Read by QxMD icon Read

Asthma pathogenesis

Wook-Jin Chae, Alfred L M Bothwell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Mauro Maniscalco, Debora Paris, Dominique J Melck, Maria D'Amato, Anna Zedda, Matteo Sofia, Cristiana Stellato, Andrea Motta
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological and clinical evidence supports the existence of an obesity-related asthma phenotype. No distinct pathophysiological elements or specific biomarkers have been identified so far but increased oxidative stress has been reported. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at verifying whether metabolomics of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) from obese asthmatic (OA), lean asthmatic (LA) and obese non-asthmatic (ONA) patients could recognize specific, statistically validated biomarkers for a separate "asthma-obesity" respiratory metabolic phenotype, here defined as "metabotype"...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Ritesh Agarwal, Inderpaul S Sehgal, Sahajal Dhooria, Ashutosh N Aggarwal
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a complex pulmonary disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of wheezing, fleeting pulmonary opacities and bronchiectasis. It is the most prevalent of the Aspergillus disorders with an estimated five million cases worldwide. Despite six decades of research, the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of this condition remains controversial. The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology has formed a working group to resolve the controversies around this entity...
October 17, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Masafumi Moriyama, Seiji Nakamura
IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic disease characterized by elevated serum IgG4 levels and a strong infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells in various organs. IgG4-RD patients also frequently suffer from allergic diseases, including asthma and atopic dermatitis. It is well known that T helper type 2 (Th2) cells have an important role in the initiation of allergic diseases, and Th2 cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 promote class switching to IgG4. Therefore, IgG4-RD is considered to be a Th2-predominant disease...
October 16, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
John W Upham, Yang Xi
Dendritic cells (DC) are potent antigen presenting cells. Because of their particular ability to initiate and regulate cell mediated and humoral immune responses, there is considerable interest in the role that DC play in the pathogenesis of various lung diseases, especially those in which there is an excessive immune response to specific antigens (as in asthma) or a deficient immune response (as in lung cancer). A number of DC subpopulations have been defined in the lungs including myeloid or conventional DC that initiate T-cell immunity and antibody production, and plasmacytoid DC that have an important role in anti-viral immunity and immune tolerance...
October 8, 2016: Chest
Yu Lin Tsai, Wang-Sheng Ko, Jung-Lung Hsiao, Hsin-Hung Pan, Ya-Ling Chiou
INTRODUCTION: In the pathogenesis of asthma, an imbalance between helper T (Th) 1/Th2 and Th17/Treg cells is believed to play a key role in asthmatic inflammatory responses. Some studies indicated that zinc deficiency increases inflammatory factor production and worsens asthma. However, the effects of zinc on T cell profiles to reduce inflammatory response remain unclear Objectives: We investigated the beneficial effects of zinc on isolated cell populations and cytokine levels from patients with asthma...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Vinciane Saint-Criq, Michael A Gray
Salt and fluid absorption and secretion are two processes that are fundamental to epithelial function and whole body fluid homeostasis, and as such are tightly regulated in epithelial tissues. The CFTR anion channel plays a major role in regulating both secretion and absorption in a diverse range of epithelial tissues, including the airways, the GI and reproductive tracts, sweat and salivary glands. It is not surprising then that defects in CFTR function are linked to disease, including life-threatening secretory diarrhoeas, such as cholera, as well as the inherited disease, cystic fibrosis (CF), one of the most common life-limiting genetic diseases in Caucasian populations...
October 6, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Fiorentina Roviezzo, Rosalinda Sorrentino, Valentina Mattera Iacono, Vincenzo Brancaleone, Michela Terlizzi, Maria Antonietta Riemma, Antonio Bertolino, Antonietta Rossi, Maria Matteis, Giuseppe Spaziano, Aldo Pinto, Bruno D'Agostino, Giuseppe Cirino
Compelling evidence suggests the involvement of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in the pathogenesis of asthma. The systemic administration of S1P causes asthma like features in the mouse involving mast cells. In this study we investigated whether disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), administered as a preventative treatment as in human therapy, could affect S1P effects on airways. BALB/c mice, treated with DSCG, received subcutaneous administration of S1P. Bronchi and pulmonary tissues were collected and functional, molecular and cellular studies were performed...
October 3, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Andrew R Parker, Andrew G Ayars, Matthew C Altman, William R Henderson
Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is a syndrome of severe asthma and rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis with exacerbations of baseline eosinophil-driven and mast cell-driven inflammation after nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug ingestion. Although the underlying pathophysiology is poorly understood, dysregulation of the cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism is thought to be key. Central features of AERD pathogenesis are overproduction of proinflammatory and bronchoconstrictor cysteinyl leukotrienes and prostaglandin (PG) D2 and inhibition of bronchoprotective and antiinflammatory PGE2...
November 2016: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
Nicola L D Overton, David W Denning, Paul Bowyer, Angela Simpson
BACKGROUND: In patients with asthma, the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus can cause allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). Familial ABPA is reported, and some genetic factors have been associated with the disease, however, these are small studies (n ≤ 38) and do not explain all cases of ABPA. METHODS: We analysed SNPs in 95 ABPA patients, comparing frequencies to 152 atopic asthmatic and 279 healthy controls. Twenty two genes were selected from literature, and 195 tagging SNPs were analysed for genetic association with ABPA using logistic regression corrected for multiple testing...
2016: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
Elizabeth M Gordon, Debbie M Figueroa, Amisha V Barochia, Xianglan Yao, Stewart J Levine
Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) mediate reverse cholesterol transport out of cells. Furthermore, HDL has additional protective functions, which include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and vasoprotective effects. In contrast, HDL can become dysfunctional with a reduction in both cholesterol efflux and anti-inflammatory properties in the setting of disease or the acute phase response. These paradigms are increasingly being recognized to be active in the pulmonary system, where apoA-I and HDL have protective effects in normal lung health, as well as in a variety of disease states, including acute lung injury (ALI), asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary fibrosis, and viral pneumonia...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Alessandro Tonacci, Lucia Billeci, Liliana Ruta, Gennaro Tartarisco, Giovanni Pioggia, Sebastiano Gangemi
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder represents a burdensome condition in early childhood, with a number of risk factors proposed to explain its pathogenesis, most of which without a reliable scientific basis. Allergic asthma is likely to be one of the possible comorbilities of autism. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: In this paper, the relationship between autism and allergic asthma was analyzed through a systematic literature review, conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines...
October 5, 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
Tao Huang, Meredith Hazen, Yonglei Shang, Meijuan Zhou, Xiumin Wu, Donghong Yan, Zhonghua Lin, Margaret Solon, Elizabeth Luis, Hai Ngu, Yongchang Shi, Arna Katewa, David F Choy, Nandhini Ramamoorthi, Erick R Castellanos, Mercedesz Balazs, Min Xu, Wyne P Lee, Marissa L Matsumoto, Jian Payandeh, Joseph R Arron, Jo-Anne Hongo, Jianyong Wang, Isidro Hötzel, Cary D Austin, Karin Reif
Eosinophilic inflammation and Th2 cytokine production are central to the pathogenesis of asthma. Agents that target either eosinophils or single Th2 cytokines have shown benefits in subsets of biomarker-positive patients. More broadly effective treatment or disease-modifying effects may be achieved by eliminating more than one inflammatory stimulator. Here we present a strategy to concomitantly deplete Th2 T cells, eosinophils, basophils, and type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) by generating monoclonal antibodies with enhanced effector function (19A2) that target CRTh2 present on all 4 cell types...
May 19, 2016: JCI Insight
Jae Hyon Park, Dong Yeon Jeong, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Michael Eisenhut, Jae Il Shin
Proinflammatory cytokines are thought to modulate pathogeneses of various inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), which has been studied in various allergic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis (AD) and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), has been less considered to be involved in IBDs. However, mucosal dendritic cells (DCs) induced by various cytokines including TSLP were reported to cause polarization of T cell toward Th2 response, the differentiation of regulatory T-cell (Treg), and secretion of IgA by B cells...
October 1, 2016: Autoimmunity Reviews
Vladimir Ramirez-Carrozzi, Arivazhagan Sambandam, Meijuan Zhou, Donghong Yan, Jing Kang, Xiumin Wu, Eric Suto, Miriam Baca, Cary Austin, Min Xu, Wyne P Lee, Rajita Pappu
Both IL-33 and IL-13 promote Type-2 inflammation and are implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. Blocking both pathways together leads to a greater suppression of Type-2 inflammation over inhibiting either pathway alone.
September 30, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Amy Chang, Ynuk Bossé
Asthma is a lung disorder triggered by various airborne factors in susceptible individuals. Although generally controlled, asthma can be severe and difficult to treat. Presently, increasing numbers of pharmaceuticals capable of blocking or mimicking specific endogenous molecules are undergoing clinical trials in asthmatic individuals whose symptoms are poorly controlled despite adherence to guideline therapies. Unfortunately, only a few, meticulously selected patients have been found to minimally benefit. These findings not only confirm that the molecular pathogenesis of severe asthma is variable between patients but also suggest that each molecular defect is likely to contribute little on its own in each patient...
September 28, 2016: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Gye Young Park, John W Christman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Laura K Johnston, Chia-Lin Hsu, Rebecca A Krier-Burris, Krishan D Chhiba, Karen B Chien, Andrew McKenzie, Sergejs Berdnikovs, Paul J Bryce
Eosinophils are important in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including asthma, eosinophilic esophagitis, and eczema. Whereas IL-5 is crucial for supporting mature eosinophils (EoMs), the signals that support earlier eosinophil lineage events are less defined. The IL-33R, ST2, is expressed on several inflammatory cells, including eosinophils, and is best characterized for its role during the initiation of allergic responses in peripheral tissues. Recently, ST2 expression was described on hematopoietic progenitor subsets, where its function remains controversial...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Q Zhang, X L Fu, F H Qian, Q Cao, Z D Mao, J L Bai, Q Du, Y Shi
Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 mediates antivirus immunity and is involved in asthma exacerbation and development. However, the genetic association between TLR3 and asthma remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of polymorphisms within TLR3 on asthma risk and asthma-related phenotypes in the Chinese Han population. A total number of 462 unrelated adult patients with asthma and 398 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. The genotypes of tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR3 gene were determined using multiplex SNaPshot SNP genotyping assays...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Immunogenetics
Andriana I Papaioannou, Aris Spathis, Konstantinos Kostikas, Petros Karakitsos, Spyros Papiris, Christos Rossios
Asthma is a heterogeneous inflammatory disease caused by association of genetic and environmental factors and its incidence has significantly increased over the latest years. The clinical manifestations of asthma are the result of airway hyper-reactivity to a variety of triggers such as aeroallergens, viral and bacterial components. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pathogen associated molecular pattern receptors, which are also expressed in the lung tissue as well as in several cells of the innate and adaptive immune system...
September 24, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"