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Asthma pathogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229452/expression-levels-of-transcription-factor-pu-1-and-interleukin-9-in-atopic-dermatitis-and-their-relation-to-disease-severity-and-eruption-types
#1
Ashraf M Hamza, Salma S Omar, Reham A H Abo El-Wafa, Marwa J Elatrash
BACKGROUND: The role of immunological factors in atopic dermatitis (AD) pathogenesis is well established. T-helper (TH) cells are central in AD pathogenesis. A relatively new subset of T cells, Th9 cells, was shown to be involved in the development of allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis, while its role in AD is still to be investigated. This study aimed to measure gene expression levels of interleukin-9 (IL-9) and PU.1, and to examine relationships with disease severity, serum IgE, and eruption types in AD patients...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226397/innate-lymphoid-cells-in-asthma-cannabinoids-on-the-balance
#2
EDITORIAL
Kayluz Frias Boligan, Stephan von Gunten
The network of cells and soluble mediators implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic disorders is complex. Deciphering details of the crosstalk between its components is essential for the identification of novel drug targets and for advances in patient management and precision medicine (1, 2). There is increasing evidence that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) contribute to allergic responses (3). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 22, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223227/mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-as-therapeutic-targets-for-asthma
#3
REVIEW
MirHojjat Khorasanizadeh, Mahsa Eskian, Erwin W Gelfand, Nima Rezaei
Corticosteroid-resistant asthmatics, although comprising only a portion of the asthma population, account for most of the morbidity, mortality and economic burden associated with asthma. Moreover, corticosteroids are not effective inhibitors of airway remodeling changes, and their long-term use is associated with debilitating systemic side effects. Therefore, potent and safe novel therapeutic alternatives, targeting basic pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the severe asthmatic phenotype are urgently needed...
February 13, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220848/elevated-expression-of-placental-growth-factor-is-associated-with-airway-wall-vascular-remodelling-and-thickening-in-smokers-with-asthma
#4
Dong Wu, Tianwen Lai, Yalian Yuan, Min Chen, Jun Xia, Wen Li, Guihai Pan, Binfan Yuan, Quanchao Lv, Yanyu Li, Dongmin Li, Bin Wu
The increased expression of placental growth factor (PlGF) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and allergy-related asthma suggests its role in the pathogenesis of these diseases. In asthmatic smokers, airway remodelling is accompanied by an accelerated decline in lung function. However, whether PlGF contributes to the persistent airflow obstruction and vascular remodelling typically seen in asthmatic smokers is unknown. In this study we measured lung function, airway-wall thickening, and PlGF levels in serum and induced sputum in 74 asthmatic and 42 healthy smokers and never-smokers...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219065/synergistic-actions-of-histamine-releasing-factor-and-histamine-releasing-factor-reactive-ige-in-chronic-urticaria
#5
Xianqiong Huang, Zhaoyang Li, Renshan Sun
The etiology of chronic urticaria (CU) remains elusive. Histamine-releasing factor (HRF) is reported to have a proinflammatory role in asthma and immediate hypersensitivity of the skin. The aim of this study was to examine the role of HRF in the pathogenesis of CU. Forty patients with CU were enrolled and their serum HRF concentrations were determined by ELISA. The results demonstrated that the concentrations of HRF and HRF-reactive IgE in the CU group were significantly higher than those in the control group, and there was a significant linear correlation between HRF and HRF-reactive IgE concentrations (r = 0...
February 21, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216506/-role-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-and-its-inhibitor-in-the-respiratory-diseases
#6
Yabing Sun, Libing Ma
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is known as a highly conserved type II transmembraneous glycoprotein widely distributed in a variety of tissues and cells, and expressed in the peripheral blood as a soluble form. It has been reported that DPP4 play a distinct role in the physiological and pathological processes, such as immune regulation, inflammatory reaction, cell adhesion, and cell apoptosis. DPP4 inhibitor showes an incredible effect on the control of blood glucose and it is thought as a newly-developed drug for diabetes, especially in regulation of post-prandial glycemia...
January 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213886/dysregulation-of-metabolic-pathways-in-a-mouse-model-of-allergic-asthma
#7
Kevin D Quinn, Michaela Schedel, Yasmeen Nkrumah-Elie, Anthony Joetham, Michael Armstrong, Charmion Cruickshank-Quinn, Richard Reisdorph, Erwin W Gelfand, Nichole Reisdorph
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a complex lung disease resulting from the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. To understand the molecular changes that occur during the development of allergic asthma without genetic and environmental confounders, an experimental model of allergic asthma in mice was used. Our goals were to (1) identify changes at the small molecule level due to allergen exposure, (2) determine perturbed pathways due to disease, and (3) determine whether small molecule changes correlate with lung function...
February 18, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203435/recent-developments-in-the-role-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-allergic-asthma
#8
REVIEW
Jingjing Qu, Yuanyuan Li, Wen Zhong, Peisong Gao, Chengping Hu
Allergic asthma has a global prevalence, morbidity, and mortality. Many environmental factors, such as pollutants and allergens, are highly relevant to allergic asthma. The most important pathological symptom of allergic asthma is airway inflammation. Accordingly, the unique role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) had been identified as a main reason for this respiratory inflammation. Many studies have shown that inhalation of different allergens can promote ROS generation. Recent studies have demonstrated that several pro-inflammatory mediators are responsible for the development of allergic asthma...
January 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202114/-association-between-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-severity-of-asthma-in-children
#9
Shuai Feng, Bo Chen, Xiao-Wen Yin, Fang-Jun Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the serum level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the severity of asthma in children. METHODS: A total of 60 children with acute exacerbation of asthma were enrolled and divided according to the severity of the disease into mild group (n=18), moderate group (n=25), and severe group (n=17). Sixty healthy children were enrolled as controls. ELISA was used to measure the serum BDNF level in each group and the association between serum BDNF level and the severity of asthma was analyzed...
February 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199385/mycoplasma-pneumoniae-cards-toxin-elicits-a-functional-ige-response-in-balb-c-mice
#10
Jorge L Medina, Edward G Brooks, Adriana Chaparro, Peter H Dube
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is strongly associated with new onset asthma and asthma exacerbations. Until recently, the molecular mechanisms utilized by M. pneumoniae to influence asthma symptoms were unknown. However, we recently reported that an ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating toxin called the Community Acquired Respiratory Distress Syndrome toxin, CARDS toxin, produced by M. pneumoniae was sufficient to promote allergic inflammation and asthma-like disease in mice. A mouse model of CARDS toxin exposure was used to evaluate total and CARDS-toxin specific serum IgE responses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185773/association-of-gene-polymorphisms-in-interleukin-6-in-infantile-bronchial-asthma
#11
Eva Babusikova, Jana Jurecekova, Milos Jesenak, Andrea Evinova
INTRODUCTION: The genetic background of bronchial asthma is complex, and it is likely that multiple genes contribute to its development both directly and through gene-gene interactions. Cytokines contribute to different aspects of asthma, as they determine the type, severity and outcomes of asthma pathogenesis. Allergic asthmatics undergoing an asthmatic attack exhibit significantly higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukins and chemokines. In recent years, cytokines and their receptors have been shown to be highly polymorphic, and this prompted us to investigate interleukin 6 promoter polymorphisms at position -174G/C (rs1800795) and at -572G/C (rs1800796) in relation to asthma in children...
February 6, 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176939/factors-associated-with-plasma-il-33-levels-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#12
Sei Won Kim, Chin Kook Rhee, Ki Uk Kim, Sang Haak Lee, Hun Gyu Hwang, Yu Il Kim, Deog Kyeom Kim, Sang Do Lee, Yeon-Mok Oh, Hyoung Kyu Yoon
BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-33 promotes T helper (Th)2 immunity and systemic inflammation. The role of IL-33 in asthma has been widely investigated. IL-33 has also been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study investigated the clinical significance and usefulness of plasma IL-33 level in patients with COPD. METHODS: A total of 307 patients with stable COPD from 15 centers, who were in the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease cohort, were enrolled in this study...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175985/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-exposure-oxidative-stress-and-asthma-in-children
#13
I-Jen Wang, Wilfried J J Karmaus, Chen-Chang Yang
PURPOSE: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known for their carcinogenic and teratogenic properties. However, little is known about the effect of PAH on our immune and respiratory systems. Hence, we investigated associations (1) between PAH exposure and IgE levels and asthma in children and (2) between PAH exposure and the oxidative stress marker 8OHdG potentially involved in disease pathogenesis stratifying by (3) sex-based differences. METHODS: A total of 453 kindergarten children were recruited and provided samples...
February 7, 2017: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174512/allergic-diseases-in-the-elderly-biological-characteristics-and-main-immunological-and-non-immunological-mechanisms
#14
REVIEW
Maria Teresa Ventura, Nicola Scichilone, Roberto Paganelli, Paola Lucia Minciullo, Vincenzo Patella, Matteo Bonini, Giovanni Passalacqua, Carlo Lombardi, Livio Simioni, Erminia Ridolo, Stefano R Del Giacco, Sebastiano Gangemi, Giorgio Walter Canonica
Life expectancy and the number of elderly people are progressively increasing around the world. Together with other pathologies, allergic diseases also show an increasing incidence in geriatric age. This is partly due to the growing emphasis on a more accurate and careful diagnosis of the molecular mechanisms that do not allow to ignore the real pathogenesis of many symptoms until now unknown, and partly to the fact that the allergic people from 20 years ago represent the elderly population now. Moreover, environmental pollution predisposes to the onset of allergic asthma and dermatitis which are the result of internal pathologies more than the expression of allergic manifestations...
2017: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167223/anti-allergic-activity-of-2-4-6-trihydroxy-3-geranylacetophenone-thga-via-attenuation-of-ige-mediated-mast-cell-activation-and-inhibition-of-passive-systemic-anaphylaxis
#15
Ji Wei Tan, Daud Ahmad Israf, Hanis Hazeera Harith, Nur Fariesha Md Hashim, Chean Hui Ng, Khozirah Shaari, Chau Ling Tham
tHGA, a geranyl acetophenone compound originally isolated from a local shrub called Melicope ptelefolia, has been previously reported to prevent ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation in a murine model of allergic asthma by targeting cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis. Mast cells are immune effector cells involved in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases including asthma by releasing cysteinyl leukotrienes. The anti-asthmatic properties of tHGA could be attributed to its inhibitory effect on mast cell degranulation...
February 4, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160287/association-between-migraine-and-atopic-diseases-in-childhood-a-potential-protective-role-of-anti-allergic-drugs
#16
Camille Aupiais, Stephanie Wanin, Silvia Romanello, Daniele Spiri, Raffaella Moretti, Priscilla Boizeau, Davide Massano, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti, Giovanni Crichiutti, Lakshmi Kanagarajah, Veronique Houdouin, Corinne Alberti, Luigi Titomanlio
BACKGROUND: Migraine is a common cause of headache in childhood. Several studies have investigated the association between migraine and atopic diseases, mostly in the adult population. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate this association in children. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted across 3 European tertiary care hospitals between June 2014 and August 2014. Cases (n = 229) were children aged 6-18 years consulting for a migraine episode...
February 4, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159510/immune-and-inflammatory-response-in-bronchiolitis-due-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-rhinovirus-infections-in-infants
#17
REVIEW
Silvia Vandini, Elisabetta Calamelli, Giacomo Faldella, Marcello Lanari
Bronchiolitis is a common disease in infancy, mostly due to Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Rhinovirus. In addition to acute infection, viral bronchiolitis is responsible for sequelae including recurrent wheezing and asthma. The analysis of the viral characteristics and of the pathogenesis of the infection shows differences between the two viruses that may be helpful for the development of therapies and preventive strategies.
January 16, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159164/respiratory-viral-infections-in-chronic-lung-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Clemente J Britto, Virginia Brady, Seiwon Lee, Charles S Dela Cruz
Chronic lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, cystic fibrosis (CF) and interstitial lung diseases (ILD), affect many individuals worldwide. Patients with these chronic lung diseases are susceptible to respiratory lung infections and some of these viral infections can contribute to disease pathogenesis. This review highlights the associations of lung infections and the respective chronic lung diseases and how infection in the different lung diseases affects disease exacerbation and progression...
March 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155200/mmp-12-a-promising-therapeutic-target-for-neurological-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Bharath Chelluboina, Koteswara Rao Nalamolu, Jeffrey D Klopfenstein, David M Pinson, David Z Wang, Raghu Vemuganti, Krishna Kumar Veeravalli
The role of matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12) in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema, and asthma is well established. Several new studies and recent reports from our laboratory and others highlighted the detrimental role of MMP-12 in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases. In this review, we discuss in detail the pathological role of MMP-12 and the possible underlying molecular mechanisms that contribute to disease pathogenesis in the context of central nervous system diseases such as stroke, spinal cord injury, and multiple sclerosis...
February 2, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148916/innate-lymphoid-cells-in-autoimmunity-emerging-regulators-in-rheumatic-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Medya M Shikhagaie, Kristine Germar, Suzanne M Bal, Xavier Romero Ros, Hergen Spits
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are important in the regulation of barrier homeostasis. These cells do not express T cell receptors but share many functional similarities with T helper cells and cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes. ILCs are divided into three groups, namely group 1 ILCs, group 2 ILCs and group 3 ILCs, based on the transcription factors they depend on for their development and function, and the cytokines they produce. Emerging data indicate that ILCs not only have protective functions but can also have detrimental effects when dysregulated, leading to chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases, including asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, graft-versus-host disease, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis and atopic dermatitis...
March 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
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