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Asthma pathogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546563/microbiota-in-t-cell-homeostasis-and-inflammatory-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Naeun Lee, Wan-Uk Kim
The etiology of disease pathogenesis can be largely explained by genetic variations and several types of environmental factors. In genetically disease-susceptible individuals, subsequent environmental triggers may induce disease development. The human body is colonized by complex commensal microbes that have co-evolved with the host immune system. With the adaptation to modern lifestyles, its composition has changed depending on host genetics, changes in diet, overuse of antibiotics against infection and elimination of natural enemies through the strengthening of sanitation...
May 26, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546562/the-interplay-between-host-immune-cells-and-gut-microbiota-in-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Donghyun Kim, Melody Y Zeng, Gabriel Núñez
Many benefits provided by the gut microbiota to the host rely on its intricate interactions with host cells. Perturbations of the gut microbiota, termed gut dysbiosis, affect the interplay between the gut microbiota and host cells, resulting in dysregulation of inflammation that contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, allergic asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. In this review, we provide an overview of how gut bacteria modulates host metabolic and immune functions, summarize studies that examined the roles of gut dysbiosis in chronic inflammatory diseases, and finally discuss measures to correct gut dysbiosis as potential therapeutics for chronic inflammatory diseases...
May 26, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539203/the-interplay-between-neuroendocrine-activity-and-psychological-stress-induced-exacerbation-of-allergic-asthma
#3
REVIEW
Tomomitsu Miyasaka, Kaori Dobashi-Okuyama, Tomoko Takahashi, Motoaki Takayanagi, Isao Ohno
Psychological stress is recognized as a key factor in the exacerbation of allergic asthma, whereby brain responses to stress act as immunomodulators for asthma. In particular, stress-induced enhanced type 2 T-helper (Th2)-type lung inflammation is strongly associated with asthma pathogenesis. Psychological stress leads to eosinophilic airway inflammation through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal pathway and autonomic nervous system. This is followed by the secretion of stress hormones into the blood, including glucocorticoids, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, which enhance Th2 and type 17 T-helper (Th17)-type asthma profiles in humans and rodents...
May 20, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529637/role-of-the-cxcl8-cxcr1-2-axis-in-cancer-and-inflammatory-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Helen Ha, Bikash Debnath, Nouri Neamati
The chemokine receptors CXCR1/2 and their ligand CXCL8 are essential for the activation and trafficking of inflammatory mediators as well as tumor progression and metastasis. The CXCL8-CXCR1/2 signaling axis is involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), asthma, cystic fibrosis and cancer. Interaction between CXCL8 secreted by select cancer cells and CXCR1/2 in the tumor microenvironment is critical for cancer progression and metastasis. The CXCL8-CXCR1/2 axis may play an important role in tumor progression and metastasis by regulating cancer stem cell (CSC) proliferation and self-renewal...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523001/the-role-of-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-4-in-pulmonary-inflammatory-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Rachel G Scheraga, Brian D Southern, Lisa M Grove, Mitchell A Olman
Ion channels/pumps are essential regulators of organ homeostasis and disease. In the present review, we discuss the role of the mechanosensitive cation channel, transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), in cytokine secretion and pulmonary inflammatory diseases such as asthma, cystic fibrosis (CF), and acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). TRPV4 has been shown to play a role in lung diseases associated with lung parenchymal stretch or stiffness. TRPV4 indirectly mediates hypotonicity-induced smooth muscle contraction and airway remodeling in asthma...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507585/ctgf-upregulation-correlates-with-mmp-9-level-in-airway-remodeling-in-a%C3%A2-murine-model-of-asthma
#6
Sheng-Chieh Lin, Hsiu-Chu Chou, Bor-Luen Chiang, Chung-Ming Chen
INTRODUCTION: Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mediates hypertrophy, proliferation, and extracellular matrix synthesis. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) plays a role in airway extracellular matrix remodeling. The correlation between CTGF and MMP in airway remodeling of asthma was unknown. This study investigated lung CTGF expression and its correlation with MMP and airway structural changes in a murine model of asthma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Female BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged by intraperitoneal injections and intranasal phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or ovalbumin (OVA)...
April 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507230/computational-design-of-treatment-strategies-for-proactive-therapy-on-atopic-dermatitis-using-optimal-control-theory
#7
Panayiotis Christodoulides, Yoshito Hirata, Elisa Domínguez-Hüttinger, Simon G Danby, Michael J Cork, Hywel C Williams, Kazuyuki Aihara, Reiko J Tanaka
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic skin disease characterized by recurrent skin inflammation and a weak skin barrier, and is known to be a precursor to other allergic diseases such as asthma. AD affects up to 25% of children worldwide and the incidence continues to rise. There is still uncertainty about the optimal treatment strategy in terms of choice of treatment, potency, duration and frequency. This study aims to develop a computational method to design optimal treatment strategies for the clinically recommended 'proactive therapy' for AD...
June 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506853/expression-of-semaphorin-3e-is-suppressed-in-severe-asthma
#8
Hesam Movassagh, Lianyu Shan, Jamila Chakir, John F McConville, Andrew J Halayko, Latifa Koussih, Abdelilah S Gounni
The level of a previously unknown mediator, Semaphorin 3E, is diminished in the airways of severe allergic asthmatic patients. This study suggests a potential role of Semaphorin3E in the pathogenesis of asthma severity.
May 12, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502841/use-of-airway-epithelial-cell-culture-to-unravel-the-pathogenesis-and-study-treatment-in-obstructive-airway-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Tinne C J Mertens, Harry Karmouty-Quintana, Christian Taube, Pieter S Hiemstra
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are considered as two distinct obstructive diseases. Both chronic diseases share a component of airway epithelial dysfunction. The airway epithelium is localized to deal with inhaled substances, and functions as a barrier preventing penetration of such substances into the body. In addition, the epithelium is involved in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses following inhalation of particles, allergens and pathogens. Through triggering and inducing immune responses, airway epithelial cells contribute to the pathogenesis of both asthma and COPD...
May 11, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502680/semaphorin-3a-is-a-key-player-in-the-pathogenesis-of-asthma
#10
Ronen Cozacov, Katlin Halasz, Tharwat Haj, Zahava Vadasz
Immune semaphorins are key players in regulating immune mediated inflammation. Semaphorin3A (sema3A) a secreted and membrane bound member of this family, is well reported for its properties in maintaining self-tolerance. Semaphorin3A was recognized to be a marker for T-regulatory cells (Tregs), and as such is a useful tool for assessing the status of these cells in preventing immune mediated diseases. This study was designed aiming to evaluate how sema3A is possibly involved in bronchial asthma. Here, we found sema3A serum levels and the expression of sema3A on Tregs significantly lower in patients with moderate to severe asthma when compared to healthy individuals...
May 11, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495571/role-of-iron-in-the-pathogenesis-of-respiratory-disease
#11
REVIEW
Md Khadem Ali, Richard Y Kim, Rafia Karim, Jemma R Mayall, Kristy L Martin, Ali Shahandeh, Firouz Abbasian, Malcolm R Starkey, Veronique Loustaud-Ratti, Daniel Johnstone, Elizabeth A Milward, Philip M Hansbro, Jay C Horvat
Iron is essential for many biological processes, however, too much or too little iron can result in a wide variety of pathological consequences, depending on the organ system, tissue or cell type affected. In order to reduce pathogenesis, iron levels are tightly controlled in throughout the body by regulatory systems that control iron absorption, systemic transport and cellular uptake and storage. Altered iron levels and/or dysregulated homeostasis have been associated with several lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, cystic fibrosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and asthma...
May 7, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492871/risk-factors-for-posterior-subcapsular-cataract-in-retinitis-pigmentosa
#12
Kohta Fujiwara, Yasuhiro Ikeda, Yusuke Murakami, Jun Funatsu, Shunji Nakatake, Takashi Tachibana, Noriko Yoshida, Shintaro Nakao, Toshio Hisatomi, Shigeo Yoshida, Takeshi Yoshitomi, Tatsuro Ishibashi, Koh-Hei Sonoda
Purpose: Posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC) is a frequent complication in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). The risk factors for PSC formation in RP are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors for PSC. Methods: We retrospectively studied a total of 322 eyes of 173 patients who were diagnosed with typical RP. We considered the following possible risk factors for PSC: age, sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, high myopia, asthma, history of steroid intake, and aqueous flare...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489470/reaction-products-of-hexamethylene-diisocyanate-vapors-with-self-molecules-in-the-airways-of-rabbits-exposed-via-tracheostomy
#13
Adam V Wisnewski, Jean Kanyo, Jennifer Asher, James A Goodrich, Grace Barnett, Lyn Patrylak, Jian Liu, Carrie A Redlich, Ala F Nassar
Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) is a widely used aliphatic diisocyanate and a well-recognized cause of occupational asthma. "Self" molecules (peptides/proteins) in the lower airways, susceptible to chemical reactivity with HDI, have been hypothesized to play a role in asthma pathogenesis and/or chemical metabolism, but remain poorly characterized. This study employed unique approaches to identify and characterize "self" targets of HDI reactivity in the lower airways. Anesthetized rabbits free breathed through a tracheostomy tube connected to chambers containing either, O2, or O2 plus ∼200 ppb HDI vapors...
May 10, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487623/differential-expression-of-serum-proteins-in-rats-with-allergic-asthma-a-study-based-on-the-nanoliter-two-dimensional-liquid-chromatography-technique
#14
Xingke Yan, Ao Zhang, Lu Yu, Cheng Chen, Haifu Cui
Objective. To investigate the pathogenesis of allergic asthma via the nanoliter two-dimensional liquid chromatography (nano-2D-LC) technique. Method. 24 Wistar rats were randomized into 3 groups: the blank-control group (A), the restrained group (B), and the asthma model group (C). The nanoliter two-dimensional liquid chromatography (nano-2D-LC) technique was used to study the differential protein expressions of the serum in asthmatic rats. Results. Compared with the restrained group, the data from the asthma model group displayed a distinctive peak, that is, peak number 13 (94...
2017: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484126/mechanisms-underlying-the-pathogenesis-of-hyper-contractility-of-bronchial-smooth-muscle-in-allergic-asthma
#15
Hiroyasu Sakai, Wataru Suto, Yuki Kai, Yoshihiko Chiba
Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation are key pathophysiological features of asthma. Enhanced contraction of bronchial smooth muscle (BSM) is one of the causes of the AHR. It is thus important for development of asthma therapy to understand the change in the contractile signaling of airway smooth muscle cells associated with the AHR. In addition to the Ca(2+)-mediated phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC), contractile agonists also enhance MLC phosphorylation level, Ca(2+)-independently, by inactivating MLC phosphatase (MLCP), called Ca(2+) sensitization of contraction, in smooth muscle cells including airways...
2017: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481637/hydrogen-sulfide-a-novel-player-in-airway-development-pathophysiology-of-respiratory-diseases-and-antiviral-defenses
#16
Nikolay Bazhanov, Maria Ansar, Teodora Ivanciuc, Roberto P Garofalo, Antonella Casola
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a biologically relevant signaling molecule in mammals. Together with the volatile substances nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), H2S is defined as a gasotransmitter, playing a physiological role in a variety of functions such as synaptic transmission, vascular tone, angiogenesis, inflammation and cellular signaling. The generation of H2S is catalyzed by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and 3 mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST). The expression of CBS and CSE is tissue-specific with CBS being expressed predominantly in the brain and CSE in peripheral tissues, including lungs...
May 8, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481622/cardiomyocytes-of-the-heart-and-pulmonary-veins-novel-contributors-to-asthma
#17
Stephen Sai Folmsbee, Cara J Gottardi
Recent genome-wide association studies have implicated both cardiac and pulmonary vein-related genes in the pathogenesis of asthma. Since cardiac cells are not present in lung airways or viewed to affect the immune system, interpretation of these findings in the context of more well-established contributors to asthma has remained challenging. However, cardiomyocytes are present in the lung, specifically along pulmonary veins, and recent murine models suggest that cardiac cells lining pulmonary veins may contribute to allergic airway disease...
May 8, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481134/the-role-of-oxidative-stress-in-the-clinical-manifestations-of-childhood-asthma
#18
Aleksandra Topic, Djordje Francuski, Aleksandra Nikolic, Katarina Milosevic, Snezana Jovicic, Bojan Markovic, Mirjana Djukic, Dragica Radojkovic
INTRODUCTION: The significance of oxidative stress in pathogenesis of childhood asthma was recognized, but its role in the clinical manifestations of disease is still unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in 96 asthmatic children. The urinary biomarker of oxidative stress, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG/creatinine) was determined by using HPLC-MS/MS. ELISA was performed to measure myeloperoxidase (MPO) and Cu,Zn- superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) in serum...
May 8, 2017: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479327/a-review-of-metabolomics-approaches-and-their-application-in-identifying-causal-pathways-of-childhood-asthma
#19
Kedir N Turi, Lindsey Romick-Rosendale, Kelli K Ryckman, Tina V Hartert
As asthma is a disease that results from host x environment interactions, an approach which allows assessment of the impact of the environment on the host is needed to understand disease. Metabolomics has appealing potential as an application to study pathways to childhood asthma development. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of metabolomics methods, and their application to understanding host x environment pathways in asthma development. We reviewed recent literature on advances in metabolomics and their application to study pathways to childhood asthma development...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478972/long-term-management-of-moderate-to-severe-atopic-dermatitis-with-dupilumab-and-concomitant-topical-corticosteroids-liberty-ad-chronos-a-1-year-randomised-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-phase-3-trial
#20
Andrew Blauvelt, Marjolein de Bruin-Weller, Melinda Gooderham, Jennifer C Cather, Jamie Weisman, David Pariser, Eric L Simpson, Kim A Papp, H Chih-Ho Hong, Diana Rubel, Peter Foley, Errol Prens, Christopher E M Griffiths, Takafumi Etoh, Pedro Herranz Pinto, Ramon M Pujol, Jacek C Szepietowski, Karel Ettler, Lajos Kemény, Xiaoping Zhu, Bolanle Akinlade, Thomas Hultsch, Vera Mastey, Abhijit Gadkari, Laurent Eckert, Nikhil Amin, Neil M H Graham, Gianluca Pirozzi, Neil Stahl, George D Yancopoulos, Brad Shumel
BACKGROUND: Dupilumab (an anti-interleukin-4-receptor-α monoclonal antibody) blocks signalling of interleukin 4 and interleukin 13, type 2/Th2 cytokines implicated in numerous allergic diseases ranging from asthma to atopic dermatitis. Previous 16-week monotherapy studies showed that dupilumab substantially improved signs and symptoms of moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis with acceptable safety, validating the crucial role of interleukin 4 and interleukin 13 in atopic dermatitis pathogenesis...
May 4, 2017: Lancet
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