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Asthma pathogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303765/the-significance-of-the-levels-of-il-4-il-31-and-tlsp-in-patients-with-asthma-and-or-rhinitis
#1
Ruonan Chai, Beixing Liu, Feifei Qi
AIM: To investigate the clinical significance of the levels of IL-4, IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TLSP) in patients with asthma and/or rhinitis, then do the simple verification in animals. METHODS: Levels of IL-4 IL-31, IL-33 and TLSP were detected by ELISA and real-time PCR in 64 asthma patients (sIgE[+]: 32 cases, sIgE[-]: 32 cases), 64 rhinitis patients (sIgE[+]: 32 cases, sIgE[-]: 32 cases), 64 asthma complicated with allergic rhinitis patients (sIgE[+]: 32 cases, sIgE[-]: 32 cases) and 32 healthy controls...
March 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293931/investigation-of-the-possible-role-of-the-hippo-yap1-pathway-in-asthma-and-allergy
#2
Lili E Fodor, András Gézsi, Ldikó Ungvári, Agnes F Semsei, Zsófia Gál, Adrienne Nagy, Gabriella Gálffy, Lilla Tamási, András Kiss, Péter Antal, Csaba Szalai
PURPOSE: Several lines of evidence indicate that the Hippo/Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) pathways might play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma. To investigate the possible role of the Hippo/YAP1 pathway in the pathogenesis of asthma or its phenotypes. METHODS: The levels of gene expressions of the members of the Hippo/YAP1 were compared. The presence of the proteins of the YAP1 and FRMD6 were analyzed with Western blot in induced sputum of 18 asthmatic subjects and 10 control subjects...
May 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277826/commonality-of-the-il-4-il-13-pathway-in-atopic-diseases
#3
Namita Gandhi, Gianluca Pirozzi, Neil Graham
Allergy results from an aberrant Type 2 inflammatory response, triggered by a wide range of environmental antigens (allergens) that lead to various immune responses, culminating in the production of immunoglobulin E (IgE). Two key cytokines, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, are critical to the induction and perpetuation of the Type 2 response, and have been implicated in multiple atopic diseases. Area covered: This review summarizes recent milestone developments that have elucidated components of the pathogenesis of atopic diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD), asthma, and chronic sinusitis with nasal polyposis (CSwNP)...
March 6, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275684/thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-to-cut-a-long-story-short
#4
REVIEW
Katerina Tsilingiri, Giulia Fornasa, Maria Rescigno
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) was identified more than 20 years ago as a secreted factor of a mouse thymic stromal cell line; later, a human orthologue was also identified. The signaling pathway triggered by TSLP has been extensively studied, and upregulation of the cytokine itself is linked to the pathogenesis of numerous Th2-related diseases, including atopic dermatitis, asthma, allergic responses, as well as certain types of cancers. On the other hand, TSLP mediates several immune homeostatic functions in both the gut and the thymus...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275370/pbhmda-path-based-human-microbe-disease-association-prediction
#5
Zhi-An Huang, Xing Chen, Zexuan Zhu, Hongsheng Liu, Gui-Ying Yan, Zhu-Hong You, Zhenkun Wen
With the advance of sequencing technology and microbiology, the microorganisms have been found to be closely related to various important human diseases. The increasing identification of human microbe-disease associations offers important insights into the underlying disease mechanism understanding from the perspective of human microbes, which are greatly helpful for investigating pathogenesis, promoting early diagnosis and improving precision medicine. However, the current knowledge in this domain is still limited and far from complete...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266271/update-on-interventions-in-prevention-and-treatment-of-pediatric-asthma
#6
Marcello Lanari, Paolo Bottau, Elisabetta Calamelli
BACKGROUND: Asthma represents a worldwide health problem with a strong morbidity and a major impact on the health care system. Multiple efforts have been made towards the development of new strategies of prevention and treatment of this disorder. In the light of this the present review of the literature aimed at summarizing the latest advances in prevention and treatment of pediatric asthma with a focus on the most effective options of interventions during the first stages of life. METHODS: References were identified by searches of PubMed...
March 3, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262821/notch-ligand-dll4-alleviates-allergic-airway-inflammation-via-induction-of-a-homeostatic-regulatory-pathway
#7
Miao-Tzu Huang, Yi-Lien Chen, Chia-I Lien, Wei-Liang Liu, Li-Chung Hsu, Hideo Yagita, Bor-Luen Chiang
Notch is a pleiotropic signaling family that has been implicated in pathogenesis of allergic airway diseases; however, the distinct function of individual Notch ligands remains elusive. We investigated whether Notch ligands, Jagged1 and DLL4, exert differential effects in OVA-induced allergic asthma. We found that whilst Jagged1 inhibition mitigated Th2-dominated airway inflammation, blockage of DLL4 aggravated the Th2-mediated asthma phenotypes. Additionally, Jagged1 signaling blockage enhanced IL-17 production and neutrophilic airway infiltration...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260781/new-therapeutic-approach-to-treat-allergic-rhinitis-bronchial-asthma-considering-these-two-as-one-united-airway-disease
#8
M A Rahman, R Chakraborty, K R Ferdousi, A Alam, M K Chowdhury, B K Paul
The relationship between allergic rhinitis and asthma is now established, and most of the clinical, epidemiological and biological data recommend integrated management. This review discusses rhinosinusitis as a co-morbid condition, a precipitating or triggering condition, and an epiphenomenon as an integrated part of the disease. A better understanding and a more pragmatic method of diagnosis and management is needed using cost-effective long-term strategies. Allergic Rhinitis, though a non-life threatening disease, its pathogenesis reveals that Bronchial Asthma also develops by the same aetiopathogenesis...
January 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257236/human-rhinovirus-infection-of-epithelial-cells-modulates-airway-smooth-muscle-migration
#9
Sami Shariff, Christopher Shelfoon, Neil S Holden, Suzanne L Traves, Shahina Wiehler, Cora Kooi, David Proud, Richard Leigh
RATIONALE: Airway remodeling, a characteristic feature of asthma, begins in early life. Recurrent human rhinovirus (HRV) infections are a potential inciting stimulus for remodeling. One component of airway remodeling is an increase in airway smooth muscle cell mass with a greater proximity of the airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) to the airway epithelium. We asked whether human bronchial epithelial cells infected with HRV produced mediators that are chemotactic for ASMC. METHODS: ASMC migration was investigated using the modified Boyden Chamber and the xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analyzer...
March 3, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255167/toluene-diisocyanate-exposure-induces-airway-inflammation-of-bronchial-epithelial-cells-via-the-activation-of-transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-8
#10
Joo-Hee Kim, Young-Sook Jang, Seung-Hun Jang, Ki-Suck Jung, Seung-Hyun Kim, Young-Min Ye, Hae-Sim Park
Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is the most important cause of occupational asthma (OA), and various pathogenic mechanisms have been suggested. Of these mechanisms, neurogenic inflammation is an important inducer of airway inflammation. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is a well-established cold-sensing cation channel that is expressed in both neuronal cells and bronchial epithelial cells. A recent genome-wide association study of TDI-exposed workers found a significant association between the phenotype of TDI-induced OA and the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs10803666, which has been mapped to the TRPM8 gene...
March 3, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252317/role-for-nlrp3-inflammasome-mediated-il-1%C3%AE-dependent-responses-in-severe-steroid-resistant-asthma
#11
Richard Y Kim, James W Pinkerton, Ama T Essilfie, Avril Ab Robertson, Katherine J Baines, Alexandra C Brown, Jemma R Mayall, Md Khadem Ali, Malcolm R Starkey, Nicole G Hansbro, Jeremy A Hirota, Lisa G Wood, Jodie L Simpson, Darryl A Knight, Peter A Wark, Peter G Gibson, Luke A J O'Neill, Matthew A Cooper, Jay C Horvat, Philip M Hansbro
RATIONALE: Severe, steroid-resistant asthma is the major unmet need in asthma therapy. Disease heterogeneity and poor understanding of pathogenic mechanisms hampers the identification of therapeutic targets. Excessive NLRP3 inflammasome and concomitant IL-1β responses occur in COPD, respiratory infections and neutrophilic asthma. However, the direct contributions to pathogenesis, mechanisms involved and potential for therapeutic targeting remain poorly understood, and are unknown in severe, steroid-resistant asthma...
March 2, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249921/mir-20b-induced-increase-in-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-in-the-lungs-of-mice-with-chronic-asthma
#12
Hua Ma, Helong Wang, Yulan Luo, Shujun Guo, Chuanwang Song
Bronchial asthma is a common chronic airway inflammatory disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. We have previously shown that miR-20b can inhibit airway inflammation in asthmatic mice, but the exact mechanism is unknown. In the present study, we show that administration of nasal drops containing miR-20b induced an increase in the percentage of Gr1(+)CD11b(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in lung tissue from asthmatic mice, and the content of TGF-β in lung tissues also increased after treatment...
January 2017: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246613/continuous-dual-resetting-of-the-immune-repertoire-as-a-basic-principle-of-the-immune-system-function
#13
REVIEW
Silvana Balzar
Idiopathic chronic inflammatory conditions (ICIC) such as allergy, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and various autoimmune conditions are a worldwide health problem. Understanding the pathogenesis of ICIC is essential for their successful therapy and prevention. However, efforts are hindered by the lack of comprehensive understanding of the human immune system function. In line with those efforts, described here is a concept of stochastic continuous dual resetting (CDR) of the immune repertoire as a basic principle that governs the function of immunity...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238829/asthma-and-gender-the-female-lung
#14
REVIEW
F S Pignataro, M Bonini, A Forgione, S Melandri, O S Usmani
Asthma is a common chronic disease that affects over 300 million people worldwide, resulting in a considerable socio-economic burden. Literature data suggest that asthma has a higher incidence in females, particularly at certain stages of pubertal development. Moreover, women seem to experience more asthma symptoms than men and to use more rescue medications, resulting in a reduced quality of life. Although several mechanisms have been proposed to explain these differences, there are not yet final data available in the literature on the role of gender in the pathogenesis of asthma and different behavior in females...
February 24, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238747/role-of-c-ebp-homologous-protein-chop-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-in-asthma-exacerbation-by-regulating-the-il-4-stat6-tfec-il-4r%C3%AE-positive-feedback-loop-in-m2-macrophages
#15
Yi Wang, Jianghui Zhu, Lei Zhang, Zhijun Zhang, Long He, Yong Mou, Yanhan Deng, Yong Cao, Ping Yang, Yunchao Su, Jianping Zhao, Shu Zhang, Qilin Yu, Jifa Hu, Zhishui Chen, Qin Ning, Xudong Xiang, Yongjian Xu, Cong-Yi Wang, Weining Xiong
BACKGROUND: C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a marker of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, exhibits aberrant expression patterns during the development of asthma. However, its exact role in asthma pathogenesis is not fully understood. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the function and mechanism of CHOP in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma in patients and animals. METHODS: Studies were conducted in asthmatic patients and CHOP(-/-) mice to dissect the role of CHOP and ER stress in asthma pathogenesis...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229452/expression-levels-of-transcription-factor-pu-1-and-interleukin-9-in-atopic-dermatitis-and-their-relation-to-disease-severity-and-eruption-types
#16
Ashraf M Hamza, Salma S Omar, Reham A H Abo El-Wafa, Marwa J Elatrash
BACKGROUND: The role of immunological factors in atopic dermatitis (AD) pathogenesis is well established. T-helper (TH) cells are central in AD pathogenesis. A relatively new subset of T cells, Th9 cells, was shown to be involved in the development of allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis, while its role in AD is still to be investigated. This study aimed to measure gene expression levels of interleukin-9 (IL-9) and PU.1, and to examine relationships with disease severity, serum IgE, and eruption types in AD patients...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226397/innate-lymphoid-cells-in-asthma-cannabinoids-on-the-balance
#17
EDITORIAL
Kayluz Frias Boligan, Stephan von Gunten
The network of cells and soluble mediators implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic disorders is complex. Deciphering details of the crosstalk between its components is essential for the identification of novel drug targets and for advances in patient management and precision medicine (1, 2). There is increasing evidence that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) contribute to allergic responses (3). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 22, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223227/mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-as-therapeutic-targets-for-asthma
#18
REVIEW
MirHojjat Khorasanizadeh, Mahsa Eskian, Erwin W Gelfand, Nima Rezaei
Corticosteroid-resistant asthmatics, although comprising only a portion of the asthma population, account for most of the morbidity, mortality and economic burden associated with asthma. Moreover, corticosteroids are not effective inhibitors of airway remodeling changes, and their long-term use is associated with debilitating systemic side effects. Therefore, potent and safe novel therapeutic alternatives, targeting basic pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the severe asthmatic phenotype are urgently needed...
February 14, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220848/elevated-expression-of-placental-growth-factor-is-associated-with-airway-wall-vascular-remodelling-and-thickening-in-smokers-with-asthma
#19
Dong Wu, Tianwen Lai, Yalian Yuan, Min Chen, Jun Xia, Wen Li, Guihai Pan, Binfan Yuan, Quanchao Lv, Yanyu Li, Dongmin Li, Bin Wu
The increased expression of placental growth factor (PlGF) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and allergy-related asthma suggests its role in the pathogenesis of these diseases. In asthmatic smokers, airway remodelling is accompanied by an accelerated decline in lung function. However, whether PlGF contributes to the persistent airflow obstruction and vascular remodelling typically seen in asthmatic smokers is unknown. In this study we measured lung function, airway-wall thickening, and PlGF levels in serum and induced sputum in 74 asthmatic and 42 healthy smokers and never-smokers...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219065/synergistic-actions-of-histamine-releasing-factor-and-histamine-releasing-factor-reactive-ige-in-chronic-urticaria
#20
Xianqiong Huang, Zhaoyang Li, Renshan Sun
The etiology of chronic urticaria (CU) remains elusive. Histamine-releasing factor (HRF) is reported to have a proinflammatory role in asthma and immediate hypersensitivity of the skin. The aim of this study was to examine the role of HRF in the pathogenesis of CU. Forty patients with CU were enrolled and their serum HRF concentrations were determined by ELISA. The results demonstrated that the concentrations of HRF and HRF-reactive IgE in the CU group were significantly higher than those in the control group, and there was a significant linear correlation between HRF and HRF-reactive IgE concentrations (r = 0...
2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
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