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Asthma pathogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904530/blockade-of-il-23-ameliorates-allergic-lung-inflammation-via-decreasing-the-infiltration-of-tc17-cells
#1
Sheng Cheng, Huilong Chen, Aili Wang, Hansvin Bunjhoo, Yong Cao, Jungang Xie, Yongjian Xu, Weining Xiong
INTRODUCTION: Tc17 cells are interleukin (IL)-17-producing CD8(+) T cells and have been found to participate in the development of allergic asthma. Interleukin-23 is a cytokine that may be involved in modulating the IL-17 response via Th17 cells. This study aimed to investigate whether IL-23 also has immunomodulatory effects on Tc17 cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An allergic asthmatic mouse model was induced by sensitizing and challenging with ovalbumin (OVA). Anti-IL-23 antibody was administered intratracheally before challenge to the OVA-induced asthmatic mouse model...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903593/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-detection-and-new-options-for-prevention-and-treatment
#2
REVIEW
Cameron Griffiths, Steven J Drews, David J Marchant
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a significant cause of hospitalization of children in North America and one of the leading causes of death of infants less than 1 year of age worldwide, second only to malaria. Despite its global impact on human health, there are relatively few therapeutic options available to prevent or treat RSV infection. Paradoxically, there is a very large volume of information that is constantly being refined on RSV replication, the mechanisms of RSV-induced pathology, and community transmission...
January 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895690/rhinovirus-and-childhood-asthma-an-update
#3
REVIEW
Dae Jin Song
Asthma is recognized as a complex disease resulting from interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors. Accumulating evidence suggests that respiratory viral infections in early life constitute a major environmental risk factor for the development of childhood asthma. Respiratory viral infections have also been recognized as the most common cause of asthma exacerbation. The advent of molecular diagnostics to detect respiratory viruses has provided new insights into the role of human rhinovirus (HRV) infections in the pathogenesis of asthma...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888348/pathogenesis-of-copd-and-asthma
#4
Clive Page, Blaze O'Shaughnessy, Peter Barnes
Asthma and COPD remain two diseases of the respiratory tract with unmet medical needs. This review considers the current state of play with respect to what is known about the underlying pathogenesis of these two chronic inflammatory diseases of the lung. The review highlights why they are different conditions requiring different approaches to treatment and provides a backdrop for the subsequent chapters in this volume discussing recent advances in the pharmacology and treatment of asthma and COPD.
November 26, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887950/cyslt2-receptor-activation-is-involved-in-ltc4-induced-lung-air-trapping-in-guinea-pigs
#5
Tomohiko Sekioka, Michiaki Kadode, Yasuo Yonetomi, Akihiro Kamiya, Manabu Fujita, Takeshi Nabe, Kazuhito Kawabata
CysLT1 receptors are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. However, the functional roles of CysLT2 receptors in this condition have not been determined. The purpose of this study is to develop an experimental model of CysLT2 receptor-mediated LTC4-induced lung air-trapping in guinea pigs and use this model to clarify the mechanism underlying response to such trapping. Because LTC4 is rapidly converted to LTD4 by γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GTP) under physiological conditions, S-hexyl GSH was used as a γ-GTP inhibitor...
November 22, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883241/neutrophil-autophagy-and-extracellular-dna-traps-contribute-to-airway-inflammation-in-severe-asthma
#6
Duy Le Pham, Ga-Young Ban, Seung-Hyun Kim, Yoo Seob Shin, Young-Min Ye, Yong-Joon Chwae, Hae-Sim Park
BACKGROUND: Autophagy and neutrophil extracellular DNA traps (NETs) are implicated in asthma; however, their roles in asthma pathogenesis have not been elucidated. OBJECTIVES: We compared autophagy and NET production levels from peripheral blood neutrophils (PBNs) of patients with severe asthma (SA) and non-severe asthma (NSA). Additionally, we investigated the inflammatory effects of NETs on human airway epithelial cells (AECs) and peripheral blood eosinophils (PBEs)...
November 24, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879060/evidence-of-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#7
Michael Hoggard, Kristi Biswas, Melissa Zoing, Brett Wagner Mackenzie, Michael W Taylor, Richard G Douglas
BACKGROUND: Despite considerable research, the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) remains poorly understood. Potential microbial roles in the etiology or progression of CRS have long been hypothesized, yet few specific associations have been identified. In this study we investigate associations between patterns in resident bacterial communities and clinical variants of CRS. METHODS: Bacterial communities were assessed in 94 patients with extensive bilateral CRS undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and 29 controls undergoing ESS for indications other than CRS...
November 23, 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878686/role-of-anti-inflammatory-cytokines-il-35-and-il-37-in-asthma
#8
REVIEW
Daiju Hu
Asthma is a chronic airway inflammation that is characterized by intense eosinophil infiltrates, mucus hypersecretion, airway remodeling, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Interleukin (IL)-35 and IL-37 are two cytokines with anti-inflammatory effects found in immune response. Recent findings suggested that expressions of IL-35 and IL-37 are abnormal in asthma. Functional analysis further confirmed the important roles of them in the pathogenesis of asthma. The present study reviewed the updated evidence indicating the roles of IL-35 and IL-37 in asthma...
November 23, 2016: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867084/new-concepts-in-asthma-clinical-phenotypes-and-pathophysiological-mechanisms
#9
REVIEW
Andreas R Koczulla, Claus F Vogelmeier, Holger Garn, Harald Renz
Asthma is among the most common chronic inflammatory diseases worldwide. Recent evidence indicates that the pathogenesis shows a high degree of heterogeneity. Patient subsets have been identified that exhibit different cellular and molecular patterns of dysregulation. A prominent example is eosinophilic Th2-driven asthma. These unique and molecular patterns are termed endotypes. Characterization of endotypes has broad implications for therapeutic interventions. Although ∼80% of asthmatic patients respond well to standard anti-inflammatory therapies, the remaining subset particularly consisting of severe patients requires a more specialized endotype-specific approach...
November 17, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865862/impaired-mucus-clearance-exacerbates-allergen-induced-type-2-airway-inflammation-in-juvenile-mice
#10
Benedikt Fritzsching, Matthias Hagner, Lu Dai, Sandra Christochowitz, Raman Agrawal, Charlotte van Bodegom, Simone Schmidt, Jolanthe Schatterny, Stephanie Hirtz, Ryan Brown, Michelle Goritzka, Julia Duerr, Zhe Zhou-Suckow, Marcus A Mall
BACKGROUND: Type 2 airway inflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of allergen-induced asthma, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We recently demonstrated that reduced mucociliary clearance, a characteristic feature of asthma, produces spontaneous type 2 airway inflammation in juvenile Scnn1b-transgenic (Scnn1b-Tg) mice. OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of impaired mucus clearance in the pathogenesis of allergen-induced type 2 airway inflammation and identify cellular sources of the signature cytokine IL-13...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863396/p2rx4-deficiency-in-mice-alleviates-allergen-induced-airway-inflammation
#11
Andreas Zech, Benjamin Wiesler, Cemil Korcan Ayata, Tilmann Schlaich, Thorsten Dürk, Madelon Hoßfeld, Nicolas Ehrat, Sanja Cicko, Marco Idzko
Compelling evidences point out a crucial role for extracellular nucleotides such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during inflammatory conditions. Once released into the extracellular space, ATP modulates migration, maturation and function of various inflammatory cells via activating of purinergic receptors of the P2Y- and P2X- family. P2RX4 is an ATP-guided ion channel expressed on structural cells such as alveolar epithelial and smooth muscle cells as well as inflammatory cells including macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells...
November 15, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856660/effect-of-il-17-receptor-a-blockade-with-brodalumab-in-inflammatory-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Ajay Nirula, Jon Nilsen, Paul Klekotka, Greg Kricorian, Ngozi Erondu, Jennifer E Towne, Chris B Russell, David A Martin, Alison L Budelsky
IL-17 cytokines are expressed by a variety of cells and mediate host defence against extracellular pathogens. IL-17 is upregulated at sites of inflammation and can synergize with other cytokines, such as TNF-α, to amplify the inflammatory response. Activation of these signalling pathways has been hypothesized to contribute to the underlying pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis, RA, PsA and asthma. Thus the IL-17 signalling pathway is an attractive target for the development of therapeutic agents to modulate aberrant inflammatory responses...
December 2016: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854509/tgf-%C3%A3-1-function-in-airway-remodeling-and-hyperresponsiveness-the-missing-link
#13
Christie A Ojiaku, Edwin J Yoo, Reynold A Panettieri
The pathogenesis of asthma includes a complex interplay between airway inflammation, hyperresponsiveness, and remodeling. Current evidence suggests that airway structural cells - including bronchial smooth muscle cells, myofibroblasts, fibroblasts, and epithelial cells -mediate all three aspects of asthma pathogenesis. While studies show a connection between airway remodeling and changes in bronchomotor tone, the relationship between the two remains unclear. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-ß1), a growth factor elevated in the airway of patients with asthma, plays a role in airway remodeling and the shortening of various airway structural cells...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847316/allergies-a-t-cells-perspective-in-the-era-beyond-the-th1-th2-paradigm
#14
REVIEW
Moritz Berker, Larissa Johanna Frank, Anja Lidwina Geßner, Niklas Grassl, Anne Verena Holtermann, Stefanie Höppner, Christian Kraef, Martin Dominik Leclaire, Pia Maier, David Alexander Christian Messerer, Lino Möhrmann, Jan Philipp Nieke, Diana Schoch, Dominik Soll, Christina Marianne Paulina Woopen
Allergic diseases have emerged as a major health care burden, especially in the western hemisphere. They are defined by overshooting reactions of an aberrant immune system to harmless exogenous stimuli. The TH1/TH2 paradigm assumes that a dominance of TH2 cell activation and an inadequate TH1 cell response are responsible for the development of allergies. However, the characterization of additional T helper cell subpopulations such as TH9, TH17, TH22, THGM-CSF and their interplay with regulatory T cells suggest further layers of complexity...
November 12, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842794/clinical-toxicology-and-its-relevance-to-asthma-and-atopy
#15
REVIEW
Rauno Joks, Martin H Bluth
Although both the prevalence of asthma and the prescription drug use, notably the opiate analgesic class, epidemics are increasing, there is a complex interplay between both disorders, with both protective and exacerbating factors involved in the effect of opiates on asthma pathogenesis and clinical severity. This review examines the airway effects, both immunologic and neurologic, of opiates, which may interact and result in protection or exacerbation of asthma.
December 2016: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842724/uncovering-potential-key-genes-associated-with-the-pathogenesis-of-asthma-a-microarray-analysis-of-asthma-relevant-tissues
#16
Y Guan, X Jin, X Liu, Y Huang, M Wang, X Li
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to discover more potential genes associated with the pathogenesis of asthma. METHODS: The microarray data of GSE67940 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in bronchial alveolar lavage cells from patients with mild-moderate asthma (notSA) and severe asthma (SA) compared with normal controls (NC), respectively. Functional and pathway enrichment analysis, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis were performed upon the identified up- and down-regulated DEGs...
November 11, 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833444/association-of-macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-promoter-polymorphism-173g-c-with-susceptibility-to-childhood-asthma
#17
Tarek Z El-Adly, Sally Kamal, Hala Selim, Shahira Botros
INTRODUCTION: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Polymorphisms associated with inflammatory diseases exist in the promoter region of MIF, which alter its expression. We aimed to study the association of MIF promoter polymorphism -173G/C with childhood asthma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this case-control study, we recruited 60 pediatric patients with bronchial asthma and 90 age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
2016: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826966/association-of-mbl-with-work-related-respiratory-symptoms-in-bakery-workers
#18
Mi Ae Kim, Moon Kyung Yoon, Seung Hyun Kim, Hae Sim Park
Baker's asthma is the most prevalent occupational asthma, and IgE-mediated response is known as a major pathogenesis. However, recent studies have suggested the involvement of innate immune response because wheat flour contains bacterial endotoxins or lipopolysaccharides. To further understand a role of innate immune response in the development of work-related respiratory symptoms (WRS) in bakery workers, we investigated mannose-binding lectin (MBL), one of the initiating components of the complement cascade in a single cohort of bakery workers...
January 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826703/leukotriene-receptor-antagonists-and-antiallergy-drugs
#19
Tsutomu Tamada, Masakazu Ichinose
As one of the candidates of the therapeutic strategy for asthma in addition to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) are known to be useful for long-term management of asthma patients complicated by allergic rhinitis (AR) or exercise-induced asthma (EIA). Currently available LTRAs are pranlukast hydrate, zafirlukast, and montelukast. These LTRAs have a bronchodilator action and inhibit airway inflammation, resulting in a significant improvement of asthma symptoms, respiratory function, inhalation frequency of as-needed inhaled β2-agonist, airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, dosage of ICSs, asthma exacerbations, and patients' QOL...
November 9, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826095/ormdl3-transgenic-mice-have-reduced-levels-of-sphingolipids-including-sphingosine-1-phosphate-and-ceramide
#20
Marina Miller, Peter Rosenthal, Andrew Beppu, Ruth Gordillo, David H Broide
ORMDL3 is highly linked to asthma in genetic association studies. Mice with increased human ORMDL3 expression have reduced levels of sphingolipids. ORMDL3 regulation of sphingolipid levels may play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma.
November 5, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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