system to generate immune responses focusing on conserved epitopes on theses antigenic surface proteins are crucial for controlling and limiting influenza epidemics and pandemics...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hiroshi Maeda, Mahin Khatami
For over six decades reductionist approaches to cancer chemotherapies including recent immunotherapy for solid tumors produced outcome failure-rates of 90% (±5) according to governmental agencies and industry. Despite tremendous public and private funding and initial enthusiasm about missile-therapy for site-specific cancers, molecular targeting drugs for specific enzymes such as kinases or inhibitors of growth factor receptors, the outcomes are very bleak and disappointing. Major scientific reasons for repeated failures of such therapeutic approaches are attributed to reductionist approaches to research and infinite numbers of genetic mutations in chaotic molecular environment of solid tumors that are bases of drug development...
March 1, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Fariha Hasan, Mohammad O Khan, Mukarram Ali
Introduction Pakistan is extremely susceptible to an influenza outbreak, as it shares borders with the most affected countries, namely China and India. The medical and dental students come into direct contact with the affected population and should be aware of the risk factors and signs and symptoms pertaining to swine influenza virus (SIV). Hence, this survey was conducted to assess the knowledge, perceptions and self-care practices of the medical and dental students with regards to this pandemic. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the swine flu-related knowledge, attitudes and practices of the medical and dental students at various institutions in Karachi, Pakistan...
January 9, 2018: Curēus
Nobuo Saito, Kazuhiro Komori, Motoi Suzuki, Takayuki Kishikawa, Takahiro Yasaka, Koya Ariyoshi
Introduction: We investigated the negative effects of prior multiple vaccinations on influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) and analysed the association of VE with prior vaccine doses. Methods: Patients aged 9-18 years presenting with influenza-like illness at a community hospital on a Japanese remote island during the 2011/12, 2012/13 and 2013/14 seasons were tested for influenza using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT). A test-negative case-control study design was used to estimate the VEs of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV)...
March 8, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Guilherme F Silveira, Pryscilla F Wowk, Allan H D Cataneo, Paula F Dos Santos, Murilo Delgobo, Marco A Stimamiglio, Maria Lo Sarzi, Ana Paula F S Thomazelli, Ivete Conchon-Costa, Wander R Pavanelli, Lis R V Antonelli, André Báfica, Daniel S Mansur, Claudia N Duarte Dos Santos, Juliano Bordignon
Dengue virus (DV) infection can cause either a self-limiting flu-like disease or a threatening hemorrhage that may evolve to shock and death. A variety of cell types, such as dendritic cells, monocytes and B cells, can be infected by DV. However, despite the role of T lymphocytes in the control of DV replication, there remains a paucity of information on possible DV-T cell interactions during the disease course. In the present study, we have demonstrated that primary human naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are permissive for DV infection...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
Robert O Dillman, Andrew N Cornforth, Gabriel I Nistor, Edward F McClay, Thomas T Amatruda, Carol Depriest
BACKGROUND: Despite improved survival following checkpoint inhibitors, there is still a potential role for anti-cancer therapeutic vaccines. Because of biological heterogeneity and neoantigens resulting from each patient's mutanome, autologous tumor may be the best source of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) for vaccines. Ex vivo loading of autologous dendritic cells with TAA may be associated with superior clinical outcome compared to injecting irradiated autologous tumor cells. We conducted a randomized phase II trial to compare autologous tumor cell vaccines (TCV) and autologous dendritic cell vaccines (DCV) loaded with autologous TAA...
March 6, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Hongjing Gu, Yaqian Gao, Shanshan Zhou, Fang Sun, Zhongpeng Zhao, Keyu Wang, Lingna Zhao, Peirui Zhang, Zhaohai Wang, Shaogeng Zhang, Xiliang Wang, Penghui Yang
Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are prevalent in pediatric and adult patients with severe acute respiratory disease (ARD). To date, there have been no widely used HAdV vaccines available. In this report, we developed a cold-adapted attenuated influenza virus, termed rg HAdV-Flu ca, carrying epitopes from HAdV hexon protein in the backbone of the ca influenza vaccine neuraminidase (NA) gene using reverse genetics. Rg HAdV-Flu ca virus exhibited a cold-adapted (ca) phenotype, and its morphological characteristics were observed using electron microscopy...
March 1, 2018: Antiviral Research
Kirk K Wolter, Philip J Smith, Meena Khare, Bess Welch, Kennon R Copeland, Vicki J Pineau, Nicholas Davis
The National Immunization Survey (NIS) family of surveys includes NIS-Child, which monitors vaccination coverage for the U.S. population of children aged 19-35 months; NIS- Teen, which monitors vaccination coverage for the U.S. population of adolescents aged 13-17; and NIS-Flu, which monitors influenza vaccination coverage for the U.S. population of children aged 6 months through 17 years. This report describes the methods used in this family of surveys during the 2005-2014 period.
December 2017: Vital and Health Statistics. Ser. 1, Programs and Collection Procedures
Ofor Ewelukwa, Roque Perez, Lee Ellen Carter, Alyka Fernandez, Sarah Glover
Background: Electronic health records (EHRs), despite their positive attributes, increase physician workload and decrease efficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of scribes in the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Clinic on improvement of the physician-patient relationship, physician productivity, clinical efficiency, and achievement of some Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS) metrics. Methods: We analyzed of pre- and postscribe data between fiscal years 2015 (FY15) and 2016 (FY16) using data from patients at the Inflammatory Bowel Clinic at the University of Florida...
February 15, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Kate R Kuhlman, Theodore F Robles, Larissa N Dooley, Chloe C Boyle, Marcie D Haydon, Julienne E Bower
BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a role in mood and behavior that may be relevant to identifying risk factors and treatment for depression and other stress-related illnesses. The purpose of this study was to examine whether fluctuations in inflammation following a mild immune stimulus were associated with changes in daily reported features of depression for up to a week in a healthy sample of young adults. METHODS: Forty one undergraduate students completed daily diaries of mood, feelings of social disconnection, sleep, and physical symptoms for one week before and after receiving the seasonal influenza vaccine...
February 16, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Anastasiia L Sycheva, Mikhail V Pogorelyy, Ekaterina A Komech, Anastasia A Minervina, Ivan V Zvyagin, Dmitriy B Staroverov, Dmitriy M Chudakov, Yuri B Lebedev, Ilgar Z Mamedov
Vaccination against influenza is widely used to protect against seasonal flu epidemic although its effectiveness is debated. Here we performed deep quantitative T cell receptor repertoire profiling in peripheral blood of a healthy volunteer in response to trivalent subunit influenza vaccine. We did not observe significant rebuilding of peripheral blood T cell receptors composition in response to vaccination. However, we found several clonotypes in memory T cell fraction that were undetectable before the vaccination and had a maximum concentration at day 45 after vaccine administration...
March 14, 2018: Vaccine
Jack J Huang, Maria Francesconi, Madeline H Cooper, Allyson Covello, Michelle Guo, Soheyla D Gharib
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of a campus community health worker program (HealthPALs) on student influenza vaccination. PARTICIPANTS: Undergraduate students at a northeastern US university (enrollment 6650), influenza seasons 2011-2012 through 2015-2016. METHODS: Study design: Difference-in-differences analysis of student vaccination at campus dormitory influenza clinics during intervention vs. baseline. INTERVENTION: In the first intervention year, HealthPALs conducted in-person peer outreach at several campus dormitory flu clinics...
February 15, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
Brendan Flannery, Jessie R Chung, Edward A Belongia, Huong Q McLean, Manjusha Gaglani, Kempapura Murthy, Richard K Zimmerman, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Michael L Jackson, Lisa A Jackson, Arnold S Monto, Emily T Martin, Angie Foust, Wendy Sessions, LaShondra Berman, John R Barnes, Sarah Spencer, Alicia M Fry
In the United States, annual vaccination against seasonal influenza is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months (1). During each influenza season since 2004-05, CDC has estimated the effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine to prevent laboratory-confirmed influenza associated with medically attended acute respiratory illness (ARI). This report uses data from 4,562 children and adults enrolled in the U.S. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network (U.S. Flu VE Network) during November 2, 2017-February 3, 2018...
February 16, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
S Méijome-Blanco, G González-Cristobo, A Á Regueiro-Martínez
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study is to determine the reasons for refusing the flu vaccination in the Primary Care Health Centre of Vilanova de Arousa, Spain, as well as to evaluate the flu vaccination coverage after an educational intervention. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A quasi-experimental before and after study was conducted after an educational intervention on a total of 73 people that included those Primary Care Health Centre patients from Vilanova de Arousa who had refused the flu vaccination in 2014, and who did not meet the exclusion criteria (death during 2014 and 2015 campaigns, non-acceptance of participation, vaccine registration mistakes, contraindication or no indication for the vaccine, inability to contact)...
February 10, 2018: Semergen
Jacqui Wise
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Margaret McCartney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Miguel Esteve-Esteve, Daniel Bautista-Rentero, Vicente Zanón-Viguer
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the risk of influenza transmission in patients coming to a hospital emergency department during the week of highest incidence and to analyze factors associated with transmission. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective observational analysis of a cohort of patients treated in the emergency room during the 2014-2015 flu season. The following variables were collected from records: recorded influenza diagnosis, results of a rapid influenza confirmation test, point of exposure (emergency department, outpatient clinic, or the community), age, sex, flu vaccination or not, number of emergency visits, time spent in the waiting room, and total time in the hospital...
February 2018: Emergencias: Revista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Emergencias
Catherine L King, Maria Y K Chow, Kerrie E Wiley, Julie Leask
BACKGROUND: Effective public health messaging is essential in both the planning phase and duration of a pandemic. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to gain an understanding of parental information seeking, trusted sources and needs in relation to pandemic influenza A 2009 (pH1N1) to inform future policy planning and resource development. PATIENTS/METHODS: We conducted a mixed methods study; parents from 16 childcare centres in Sydney, Australia, were surveyed between 16 November and 9 December 2009 and interviews were conducted with participants from six childcare centres between June 2009 and May 2011...
February 13, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Jean-Luc Brun, José Rajaonarison, Nicolas Nocart, Laura Hoarau, Stéphanie Brun, Isabelle Garrigue
Targeted immunotherapy of high-grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) has been developed as an alternative to conization, to preserve future reproductive outcomes and avoid human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence. The objectives of the review are to present drugs according to their process of development and to examine their potential future use. A search for key words associated with CIN and targeted immunotherapy was carried out in the Cochrane library, Pubmed, Embase, and from 1990 to 2016...
February 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
P Minodier
Zikavirus (ZV) is a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes' bites. Sexual transmission is possible. Common ZV infection is asymptomatic or associates flu-like signs. Guillain-Barre syndrome following ZV infection is rare. Foetal infection, during the first trimester of pregnancy especially, can lead to severe neurological troubles. Diagnosis relies on blood and urine RT-PCR during the acute phase, and serology later in the disease. ELISA assays false positives are reported among patients infected with another flavivirus, whereas sero-neutralization is more specific...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
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