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Asthma pathogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034234/interleukin-13-in-asthma-and-other-eosinophilic-disorders
#1
Emma Doran, Fang Cai, Cécile T J Holweg, Kit Wong, Jochen Brumm, Joseph R Arron
Asthma is characterized by episodic, reversible airflow obstruction associated with variable levels of inflammation. Over the past several decades, there has been an increasing appreciation that the clinical presentation of asthma comprises a diverse set of underlying pathologies. Rather than being viewed as a single disease entity, asthma is now thought of as a clinical syndrome with the involvement of multiple pathological mechanisms. While it is appreciated that eosinophilia is present in only a subset of patients, it remains a key feature of asthma and other eosinophilic disorders such as atopic dermatitis, eosinophilic esophagitis, and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034190/antiasthmatic-related-properties-of-abrus-precatorius-leaves-on-various-models
#2
Dnyaneshwar J Taur, Rajendra N Patil, Ravindra Y Patil
OBJECTIVE: Asthma is a multifaceted inflammatory disorder which results into narrowing of airway with broncho-constriction and spasm. As the complex pathophysilogy of asthma, various animal models are generally used to investigate the immunological and physiological pathogenesis of disease. Abrus precatorius Linn (Fabacease) is a climbing shrub. The leaves and roots are sweet in taste and traditionally used for the treatment of asthma, bronchititis, and inflammation. A. precatorius possesses different pharmacological activities...
October 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033571/bronchial-thermoplasty-and-the-role-of-airway-smooth-muscle-are-we-on-the-right-direction
#3
REVIEW
Francesco Menzella, Mirco Lusuardi, Carla Galeone, Nicola Facciolongo
Asthma is characterized by inflammation of the airways that includes eosinophils, basal membrane thickening, epithelial sloughing, vascular changes, smooth muscle hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and mucous gland hyperplasia. Recently, there have been studies on the role of hypersensitivity and inflammation in asthma, but the role of bronchial smooth muscle remains unclear. Bronchial thermoplasty is an endoscopic procedure that is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of severe refractory asthma, based on the local delivery of radio frequency at 65°C to the airways, with the aim of controlling bronchospasm through a reduction of airway smooth muscle (ASM)...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032837/accelerated-reactivity-of-blood-granulocytes-in-patients-with-atopic-bronchial-asthma-out-of-exacerbation
#4
Irina V Tikhonova, Ninel I Kosyakova, Andrey A Grinevich, Alexander D Nadeev, Nikolai K Chemeris, Valentina G Safronova
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important in bronchial asthma (BA) pathogenesis owing to accumulation of activated granulocytes in the lungs. But the ROS-producing activity of the cells is insufficiently understood in the blood of BA patients. This study analyzes the kinetics of phagocyte respiratory burst in the blood to improve the methods of BA patients monitoring. Patients with atopic BA out of exacerbation (n=60) and healthy controls (n=43) were recruited. The time-course of respiratory response to opsonized zymosan (OZ) was recorded in the whole blood using luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL), and its activation kinetics (lag-time, rate, amplitude, ROS production) was calculated...
October 5, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031950/identification-of-potential-transcriptomic-markers-in-developing-asthma-an-integrative-analysis-of-gene-expression-profiles
#5
Fang Fang, Jian Pan, Yanhong Li, Yiping Li, Xing Feng, Jian Wang
The goal of this study was to identify potential transcriptomic markers in developing asthma by an integrative analysis of multiple public microarray data sets. Using the R software and bioconductor packages, we performed a statistical analysis to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes in asthma, and further performed functional interpretation (enrichment analysis and co-expression network construction) and classification quality evaluation of the DE genes identified. 3 microarray datasets (192 cases and 91 controls in total) were collected for this analysis...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031615/the-leukotriene-receptor-antagonist-pranlukast-attenuates-airway-remodeling-by-suppressing-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling
#6
Jung Hur, Ji Young Kang, Chin Kook Rhee, Young Kyoon Kim, Sook Young Lee
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Asthma is a chronic airway disease characterized by airway eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling, which are associated with a loss in lung function. Although both contribute significantly to asthma pathogenesis, mechanistic studies and drug discovery have focused on inflammatory targets. In this study, we investigated the effect of the leukotriene receptor antagonist pranlukast on allergic airway inflammation and remodeling in vivo and in vitro. METHOD: Four groups of female BALB/c mice (control; ovalbumin [OVA]-sensitized and -challenged; dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO]-treated OVA; and pranlukast-treated OVA) were examined...
October 12, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025711/toll-like-receptor-2-and-4-have-opposing-roles-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cigarette-smoke-induced-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#7
Tatt Jhong Haw, Malcolm R Starkey, Stelios Pavlidis, Michael Fricker, Anya L Arthurs, Prema Mono Nair, Gang Liu, Irwan Hanish, Richard Y Kim, Paul S Foster, Jay C Horvat, Ian M Adcock, Philip M Hansbro
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of morbidity and death and imposes major socioeconomic burdens globally. It is a progressive and disabling condition that severely impairs breathing and lung function. There is a lack of effective treatments for COPD, which is a direct consequence of the poor understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in driving the pathogenesis of the disease. Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 are implicated in chronic respiratory diseases, including COPD, asthma and pulmonary fibrosis...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024606/role-of-the-tslp-dc-ox40l-pathway-in-asthma-pathogenesis-and-airway-inflammation-in-mice
#8
Shuang Feng, Li Zhang, Xu-Hua Bian, Ying Luo, Guang-Hui Qin, Rui-Ming Shi
This study aims to explore the effect of the TSLP/DC/OX40L pathway in asthma pathogenesis and airway inflammation in mice. Sixty-five male BALF/c mice were divided into the control, asthma, IgG + asthma (IgG, 500 g/500 l, intratracheal injection of 50 l each time), LY294002 (OX40L inhibitor) + asthma (intratracheal injection of 2 mg/kg LY294002), and anti-TSLP + asthma (intratracheal injection of 500 ug/500 l TSLP antibody, 50 l each time) groups. ELISA was applied to measure the serum levels of IgE, ovalbumin (OVA)-sIgE, interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-13 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), flow cytometry was employed to detect Treg cells and dendritic cell (DC) and lymphopoiesis...
October 12, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993876/il-8-gene-variants-and-expression-in-childhood-asthma
#9
Rihab Charrad, Wajih Kaabachi, Ahlem Rafrafi, Anissa Berraies, Kamel Hamzaoui, Agnes Hamzaoui
PURPOSE: To examine the IL-8 expression levels and association of genetic variants with the risk of childhood persistent asthma prognosis. METHODS: Overall, 170 asthmatic children and 170 healthy controls were included in this case-control study. The human IL-8 serum levels were measured using ELISA. The IL-8 mRNA expression levels were assessed by a real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods...
October 9, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987812/interleukin-6-polymorphisms-modify-the-effects-of-smoking-on-the-risk-of-adult-asthma
#10
Taina K Lajunen, Jouni J K Jaakkola, Maritta S Jaakkola
Our findings highlight the importance of IL-6 in the pathogenesis of asthma and imply that the GG genotype in rs1800797 and/or rs1800795 polymorphism may predispose to the adverse effects of smoking on adult asthma.
October 5, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985997/il-33-gene-variants-and-protein-expression-in-pediatric-tunisian-asthmatic-patients
#11
Rihab Charrad, Wajih Kaabachi, Anissa Berraies, Kamel Hamzaoui, Agnès Hamzaoui
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is one of the last discovered members of the human IL-1 family. It is involved in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. This study investigates the relationship between IL33 gene variants and serum protein levels with the development of childhood asthma. We analyzed in this case-control study the distribution of two IL33 polymorphisms, rs7044343 and rs1342326, within 200 Tunisian children, using predefined Taqman genotyping assays. IL-33 serum levels were assessed by commercial sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
October 3, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983782/electronic-cigarettes-their-constituents-and-potential-links-to-asthma
#12
REVIEW
Phillip W Clapp, Ilona Jaspers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vaping is gaining popularity in the USA, particularly among teens and young adults. While e-cigs are commonly represented as safer alternatives to tobacco cigarettes, little is known regarding the health effects of their short- or long-term use, especially in individuals with pre-existing respiratory diseases such as asthma. Flavored e-cig liquids (e-liquids) and e-cig aerosols contain airway irritants and toxicants that have been implicated in the pathogenesis and worsening of lung diseases...
October 5, 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983485/anti-ige-treatment-for-disorders-other-than-asthma
#13
REVIEW
Jeffrey Stokes
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of many allergic diseases. Thus, IgE-mediated immunologic pathways are an attractive target for intervention in allergic diseases. Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds IgE and has been used treat allergic asthma for over a decade. Currently, omalizumab is approved for the treatment of both allergic asthma and chronic spontaneous urticaria. Since IgE plays a critical role in other allergic diseases, anti-IgE therapy has been evaluated in other allergic diseases in small clinical trials and case reports...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983453/remote-sensing-between-liver-and-intestine-importance-of-microbial-metabolites
#14
Zidong Donna Fu, Julia Yue Cui
Recent technological advancements including metagenomics sequencing and metabolomics have allowed the discovery of critical functions of gut microbiota in obesity, malnutrition, neurological disorders, asthma, and xenobiotic metabolism. Classification of the human gut microbiome into distinct "enterotypes" has been proposed to serve as a new paradigm for understanding the interplay between microbial variation and human disease phenotypes, as many organs are affected by gut microbiota modifications during the pathogenesis of diseases...
June 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982738/intranasal-administration-of-recombinant-progranulin-inhibits-bronchial-smooth-muscle-hyperresponsiveness-in-mouse-allergic-asthma
#15
Yoshihiko Chiba, Shunta Danno, Rena Suto, Wataru Suto, Yamato Yamane, Motohiko Hanazaki, Hiroshi Katayama, Hiroyasu Sakai
Progranulin (PGRN) is a growth factor with multiple biological functions, and has been suggested as an endogenous inhibitor of TNFα-mediated signaling. TNFα is believed as one of the important mediators of the pathogenesis of asthma, including airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). In the present study, effects of recombinant PGRN on the TNFα-mediated signaling and the antigen-induced hyper-contractility were examined in bronchial smooth muscles (BSMs) both in vitro and in vivo. Cultured human BSM cells (hBSMCs) and male BALB/c mice were used...
October 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980924/stat3-regulates-cytokine-expression-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-from-asthma-patients
#16
Q Yang, W Xu, Y Long, J Kuang, J Li
Asthma is a common long term inflammatory disease of the airways. This disease affected millions of people worldwide. Recently, it is demonstrated that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays critical role in asthma occurrence. In the current study, we isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with mild and moderate asthma, and then determined the correlation between STAT3 and cytokine expression. We found that the concentration and mRNA level of cytokines was increased in PBMCs from asthma patients...
September 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979688/the-role-of-il-25-in-the-reduction-of-oxidative-stress-and-the-apoptosis-of-airway-epithelial-cells-with-specific-immunotherapy-in-an-asthma-mouse-model
#17
Xiefang Yuan, Eryi Wang, Xiaojun Xiao, Junyi Wang, Xiaomeng Yang, Pingchang Yang, Guoping Li, Zhigang Liu
Oxidative stress and cell apoptosis play important roles in the pathogenesis of asthma. Specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only curative approach for asthma and is effective at decreasing asthmatic oxidation and cell apoptosis, but the mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, by using in vivo and in vitro models, we indirectly demonstrated that SIT alleviated the apoptosis and oxidative stress of bronchial epithelial cells in an asthma model through regulating interleukin (IL)-25. Female BALB/c mice were used for an asthma model induced by exposure to house dust mite (HDM) extracts as allergens...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966674/tlr4-antagonist-suppresses-airway-remodeling-in-asthma-by-inhibiting-the-t-helper-2-response
#18
Ming Li, Zhao-Ni Wang, Li-Fen Yang, Yan Yan, Liang-Ming Cai, Ya-Ting Li, Yong-Kang Qiao, Zhuang-Gui Chen
Airway remodeling is a hallmark of bronchial asthma. Our group has previously reported that the thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), an airway epithelial-derived cytokine, has a central role in the pathogenesis of airway remodeling, and that toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling in epithelial cells may trigger T-helper 2 (Th2) immune responses by overexpression of TSLP. However, it is currently unclear whether TLR4 is a target in the treatment of airway remodeling in asthma. The present study established a house dust mite (HDM)-induced chronic asthmatic model in female BALB/c mice and treated the HDM-exposed mice with 3 mg/kg TAK242, as a TLR4 antagonist, 30 min prior to HDM challenge for up to 2 weeks...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964637/neuroendocrine-cells-derived-chemokine-vasoactive-intestinal-polypeptide-vip-in-allergic-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Alok K Verma, Murli Manohar, Sathisha Upparahalli Venkateshaiah, Anil Mishra
Worldwide increase incidences of allergic diseases have heightened the interest of clinicians and researchers to understand the role of neuroendocrine cells in the recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells. Several pieces of evidence revealed the association of neuropeptides in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. Importantly, one such peptide that is secreted by neuronal cells and immune cells exerts a wide spectrum of immunological functions as cytokine/chemokine is termed as Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP)...
September 23, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953449/hepatitis-c-virus-associated-extrahepatic-manifestations-in-lung-and-heart-and-antiviral-therapy-related-cardiopulmonary-toxicity
#20
Syeda Zainab Ilyas, Rabia Tabassum, Haroon Hamed, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Ishtiaq Qadri
Besides liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with many extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs). HCV exhibits lymphotropism that is responsible for various EHM. An important characteristic of HCV is escape from the immune system, which enables it to produce chronic infections and autoimmune disorders along with accumulation of circulating immune complexes. These EHMs have large spectrum, because they affect many organs such as heart, lungs, kidney, brain, thyroid, and skin...
September 27, 2017: Viral Immunology
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