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Asthma pathogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670037/expression-and-regulation-of-thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-and-thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-receptor-heterocomplex-in-the-innate-adaptive-immunity-of-pediatric-asthma
#1
REVIEW
Sheng-Chieh Lin, Fang-Yi Cheng, Jun-Jen Liu, Yi-Ling Ye
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the airway, and it is characterized by a wheezing breathing sound, variable airflow obstruction and the presence of inflammatory cells in the submucosa of the bronchi. Viral infection, pollutants and sensitivity to aeroallergens damage the epithelium from childhood, which causes asthma. The pathogenesis of asthma includes pathways of innate stimulation by environmental microbes and irritant pathogens. Damaged epithelial cells produce thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and stimulate myeloid dendritic cell maturation through the thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor (TSLPR) heterocomplex...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663427/surfactant-protein-d-alleviates-eosinophil-mediated-airway-inflammation-and-remodeling-in-patients-with-aspirin-exacerbated-respiratory-disease
#2
Youngwoo Choi, Dong-Hyun Lee, Trinh Hoang Kim Tu, Ga-Young Ban, Hanki Park, Yoo Seob Shin, Seung-Hyun Kim, Hae-Sim Park
BACKGROUND: Surfactant protein D (SPD) is a member of the collectin family that lines the airway epithelial cells with host defense. However, the role of SPD in the pathogenesis of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is still unclear. METHODS: The serum SPD level was measured in patients with AERD (n=336), those with aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA, n=442), and healthy controls (HC, n=104). Polymorphisms of SFTPD in the study subjects were analyzed. The effect of LTE4 on SPD production through eosinophil infiltration was investigated in BALB/c mice...
April 16, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663342/associations-of-chronic-urticaria-with-atopic-and-autoimmune-comorbidities-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#3
Hsien-Yi Chiu, Chih-Hsin Muo, Fung-Chang Sung
BACKGROUND: Most cases of chronic urticaria (CU) are idiopathic. Circumstantial evidence suggests that some CU cases have an autoimmune pathogenesis. Previous research indicates that a substantial percentage of patients with CU have an atopic background. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine the association between CU, and atopic and autoimmune diseases. METHODS: This population-based retrospective cohort study identified 9,332 patients with CU and 37,328 controls matched for age, sex, and number of dermatological clinic visits from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for 2004-2009...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649811/transcription-elongation-factor-p-tefb-is-involved-in-il-17f-signaling-in-airway-smooth-muscle-cells
#4
Masayuki Nakajima, Mio Kawaguchi, Masashi Matsuyama, Kyoko Ota, Junichi Fujita, Satoshi Matsukura, Shau-Ku Huang, Yuko Morishima, Yukio Ishii, Hiroaki Satoh, Tohru Sakamoto, Nobuyuki Hizawa
BACKGROUND: IL-17F is involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, including asthma and COPD. However, the effects of steroids on the function of IL-17F signaling mechanisms are largely unknown. One of the transcription elongation factors, positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) composed of cyclin T1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9), is known as a novel checkpoint regulator of gene expression via bromodomain-containing protein 4 (Brd4). METHODS: Human airway smooth muscle cells were stimulated with IL-17F and the expression of IL-8 was evaluated by real-time PCR and ELISA...
April 12, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642688/samter-s-triad-state-of-the-art
#5
Sung-Dong Kim, Kyu-Sup Cho
Samter's triad (ST) is a well-known disease characterized by the triad of bronchial asthma, nasal polyps, and aspirin intolerance. Over the past few years, a rapid development in the knowledge of the pathogenesis and clinical characteristics of ST has happened. The aim of this paper is to review the recent investigations on the pathophysiological mechanisms and genetic background, diagnosis, and different therapeutic options of ST to advance our understanding of the mechanism and the therapeutic control of ST...
April 13, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642409/squamous-cell-carcinoma-antigen-2-scca2-serpinb4-an-emerging-biomarker-for-skin-inflammatory-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Kenji Izuhara, Yukie Yamaguchi, Shoichiro Ohta, Satoshi Nunomura, Yasuhiro Nanri, Yoshinori Azuma, Noriko Nomura, Yasuhiko Noguchi, Michiko Aihara
Squamous cell carcinoma antigens 1 and 2 (SCCA1 and 2, SERPIN B3 and B4), members of the ovalbumin serpin (ov-serpin)/clade B serpin family, were originally discovered as tumor-specific antigens and are used as tumor markers for various kinds of squamous cell carcinomas. Recently, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of how SCCA1/2 enhance tumor growth has greatly increased. Moreover, it has been shown that SCCA1/2 are involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases: asthma, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD)...
April 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627041/obesity-and-asthma
#7
REVIEW
Ubong Peters, Anne E Dixon, Erick Forno
Obesity is a vast public health problem and both a major risk factor and disease modifier for asthma in children and adults. Obese subjects have increased asthma risk, and obese asthmatic patients have more symptoms, more frequent and severe exacerbations, reduced response to several asthma medications, and decreased quality of life. Obese asthma is a complex syndrome, including different phenotypes of disease that are just beginning to be understood. We examine the epidemiology and characteristics of this syndrome in children and adults, as well as the changes in lung function seen in each age group...
April 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626633/serum-lipoproteins-are-not-associated-with-the-severity-of-asthma
#8
Federica Scaduto, Rosaria Vincenza Giglio, Alida Benfante, Dragana Nikolic, Giuseppe Montalto, Manfredi Rizzo, Nicola Scichilone
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the bronchi with a complicated and largely unknown pathogenesis. In this context, an emerging role is attributed to the apolipoproteins which serve as structural components of plasma lipoproteins. Low density lipoproteins (LDL) may be involved in the inflammatory pathways of the asthmatic airways; in particular, small dense LDL (sdLDL) particles were associated with increased oxidative susceptibility compared to medium and large sized LDL...
April 4, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625134/il-17-producing-st2-ilc2-plays-a-pathogenic-role-in-lung-inflammation
#9
Ting Cai, Jinxin Qiu, Yan Ji, Wenjing Li, Zhaoyun Ding, Caixia Suo, Jiali Chang, Jingjing Wang, Rui He, Youcun Qian, Xiaohuan Guo, Liang Zhou, Huiming Sheng, Lei Shen, Ju Qiu
BACKGROUND: IL-17 plays a pathogenic role in asthma. ST2- iILC2s (inflammatory group 2 innate lymphoid cells) driven by IL-25 can produce IL-17, while ST2+ nILC2s (natural ILC2s) produce few IL-17. OBJECTIVE: We characterized the ST2+ IL-17+ ILC2s during lung inflammation and determined the pathogenesis and molecular regulation of ST2+ IL-17+ ILC2s. METHODS: Lung inflammation was induced by papain or IL-33. IL-17 production by lung ILC2s from wild-type, Rag1-/- , Rorcgfp/gfp and Ahr-/- mice was examined by flow cytometry...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624776/trpc3-overexpression-and-intervention-in-airway-smooth-muscle-of-ovalbumin-induced-hyperresponsiveness-and-remodeling
#10
Bo-Ming Xu, Jia-Hua Zhang, Jia-Ling Wang, Jun-Hua Xiao
Transient receptor potential canonical channel 3 (TRPC3) proteins function as non-voltage-gated Ca2+ -permeable channels and play divergent roles in many processes of pathophysiology. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between TRPC3 expression and airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling in ovalbumin-induced asthmatic Kunming mice. Mice were sensitized and challenged by ovalbumin to establish asthmatic model. Hematoxylin-eosin staining, hydroxyproline assay and isometric tracheal ring force measurement were used to evaluate airway remodeling and hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic mice...
April 6, 2018: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616048/tnfsf14-light-exhibits-inflammatory-activities-in-lung-fibroblasts-complementary-to-il-13-and-tgf-%C3%AE
#11
Ricardo da Silva Antunes, Amit K Mehta, Lisa Madge, Joel Tocker, Michael Croft
The cytokine TNFSF14 [homologous to Lymphotoxin, exhibits Inducible expression and competes with HSV Glycoprotein D for binding to HVEM, a receptor expressed on T lymphocytes (LIGHT)] has been shown in mouse models to be important for development of lung tissue remodeling that is characteristic of asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and systemic sclerosis (SSc). However, its cellular targets are not fully delineated. In the present report, we show that LTβR and HVEM, the receptors for LIGHT, are constitutively expressed in primary human lung fibroblasts (HLFs)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615379/doxycycline-suppresses-chlamydia-pneumoniae-induced-interferon-gamma-responses-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-children-with-allergic-asthma
#12
Tamar A Smith-Norowitz, Diana Weaver, Yitzchok M Norowitz, Margaret R Hammerschlag, Rauno Joks, Helen G Durkin, Stephan Kohlhoff
Persistent respiratory infections caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae have been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases (e.g. asthma). Antibiotics are used to treat C. pneumoniae respiratory infections; however, the use of antibiotics as anti-inflammatory agents in treatment of asthma remains controversial. The current study investigated whether ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, or doxycycline can suppress C. pneumoniae-induced production of immunoglobulin (Ig) E or cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from asthmatic children...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611766/anti-nerve-growth-factor-antibody-improves-airway-hyperresponsiveness-by-down-regulating-rhoa
#13
Jingying Chen, Lijie Kou, Lingfei Kong
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of asthma is complex and continues to be considered as a challenging subject. Some studies have shown that nerve growth factor (NGF) participates in the pathogenesis of asthma, but the mechanism of airway contraction caused by NGF is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to discuss the effect of anti-NGF antibody on RhoA expression, and further explore the role of NGF in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). METHODS: Thirty female BALB/c mice were divided into three groups randomly: control group (group C, n = 10), asthma group (group A, n = 10) and anti-NGF antibody intervention group (group N, n = 10)...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611001/eosinophilic-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-newer-therapies
#14
REVIEW
Erika P Navarro-Mendoza, Gabriel J Tobón
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a systemic disseminated vasculitis associated with extravascular granulomas in patients suffering from asthma and tissue eosinophilia. Current therapies to achieve remission and prevent relapse include glucocorticoids and immunosuppressants like cyclophosphamide. RECENT FINDINGS: With the right treatment, clinical prognosis is favorable, so concerted efforts have been made in recent years to find new alternatives for treating severe EGPA...
April 2, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608145/intraperitoneal-glucose-tolerance-test-measurement-of-lung-function-and-fixation-of-the-lung-to-study-the-impact-of-obesity-and-impaired-metabolism-on-pulmonary-outcomes
#15
Katharina Dinger, Jasmine Mohr, Christina Vohlen, Dharmesh Hirani, Eva Hucklenbruch-Rother, Regina Ensenauer, Jörg Dötsch, Miguel A Alejandre Alcazar
Obesity and respiratory disorders are major health problems. Obesity is becoming an emerging epidemic with an expected number of over 1 billion obese individuals worldwide by 2030, thus representing a growing socioeconomic burden. Simultaneously, obesity-related comorbidities, including diabetes as well as heart and chronic lung diseases, are continuously on the rise. Although obesity has been associated with increased risk for asthma exacerbations, worsening of respiratory symptoms, and poor control, the functional role of obesity and perturbed metabolism in the pathogenesis of chronic lung disease is often underestimated, and underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604204/kallikrein-related-peptidases-in-lung-diseases
#16
Woodys Lenga Ma Bonda, Sophie Iochmann, Mélia Magnen, Yves Courty, Pascale Reverdiau
Human tissue kallikreins (KLKs) are 15 members of the serine protease family and are present in various healthy human tissues including airway tissues. Multiple studies have revealed their crucial role in the pathophysiology of a number of chronic, infectious and tumour lung diseases. KLK1, 3 and 14 are involved in asthma pathogenesis, and KLK1 could be also associated with the exacerbation of this inflammatory disease caused by rhinovirus. KLK5 was demonstrated as an influenza virus activating protease in humans, and KLK1 and 12 could also be involved in the activation and spread of these viruses...
March 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602286/comparison-of-th17-cells-mediated-immunological-response-among-asthmatic-children-with-or-without-allergic-rhinitis
#17
Miao Qing, Liu Yongge, Xu Wei, Wang Yan, Li Zhen, Ren Yixin, Guan Hui, Xiang Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether there were differences in Th17 cells mediated immunological responses among asthmatics with or without allergic rhinitis. METHODS: A case-control comparison was conducted in a cohort of 67 children with asthma (AS), 50 children with allergic rhinitis (AR), 52 children with both AS and AR (ASR), 25 infectious rhinitis (IR), and 55 healthy controls (HC). The percentages of circulating Th17 cells were determined by flow cytometry. The Th2- and Th17-related cytokines in plasma and culture supernatants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
March 31, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588858/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-asthma-candidate-genes-tbxa2r-adam33-fcer1b-and-ormdl3-in-pakistani-asthmatics-a-case-control-study
#18
Nusrat Saba, Osman Yusuf, Sadia Rehman, Saeeda Munir, Amna Noor, Muhammad Saqlain, Atika Mansoor, Ghazala Kaukab Raja
Background: Genetic variations in different loci and genes are important in asthma pathogenesis. There is much importance of various immunological pathways in the IgE secretion regulation. Alterations in any main part of these pathways can increase the risk of asthma development. Polymorphisms in these genetic markers can effect certain pathways which predict the asthma susceptibility. In the present study, SNPs directly or indirectly affecting the immunological process pathways are selected...
2018: Asthma Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572197/nod-2-expression-dna-damage-and-oxido-inflammatory-status-in-egyptian-patients-with-atopic-bronchial-asthma-exploring-their-nexus-to-disease-severity
#19
Hanaa H Gaballah, Rasha A Gaber, Ragia S Sharshar, Samah A Elshweikh
BACKGROUND: Allergic asthma is a chronically relapsing inflammatory airway disease with a complex pathophysiology. AIM: This study was undertaken to investigate the potential contribution of NOD2 signaling, proinflammatory cytokines, chitotriosidase (CHIT1) activity, oxidative stress and DNA damage to atopic asthma pathogenesis, as well as to explore their possible role as surrogate noninvasive biomarkers for monitoring asthma severity. METHODS: Sixty patients with atopic bronchial asthma who were divided according to asthma severity into 40 mild-moderate, 20 severe atopic asthmatics, in addition to thirty age-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study...
March 20, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568899/role-of-epithelial-chemokines-in-the-pathogenesis-of-airway-inflammation-in-asthma-review
#20
Chi Liu, Xun Zhang, Yang Xiang, Xiangping Qu, Huijun Liu, Caixia Liu, Meiling Tan, Jianxin Jiang, Xiaoqun Qin
As the first barrier to the outside environment, airway epithelial cells serve a central role in the initiation and development of airway inflammation. Chemokines are the most direct and immediate cell factors for the recruitment and migration of inflammatory cells. The present review focused on the role of epithelial chemokines in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation in asthma. In addition to traditional CC family chemokines and CXC family chemokines, airway epithelial cells also express other chemokines, including thymic stromal lymphopoietin and interleukin‑33...
March 14, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
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