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Gerald T Mangine, Jay R Hoffman, Ran Wang, Adam M Gonzalez, Jeremy R Townsend, Adam J Wells, Adam R Jajtner, Kyle S Beyer, Carleigh H Boone, Amelia A Miramonti, Michael B LaMonica, David H Fukuda, Nicholas A Ratamess, Jeffrey R Stout
PURPOSE: To compare the effects of two different resistance training programs, high intensity (INT) and high volume (VOL), on changes in isometric force (FRC), rate of force development (RFD), and barbell velocity during dynamic strength testing. METHODS: Twenty-nine resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either the INT (n = 15, 3-5 RM, 3-min rest interval) or VOL (n = 14, 10-12 RM, 1-min rest interval) training group for 8 weeks. All participants completed a 2-week preparatory phase prior to randomization...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Ioanna Katsikantami, Stavros Sifakis, Manolis N Tzatzarakis, Elena Vakonaki, Olga-Ioanna Kalantzi, Aristidis M Tsatsakis, Apostolos K Rizos
Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants which are used in industry as plasticizers and additives in cosmetics. They are classified as Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) which impair the human endocrine system inducing fertility problems, respiratory diseases, childhood obesity and neuropsychological disorders. The aim of this review is to summarize the current state of knowledge on the toxicity that phthalates pose in humans based on human biomonitoring studies conducted over the last decade...
September 23, 2016: Environment International
Ramona Ritzmann, Kathrin Freyler, Anne Krause, Albert Gollhofer
On our astronomical neighbours Mars and the Moon, bouncing movements are the preferred locomotor techniques. During bouncing, the stretch-shortening cycle describes the muscular activation pattern. This study aimed to identify gravity-dependent changes in kinematic and neuromuscular characteristics in the stretch-shortening cycle. Hence, neuromuscular control of limb muscles as well as correlations between the muscles' pre-activation, reflex components, and the force output were assessed in lunar, Martian, and Earth gravity...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
S Tsitkanou, K Spengos, A-N Stasinaki, N Zaras, G Bogdanis, G Papadimas, G Terzis
Aim of the study was to investigate whether high-intensity interval cycling performed immediately after resistance training would inhibit muscle strength increase and hypertrophy expected from resistance training per se. Twenty-two young men were assigned into either resistance training (RE; N = 11) or resistance training plus high-intensity interval cycling (REC; N = 11). Lower body muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD), quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and vastus lateralis muscle architecture, muscle fiber type composition and capillarization, and estimated aerobic capacity were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of training (2 times per week)...
September 23, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Kerry L Dearfield, B Bhaskar Gollapudi, Jeffrey C Bemis, R Daniel Benz, George R Douglas, Rosalie K Elespuru, George E Johnson, David J Kirkland, Matthew J LeBaron, Albert P Li, Francesco Marchetti, Lynn H Pottenger, Emiel Rorije, Jennifer Y Tanir, Veronique Thybaud, Jan van Benthem, Carole L Yauk, Errol Zeiger, Mirjam Luijten
For several decades, regulatory testing schemes for genetic damage have been standardized where the tests being utilized examined mutations and structural and numerical chromosomal damage. This has served the genetic toxicity community well when most of the substances being tested were amenable to such assays. The outcome from this testing is usually a dichotomous (yes/no) evaluation of test results, and in many instances, the information is only used to determine whether a substance has carcinogenic potential or not...
September 21, 2016: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
W-J Cho, D-K Lee, S-Y Lee, S-H Sohn, H-L Park, Y-W Park, H Kim, J-H Nam
Obesity is a metabolic disease characterized by low-level chronic inflammation. Obese individuals are susceptible to infection by viruses, and vaccination against these pathogens is less effective than in nonobese individuals. Here, we sought to explore the immunological environment in a mouse model of obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). HFD treatment increased the body weight and epididymal fat mass. The proportion of activated B cells, T cells, and macrophages was similar between mice in the HFD group and the regular-fat diet (RFD) group...
2016: Acta Virologica
Jason C Siegler, Kurt Mudie, Paul Marshall
The effect of metabolic alkalosis on fibre-specific maximal force production and rates of force development (RFD) has been previously investigated in animal models, with evidence suggesting an improved capacity to rapidly develop force in fast- compared to slow-twitch muscle. We have attempted to model in vivo the fatigue profile of voluntary and involuntary maximal force and RFD in the triceps' surae and brachii after sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ) ingestion. In a double-blind, 3-way repeated measures design participants (n = 10) ingested either 0...
September 16, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Dawn A Zemo, Kirk T O'Reilly, Rachel E Mohler, Renae I Magaw, Catalina Espino Devine, Sungwoo Ahn, Asheesh K Tiwary
This paper summarizes the results of a 5-year research study of the nature and toxicity of petroleum biodegradation metabolites in groundwater at fuel release sites that are quantified as diesel-range "Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons" (TPH; aka TPHd, DRO, etc.), unless a silica gel cleanup (SGC) step is used on the sample extract prior to the TPH analysis. This issue is important for site risk management in regulatory jurisdictions that use TPH as a metric; the presence of these metabolites may preclude site closure even if all other factors can be considered "low-risk...
September 14, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
John K De Witt, Kirk L English, J Brent Crowell, Kent L Kalogera, Mark E Guilliams, Bruce E Nieschwitz, Andrea M Hanson, Lori L Ploutz-Snyder
PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the reliability of the isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) and the relationship between IMTP peak force and deadlift 1 repetition maximum (1RM). METHODS: Nine subjects (5 m/4 f; 40.6 ± 8.0 yr; 1.72 ± 0.10 m; 75.6 ± 13.4 kg) participated in this study. IMTP and deadlift 1RM were both performed during 2 testing sessions. For IMTP, peak force and peak rate of force development (RFD) were determined, in addition to RFD at 30 ms, 50 ms, 90 ms, 150 ms, 200 ms, and 250 ms after initiation of the pull...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Björn A Alkner, Lena Norrbrand, Per A Tesch
INTRODUCTION: This study examined the effects of long-term bed rest with or without a concurrent resistance exercise protocol on different muscle function indices of the knee extensors and their influence on previously shown atrophy, neural impairment, and slow-to-fast phenotype shift. METHODS: Nine men underwent 90 d of bed rest only (BR), while eight men in addition performed maximal supine squats every third day (BRE). Before and at day 1 and 5 following bed rest, surface quadriceps electromyographic (EMG) activity was measured during a sustained (60-s) submaximal isometric action and rate of force development (RFD) was assessed during a maximal isometric action, both in the supine squat position...
July 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Maria Bellumori, Mehmet Uygur, Christopher A Knight
PURPOSE: The aim was to determine the feasibility of a six-week speed-based exercise program that could be used to initiate new exercise behaviors and improve rapid movement in older adults approaching frailty. METHODS: The intervention group included 14 older adults (3 males, 11 females, mean (SD) age: 70 (7.6) years, height: 1.6 (.11) m, mass: 76.8 (12.0) kg, BMI: 27.7(4.7)). The control group included 12 older adults (6 males, 6 females, mean (SD) age: 69.2 (6...
August 6, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Haris Begovic, Guang-Quan Zhou, Snježana Schuster, Yong-Ping Zheng
BACKGROUND: Transverse friction massage (TFM), as an often used technique by therapists, is known for its effect in reducing the pain and loosing the scar tissues. Nevertheless, its effects on neuromotor driving mechanism including the electromechanical delay (EMD), force transmission and excitation-contraction (EC) coupling which could be used as markers of stiffness changes, has not been computed using ultrafast ultrasound (US) when combined with external sensors. AIM: Hence, the aim of this study was to find out produced neuromotor changes associated to stiffness when TFM was applied over Quadriceps femoris (QF) tendon in healthy subjcets...
July 21, 2016: Manual Therapy
Edward Groth
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women need fish consumption advice that increases seafood intake and simultaneously reduces methylmercury (MeHg) exposure. Two disciplines, epidemiology and benefit-risk modeling, can support such advice. Some current models suggest that fish consumption during pregnancy has only net beneficial effects. In contrast, many recent epidemiological studies have associated adverse effects on cognitive development with ordinary fish intake and MeHg doses routinely encountered by up to one in six US women of childbearing age...
July 27, 2016: Environmental Research
B Cartmill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Australian Veterinary Journal
Sunggyu Lee, Woochang Jeong, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Hyo-Bang Moon
Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have been widely used as flame retardants and plasticizers in commercial products. Limited data are available on the occurrence and exposure of OPFRs via drinking water consumption. In this study, 127 drinking water samples were collected from tap water, purified water (tap water that is passed through in-house filters) and bottled water from major cities in Korea in 2014. The total concentrations of OPFRs (ΣOPFR) in all of the samples ranged from below the method detection limit (MDL) to 1660 (median: 48...
October 15, 2016: Water Research
Alex J Rawcliffe, Richard J Simpson, Scott M Graham, Stelios G Psycharakis, Gavin L Moir, Chris Connaboy
The purpose of this study was to quantify the reliability of kinetic variables of British Army foot-drill performance within untrained civilians and report the magnitude of vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and vertical rate of force development (RFD) of foot-drills. Fifteen recreational active males performed three testing sessions across a 1-week period, with each session separated by 24 h. Within each testing session participants (mean ± SD; age 22.4 ± 1.7 years; height 177 ± 5.6cm; weight 83 ± 8...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Igor Magalhães, Martim Bottaro, João R Freitas, Jake Carmo, João P C Matheus, Rodrigo L Carregaro
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous (48-hour) use of Kinesiotaping (KT) on functional and proprioceptive performance in healthy, physically active men. METHOD: Twenty-six healthy, physically active men (21.8±2.2 years old) were randomly allocated into two groups: 1) Kinesiotaping group (KG, tape applied with 40% tension for rectus femoris activation); 2) Control (CG, tape applied over rectus femoris without additional tension)...
March 18, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
Kenji Inaba, Obi Okoye, Hande Aksoy, Dimitra Skiada, Glenn Ault, Stephen Sener, Lydia Lam, Elizabeth Benjamin, Demetrios Demetriades
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate the ability of radio frequency detection (RFD) system-embedded sponges to mitigate the incidence of retained surgical sponges (RSS) after emergency surgery. BACKGROUND: Emergency surgery patients are at high risk for retained foreign bodies. METHODS: All emergent trauma and nontrauma cavitary operations over a 5-year period (January 2010-December 2014) were prospectively enrolled. For damage-control procedures, only the definitive closure was included...
October 2016: Annals of Surgery
Satori A Marchitti, Suzanne E Fenton, Pauline Mendola, John F Kenneke, Erin P Hines
BACKGROUND: Serum concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in U.S. women are believed to be among the world's highest, however, little information exists on the partitioning of PBDEs between serum and breast milk and how this may impact infant exposure. OBJECTIVES: Paired milk and serum samples were measured for PBDE concentrations in 34 women who participated in the US EPA MAMA Study. Computational models for predicting milk PBDE concentrations from serum were evaluated...
July 12, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Zhang Cheng, Han-Han Li, Hong-Sheng Wang, Xue-Mei Zhu, Suthipong Sthiannopkao, Kyoung-Woong Kim, Mohamed Salleh Mohamed Yasin, Jamal Hisham Hashim, Ming-Hung Wong
Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of human to phthalates are limited. In this study, to assess the daily intakes of phthalate esters and the possible adverse health impacts, different food samples were collected from three areas of Cambodia, one of the poorest countries in the world. The ∑phthalate ester concentrations in Kampong Cham, Kratie and Kandal provinces ranged from 0...
October 2016: Environmental Research
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