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Asthma pathogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817310/semaphorins-and-their-roles-in-airway-biology-potential-as-therapeutic-targets
#1
Hesam Movassagh, Forough Khadem, Abdelilah S Gounni
Semaphorins are a large family of proteins originally identified as axon guidance cues which play a crucial role in neural development. They are also ubiquitously expressed beyond the nervous system and contribute to regulation of essential cell functions such as cell migration, proliferation, and adhesion. Binding of semaphorins to their receptors, including plexins and neuropilins, triggers diverse signaling pathways which are involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases from cancer to autoimmune and allergic disorders...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814293/regulation-of-human-airway-smooth-muscle-cell-migration-and-relevance-to-asthma
#2
REVIEW
Brittany Salter, Cara Pray, Katherine Radford, James G Martin, Parameswaran Nair
Airway remodelling is an important feature of asthma pathogenesis. A key structural change inherent in airway remodelling is increased airway smooth muscle mass. There is emerging evidence to suggest that the migration of airway smooth muscle cells may contribute to cellular hyperplasia, and thus increased airway smooth muscle mass. The precise source of these cells remains unknown. Increased airway smooth muscle mass may be collectively due to airway infiltration of myofibroblasts, neighbouring airway smooth muscle cells in the bundle, or circulating hemopoietic progenitor cells...
August 16, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813514/the-helicobacter-pylori-type-iv-secretion-system-promotes-il-8-synthesis-in-a-model-of-pediatric-airway-epithelium-via-p38-map-kinase
#3
Myra G Dela Pena-Ponce, Monica T Jimenez, Lori M Hansen, Jay V Solnick, Lisa A Miller
Epidemiologic studies have reported an inverse relationship between childhood Helicobacter pylori infection and development of allergic asthma. Because lung epithelium plays an important role in allergic asthma pathogenesis, we hypothesized that H. pylori may directly influence airway epithelial cell innate immune function, particularly in early childhood. To test our hypothesis, we established an in vitro H. pylori infection model using primary tracheobronchial epithelial cell cultures derived from infant, juvenile and adult rhesus monkeys...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812256/the-potential-for-emerging-microbiome-mediated-therapeutics-in-asthma
#4
REVIEW
Ayse Bilge Ozturk, Benjamin Arthur Turturice, David L Perkins, Patricia W Finn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In terms of immune regulating functions, analysis of the microbiome has led the development of therapeutic strategies that may be applicable to asthma management. This review summarizes the current literature on the gut and lung microbiota in asthma pathogenesis with a focus on the roles of innate molecules and new microbiome-mediated therapeutics. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent clinical and basic studies to date have identified several possible therapeutics that can target innate immunity and the microbiota in asthma...
August 10, 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810548/effect-of-follicular-helper-t-cells-on-the-pathogenesis-of-asthma
#5
Xiaojuan Ma, Zhan Sun, Pei Zhai, Wenyan Yu, Ting Wang, Fengsen Li, Jianbing Ding
Follicular helper T (TFH) cells are considered to be a separate T helper cell subset, specifically to help memory B cell participate in humoral immunity. It has been reported that there is an association between the imbalance of TFH function and certain autoimmune diseases. However, to the best of our knowledge, the effect of TFH cells on the process of bronchial asthma has not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associated markers of TFH cells in bronchial asthma-induced mice...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810316/-advances-in-the-pathogenesis-of-asthma-in-the-elderly
#6
X Y Ni, J She, L Zhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808358/mbd2-regulates-th17-cell-differentiation-and-experimental-severe-asthma-by-affecting-irf4-expression
#7
Aijun Jia, Yueling Wang, Wenjin Sun, Bing Xiao, Yan Wei, Lulu Qiu, Lin Mu, Li Xu, Jianmin Li, Xiufeng Zhang, Da Liu, Cong Peng, Dongshan Zhang, Xudong Xiang
Th17 cells and IL-17 participate in airway neutrophil infiltration characteristics in the pathogenesis of severe asthma. Methyl-CpG binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) expression increased in CD4(+) T cells in peripheral blood samples of asthma patients. However, little is known about that epigenetic regulation of MBD2 in both immunological pathogenesis of experimental severe asthma and CD4(+) T cell differentiation. Here, we established a neutrophil-predominant severe asthma model, which was characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), BALF neutrophil granulocyte (NEU) increase, higher NEU and IL-17 protein levels, and more Th17 cell differentiation...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791280/oxidative-stress-and-bronchial-asthma-in-children-causes-or-consequences
#8
REVIEW
Milos Jesenak, Maria Zelieskova, Eva Babusikova
Bronchial asthma is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases of the airways. In the pathogenesis of this disease, the interplay among the genes, intrinsic, and extrinsic factors are crucial. Various combinations of the involved factors determine and modify the final clinical phenotype/endotype of asthma. Oxidative stress results from an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species and the capacity of antioxidant defense mechanisms. It was shown that oxidative damage of biomolecules is strongly involved in the asthmatic inflammation...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783682/myosin-light-chains-9-and-12-are-functional-ligands-for-cd69-that-regulate-airway-inflammation
#9
Koji Hayashizaki, Motoko Y Kimura, Koji Tokoyoda, Hiroyuki Hosokawa, Kenta Shinoda, Kiyoshi Hirahara, Tomomi Ichikawa, Atsushi Onodera, Asami Hanazawa, Chiaki Iwamura, Jungo Kakuta, Kenzo Muramoto, Shinichiro Motohashi, Damon J Tumes, Tomohisa Iinuma, Heizaburo Yamamoto, Yuzuru Ikehara, Yoshitaka Okamoto, Toshinori Nakayama
Recent decades have witnessed a rapid worldwide increase in chronic inflammatory disorders such as asthma. CD4(+) T helper 2 cells play critical roles in the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation, and CD69 expression on activated CD4 T cells is required to induce allergic inflammation in tissues. However, how CD69 mechanistically controls allergic inflammation remains poorly defined. In lymphoid tissues, CD69 regulates cellular retention through inhibition of S1P1 expression and requires no specific ligands to function...
September 16, 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771382/relationship-of-circulating-chemerin-and-omentin-levels-with-th17-and-th9-cell-immune-responses-in-patients-with-asthma
#10
Qing Zhou, Yu Fu, Liangan Hu, Qian Li, Meng Jin, E Jiang
OBJECTIVE: Adipokines are correlated with immune response in asthma, but data on the roles of chemerin and omentin in asthmaare limited. This studyexplored the relationship of chemerin and omentin levels with Th17 and Th9 cells in asthma. METHODS: Seventy-six asthmatics were divided into the intermittent to mild persistent (n = 28), moderate persistent (n = 26) and severe persistent (n = 22) and enrolled in the study. Additionally, 20 healthy subjects were enrolled as controls...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771101/natural-helper-cells-mediate-respiratory-syncytial-virus-induced-airway-inflammation-by-producing-type-2-cytokines-in-an-il-33-dependent-manner
#11
Xu Han, Ruonan Chai, Feifei Qi, Song Bai, Yulin Cui, Yuee Teng, Beixing Liu
AIM: Type 2 cytokine production during respiratory virus infection is considered to be linked with asthma exacerbation. As potent Th2 cytokine producers, natural helper (NH) cells play a key role in influenza virus-induced airway hyper-responsiveness. However, it is unclear whether NH cells contribute to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced airway inflammation, and how the cytokine profile in NH cells is changed during RSV infection. METHODS: BALB/c mice were infected intranasally with RSV...
August 3, 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763131/the-effect-of-allergen-induced-bronchoconstriction-on-concentration-of-5-oxo-ete-in-exhaled-breath-condensate-of-house-dust-mite-allergic-patients
#12
Krzysztof Kowal, Anna Gielicz, Marek Sanak
BACKGROUND: Arachidonic acid metabolites regulate several aspects of airway function including inflammation, muscle contraction and mucous secretion. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate concentration of selected 5-lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived eicosanoids in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) during allergen induced bronchoconstriction. METHODS: The study was performed on 24 allergic rhinitis/asthma patients sensitized to a house dust mite (HDM) Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) and 13 healthy controls (HCs)...
August 1, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758192/dose-exposure-response-relationship-of-the-investigational-anti-il-13-monoclonal-antibody-tralokinumab-in-patients-with-severe-uncontrolled-asthma
#13
P Baverel, N White, P Vicini, M O Karlsson, B Agoram
Interleukin (IL)-13 is involved in the pathogenesis of some types of asthma. Tralokinumab is a human IgG4 monoclonal antibody that specifically binds to IL-13. Two placebo-controlled Phase 2 studies (Phase 2a, NCT00873860 and Phase 2b, NCT01402986) have been conducted in which tralokinumab was administered subcutaneously (SC). This investigation aimed to characterize tralokinumab's dose-exposure-response (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1 ]) relationship in patients with asthma and to predict the most appropriate dose for Phase 3...
July 30, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756367/the-participation-of-oxidative-stress-in-the-pathogenesis-of-bronchial-asthma
#14
REVIEW
Paulina Kleniewska, Rafał Pawliczak
Reactive oxygen species are produced during oxygen reduction and are characterized by high reactivity. They participate in many important physiological processes, but if produced in high concentrations they lead to oxidative stress development and disturb pro-oxidative/anti-oxidative balance towards the oxidation reaction - leading to damage of lipids, proteins, carbohydrates or nucleic acids. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways of various pathogenesis and clinical symptoms, prevalence in recent years has increased significantly...
July 27, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749975/circulating-micrornas-and-association-with-methacholine-pc20-in-the-childhood-asthma-management-program-camp-cohort
#15
Joshua S Davis, Maoyun Sun, Alvin T Kho, Kip G Moore, Jody M Sylvia, Scott T Weiss, Quan Lu, Kelan G Tantisira
INTRODUCTION: Circulating microRNAs (miRNA) are promising biomarkers for human diseases. Our study hypothesizes that circulating miRNA would reveal candidate biomarkers related to airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and provide biologic insights into asthma epigenetic influences. METHODS: Serum samples obtained at randomization for 160 children in the Childhood Asthma Management Program were profiled using a TaqMan miRNA array set. The association of the isolated miRNA with methacholine PC20 was assessed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748328/potential-therapeutic-use-of-il-37-a-key-suppressor-of-innate-immunity-and-allergic-immune-responses-mediated-by-mast-cells
#16
REVIEW
Pio Conti, Francesco Carinci, Gianfranco Lessiani, Enrico Spinas, Spyridon K Kritas, Gianpaolo Ronconi, Alessandro Caraffa, Theoharis C Theoharides
The host response to either exogenous or endogenous insults produces a series of changes, characterized by alterations in immunological functions and generation of mediators called cytokines which include the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family members. IL-1 acts as a hormone mediating the host responses to infection and inflammation. Blocking inflammatory IL-1 family members can be effective against inflammatory disorders, including allergies. IL-37, (formerly IL-1 family member 7), emerges as an inhibitor of innate and adaptive immunity by reducing circulating and organ cytokine levels...
July 26, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746467/tangeretin-has-anti-asthmatic-effects-via-regulating-pi3k-and-notch-signaling-and-modulating-th1-th2-th17-cytokine-balance-in-neonatal-asthmatic-mice
#17
L-L Liu, F-H Li, Y Zhang, X-F Zhang, J Yang
Asthma is a chronic allergic disease characterized by airway inflammation, airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), and mucus hypersecretion. T-lymphocytes are involved in the pathogenesis of asthma, mediating airway inflammatory reactions by secreting cytokines. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Notch signaling pathways are associated with T cell signaling, proliferation, and differentiation, and are important in the progression of asthma. Thus, compounds that can modulate T cell proliferation and function may be of clinical value...
July 20, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740492/patterns-of-early-life-gut-microbial-colonization-during-human-immune-development-an-ecological-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Isabelle Laforest-Lapointe, Marie-Claire Arrieta
Alterations in gut microbial colonization during early life have been reported in infants that later developed asthma, allergies, type 1 diabetes, as well as in inflammatory bowel disease patients, previous to disease flares. Mechanistic studies in animal models have established that microbial alterations influence disease pathogenesis via changes in immune system maturation. Strong evidence points to the presence of a window of opportunity in early life, during which changes in gut microbial colonization can result in immune dysregulation that predisposes susceptible hosts to disease...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732646/phosphatase-wip1-controls-the-development-of-th9-cells-and-allergic-airway-inflammation
#19
Peng Wang, Huiting Su, Lianjun Zhang, Hui Chen, Xuelian Hu, Fan Yang, Jun Lu, Lianfeng Zhang, Yong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Allergic asthma is one of the most common diseases worldwide, resulting in a burden of diseases. No available therapeutic regimens can cure asthma so far. OBJECTIVE: To identify new molecular targets for Th9 cells-mediated allergic airway inflammation. METHODS: Wild-type p53-induced phosphatase 1 (Wip1) gene knockout mice, Wip1 inhibitor-treated mice and ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway inflammation mouse models were employed to characterize the roles of Wip1 in allergic airway inflammation...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730377/influence-of-vitamin-d-and-cotinine-on-t-regulatory-cells-and-asthma-severity-in-children
#20
Bolesław Kalicki, Agata Wawrzyniak, Agnieszka Lipińska-Opałka, Sławomir Lewicki, Robert Zdanowski
Asthma is a common chronic respiratory diseases in children. Understanding the immune mechanisms of epigenetic factors may contribute to a better control of asthma. This study seeks to determine the effects of serum vitamin D and urine cotinine on asthma severity and on T regulatory cells (Tregs) and other immune-related factors such as CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD16/56, and anti-CD3 HLA-DR3. The study involved 34 children with asthma. Disease severity was assessed with the Asthma Control Test, spirometry, and the fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO)...
July 21, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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