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Asthma pathogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224909/hygiene-hypothesis-in-asthma-development-is-hygiene-to-blame
#1
REVIEW
Erik van Tilburg Bernardes, Marie-Claire Arrieta
Industrialized countries have registered epidemic rates on allergic diseases, such as hay fever, asthma, eczema, and food allergies. The Hygiene Hypothesis was born from work made by Dr. David Strachan, who observed that younger siblings were less susceptible to eczema and asthma, and proposed that this was a result of increased transmission of infectious agents via unhygienic practices within a household. This initial hypothesis was then reframed as the old friends/microbiota hypothesis, implicating non-pathogenic commensal microorganisms as the source of immunomodulatory signals necessary to prevent immune-mediated chronic disorders...
December 7, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223018/targeting-oxidant-dependent-mechanisms-for-the-treatment-of-respiratory-diseases-and-their-comorbidities
#2
REVIEW
Neil C Thomson
Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases, such as COPD and its comorbidities, asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and radiation pneumonitis. Antioxidants drugs, such as small molecule thiols, nuclear erythroid-2 related factor 2 activators and catalytic enzyme mimetics have been developed to target oxidant-dependent mechanisms. The therapeutic effects of antioxidants have been generally disappointing. A small number of antioxidants are approved for clinical use, such as the small molecule thiol N-acetyl-l-cysteine for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and in the United States, the superoxide dismutase mimetic AEOL 10150 for severe radiation pneumonitis...
December 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217995/the-alteration-of-irisin-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-axis-parallels-severity-of-distress-disorder-in-bronchial-asthma-patients
#3
Magdolna E Szilasi, Krisztian Pak, Laszlo Kardos, Viktoria E Varga, Ildiko Seres, Angela Mikaczo, Andrea Fodor, Maria Szilasi, Gabor Tajti, Csaba Papp, Rudolf Gesztelyi, Judit Zsuga
Distress disorder (a collective term for generalized anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder) is a well-known co-morbidity of bronchial asthma. The irisin-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) axis is a pathway that influences several neurobehavioral mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of distress disorder. Thus, the aim of the present study was to quantify the serum irisin and BDNF concentrations in order to investigate the possible link between the irisin/BDNF axis and distress disorder in an asthma patient cohort...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216726/high-serum-levels-of-igf-i-and-igfbp3-may-increase-comorbidity-risk-for-asthmatic-patients
#4
M Acat, U Toru Erbay, S Sahin, O Arik, C Ayada
OBJECTIVE: Asthma is known as a chronic inflammatory lung disease which has also systemic features. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) plays a role for asthma pathogenesis. Controversially, IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) blocks asthma development. That is why IGF-I and IGFBP3 are targeted for future therapeutic treatments of asthma. We aimed to investigate serum level of IGF-I and IGFBP3 in patients with asthma. This study was performed in 27 asthma and 23 healthy individuals. Serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP3 were measured by human ELISA assay kits...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207030/der-f1-induces-pyroptosis-in-human-bronchial-epithelia-via-the-nlrp3-inflammasome
#5
Ying-Ming Tsai, Kuo-Hwa Chiang, Jen-Yu Hung, Wei-An Chang, Hui-Ping Lin, Jiunn-Min Shieh, Inn-Wen Chong, Ya-Ling Hsu
Damage to the bronchial epithelium leads to persistent inflammation and airway remodelling in various respiratory diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. To date, the mechanisms underlying bronchial epithelial cell damage and death by common allergens remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate Der f1, an allergen of Dermatophagoides farinae, which may result in the death of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). Der f1 induces BECs to undergo the inflammatory cell death referred to as pyroptosis, induced by increasing lactate dehydrogenase release and propidium iodide penetration...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196148/circulating-il-17-producing-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cells-mait-are-associated-with-symptoms-in-children-with-asthma
#6
Guillaume Lezmi, Rola Abou Taam, Céline Dietrich, Lucienne Chatenoud, Jacques de Blic, Maria Leite-de-Moraes
IL-17 and mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells have been involved in asthma pathogenesis. However, IL-17-producing MAIT cells (MAIT-17) were not evidenced. We aimed to determine whether circulating MAIT-17 were detectable in children with asthma, and whether they correlated with asthma symptoms or lung function. Children from the SPASM cohort of preschoolers with severe wheeze were reassessed for asthma at school age, and categorized as exacerbators (1 or more severe exacerbations in the previous 12months) or non-exacerbators...
November 28, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193245/review-article-gastro-oesophageal-reflux-disease-in-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#7
REVIEW
C Broers, J Tack, A Pauwels
BACKGROUND: When gastro-oesophageal reflux is causing symptoms or lesions in the oesophagus, this is referred to as gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD). GERD can manifest itself through typical symptoms (heartburn, regurgitation) or may lead to extra-oesophageal symptoms. Extra-oesophageal manifestations of GERD gained increasing attention over the last decade, especially respiratory disorders, because of the prevalent co-occurrence with GERD. The role of GERD in the pathogenesis of respiratory disorders has become a topic of intense discussion...
November 29, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189349/role-of-epigenetics-and-dna-damage-in-asthma
#8
Adil S Zahiruddin, J Andrew Grant, Sanjiv Sur
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although asthma is a common disease worldwide, its pathogenesis remains to be fully elucidated. There is increasing evidence of the interaction between epigenetics, DNA-damage, and environmental allergens in the development of asthma. In this review, we will focus on the role of epigenetics and DNA-damage in asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: There is growing evidence of environmental allergens, particularly house dust mite, stimulating oxidative DNA damage in airway epithelial cells...
November 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187212/roles-of-bronchopulmonary-c-fibers-in-airway-hyperresponsiveness-and-airway-remodeling-induced-by-house-dust-mite
#9
Zhimei Yang, Jianguo Zhuang, Lei Zhao, Xiuping Gao, Zhengxiu Luo, Enmei Liu, Fadi Xu, Zhou Fu
BACKGROUND: Asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and airway remodeling. While exposure of house dust mites (HDM) is a common cause of asthma, the pathogenesis of the HDM-induced asthma is not fully understood. Bronchopulmonary C-fibers (PCFs) contribute to the neurogenic inflammation, viral infection induced-persistent AHR, and ovalbumin induced collagen deposition largely via releasing neuropeptides, such as substance P (SP). However, PCF roles in the pathogenesis of the HDM-induced asthma remain unexplored...
November 29, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186897/non-coding-rnas-in-pediatric-airway-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Beata Narożna, Wojciech Langwiński, Aleksandra Szczepankiewicz
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are involved in the regulation of numerous biological processes and pathways and therefore have been extensively studied in human diseases. Previous reports have shown that non-coding RNAs play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and aberrant regulation of respiratory diseases. The altered expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs in blood and also locally in sputum or exhaled breath condensate influences lung function, immune response, and disease phenotype and may be used for the development of biomarkers specific for airway disease...
November 27, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186064/airway-mucus-and-asthma-the-role-of-muc5ac-and-muc5b
#11
REVIEW
Luke R Bonser, David J Erle
Asthma is characterized by mucus abnormalities. Airway epithelial hyperplasia and metaplasia result in changes in stored and secreted mucin and the production of a pathologic mucus gel. Mucus transport is impaired, culminating in mucus plugging and airway obstruction-a major cause of morbidity in asthma. The polymeric mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B are integral components of airway mucus. MUC5AC and MUC5B gene expression is altered in asthma, and recent work sheds light on their contribution to asthma pathogenesis...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178675/alteration-in-claudin-4-contributes-to-airway-inflammation-and-responsiveness-in-asthma
#12
Pureun Haneul Lee, Byeong Gon Kim, Sun Hye Lee, June Hyuck Lee, Sung Woo Park, Do Jin Kim, Choon Sik Park, George D Leikauf, An Soo Jang
PURPOSE: Claudin-4 has been reported to function as a paracellular sodium barrier and is one of the 3 major claudins expressed in lung alveolar epithelial cells. However, the possible role of claudin-4 in bronchial asthma has not yet been fully studied. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the role of claudin-4 in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. METHODS: We determined claudin-4 levels in blood from asthmatic patients. Moreover, using mice sensitized and challenged with OVA, as well as sensitized and challenged with saline, we investigated whether claudin-4 is involved in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma...
January 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178573/macrophages-common-culprit-in-obesity-and-asthma
#13
REVIEW
Nikunj Sharma, Mustafa Akkoyunlu, Ronald L Rabin
Macrophages are essential innate immune cells that also regulate local metabolism. Endogenous or exogenous stimuli may polarize macrophages towards phenotypes that serve distinct innate immunological metabolic functions. IFNγ or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) polarizes macrophages towards the M1, or "classically activated" phenotype that participates in defense against intracellular pathogens. IL-4, IL-13, or chitin polarizes macrophages towards the M2, or "alternatively activated" phenotype, which defends against multicellular nematodes and fungi...
November 27, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172299/the-effect-of-anti-ige-therapy-in-knee-osteoarthritis-a-pilot-observational-study
#14
A Aquili, L Farinelli, C Bottegoni, L Antonicelli, A Gigante
Osteoarthritis is a whole-joint disease and its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Recent evidence proposed the importance of the innate immune system as trigger of synovium inflammation following the degeneration of cartilage. Moreover, synovial mast cells (MCs) might be correlated with pain and disability reported by patients. Anti IgE therapy represents a new class of MCs stabilizing agent, licensed for people with asthma and chronic urticaria. Therefore, we studied if the stabilizing effect of anti IgE would improve the pain and disability in patients affected by knee osteoarthritis and atopic disease...
October 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170475/leukotriene-b4-receptor-2-gene-polymorphism-rs1950504-asp196gly-leads-to-enhanced-cell-motility-under-low-dose-ligand-stimulation
#15
Jae-Hyun Jang, Jun-Dong Wei, Minsup Kim, Joo-Young Kim, Art E Cho, Jae-Hong Kim
Recently, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been suggested to contribute to physiopathology and therapeutic effects. Leukotriene B4 receptor 2 (BLT2), a member of the GPCR family, plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, including cancer and asthma. However, no studies on BLT2 SNP effects have been reported to date. In this study, we demonstrate that the BLT2 SNP (rs1950504, Asp196Gly), a Gly-196 variant of BLT2 (BLT2 D196G), causes enhanced cell motility under low-dose stimulation of its ligands...
November 24, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169815/orchestration-of-epithelial-derived-cytokines-and-innate-immune-cells-in-allergic-airway-inflammation
#16
REVIEW
Eliseo F Castillo, Handong Zheng, Xuexian O Yang
Allergic asthma, a chronic respiratory disease, is a leading worldwide health problem, which inflames and constricts the airways, leading to breathing difficulty. Many studies have focused on the pathogenesis contributed by the adaptive immune system, including CD4+ T lymphocytes in delayed type hypersensitivity and B cell-produced IgE in anaphylaxis. More recently, a focus on the airway mucosal barrier and the innate immune system has highlighted, in coordination with T and B cells, to initiate and establish disease...
November 20, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161804/importance-of-biological-ultrafine-particles-in-indoor-dust-as-a-pathogenesis-of-chronic-inflammatory-lung-diseases
#17
Young-Koo Jee, Jinho Yang, Yoon-Keun Kim, You-Young Kim, Tae Soo Kang
The role of infectious agents in the etiology of inflammatory diseases once believed to be non-infectious is increasingly being recognized. Many bacterial components in the indoor dust can evoke inflammatory lung diseases. Bacteria secrete nanometer-sized vesicles into the extracellular milieu, so-called extracellular vesicles (EVs). which are pathophysiologically related to inflammatory diseases. Microbiota compositions in the indoor dust revealed the presence of both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161084/mitochondrial-dysfunction-linking-obesity-and-asthma
#18
Naveen K Bhatraju, Anurag Agrawal
The bidirectional epidemiological association between asthma and obesity is well known. Recent evidence suggests that there is an intersection of the pathophysiological molecular pathways leading to either obesity or asthma, at the level of mitochondria. This is not surprising, because mitochondria, beyond their roles as the metabolic powerhouses of the cell, serve as sensors of threats, regulators of stress signaling, and effectors of cytotoxicity. Reduced mitochondrial function and low metabolic activity are well-recognized features of obesity...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160418/vitamin-d3-levels-and-nlrp3-expression-in-murine-models-of-obese-asthma-association-with-asthma-outcomes
#19
J-H Zhang, Y-P Chen, X Yang, C-Q Li
Vitamin D (25(OH)D3) is an essential nutrient that plays a role in the immune system. Serum 25(OH)D3 is found to be associated with asthma. However, the role of vitamin D in obese asthma remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the association between vitamin D levels and asthma outcomes in a murine model of obese asthma. We also evaluated NLRP3 inflammasome activity in the pathogenesis of obese asthma. We divided 20 male Balb/c mice (3-4 weeks old) into 4 groups: normal control, asthma, obese, and obese asthma and developed an obese asthma mouse model...
November 13, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157860/advances-in-rhinitis-models-and-mechanisms
#20
REVIEW
Anne K Ellis, Mark W Tenn
OBJECTIVE: To summarize studies highlighting recent advances in rhinitis-related research in the past 2 years. DATA SOURCES: Original research articles were procured and examined from the Rhinitis and Upper Airway Disease section of the 2015 to 2017 Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology issues. Additional original research articles were identified from PubMed and Google Scholar using the following search terms: allergic rhinitis, rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, environmental exposure unit, and nasal allergen challenge...
November 18, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
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