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Pneumococal vaccine

Mustafa Altay, İhsan Ateş, Fatma Aybala Altay, Mustafa Kaplan, Ömer Akça, Adem Özkara
AIMS: This study is performed for inspecting vaccination rates in geriatric patients, negatory effects leading to unvaccination and changes occurring in vaccination rates by patient education. METHODS: This study is planned in a combination of two formats: retrospectively for determining last 5years' vaccination rates of patients and prospectively for determining the change in vaccination rates after patient education. Totally 579 diabetic patients, 206 patients of 65years and over (group 1) and 373 patients under 65years (group 2) were admitted to the study...
October 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Motayo Babatunde Olanrewaju, Akingbade Olusola, Nwadike Victor, Shobayo Olabode, Ogiogwa Joseph, Akinduti Akiniyi, Okonko Iheanyi
The recent introduction of the Heptavalent-pneumococcal vaccine (PCV-7) by private pharmaceutical companies in Nigeria, has generated interest in invasive bacterial diseases particularly IPD. Our objective in this study is to investigate the trend and occurrence rate of IPD in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Suspected IPD cases were assessed from Jan 2010 to Dec 2010 for demographic and Microbiological characteristics. Bacterial isolations and antibiotics susceptibility testing followed standard bacteriological procedure...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Maria Isabel Saraiva Dinelli, Erika Ono, Patrícia Oliveira Viana, Fernanda Garcia Spina, Lily Yin Weckx, Amélia Miyashiro Nunes dos Santos, Maria Isabel de Moraes-Pinto
The use of immunosuppressive drugs can impair vaccination responses. When used during pregnancy, they may interfere with the development of the fetus's immune system. However, little is known regarding their influence on infant's response to vaccinations. Twenty-seven children born to renal transplant mothers (Tx) taking immunosuppressive drugs and 31 healthy children had the humoral immune response and reactogenicity to tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and 7 pneumococcal serotypes evaluated. The evolution of BCG vaccine scar was also registered...
January 20, 2016: Vaccine
Mohit Vashishta, Naeem Khan, Subhash Mehto, Devinder Sehgal, Krishnamurthy Natarajan
Pneumonia leads to high mortality in children under the age of five years worldwide, resulting in close to 20 percent of all deaths in this age group. Therefore, investigations into host-pathogen interactions during Streptococcus pneumoniae infection are key in devising strategies towards the development of better vaccines and drugs. To that end, in this study we investigated the role of S. pneumoniae and its surface antigen Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) in modulating the expression of co-stimulatory molecule Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression on dendritic cells (DCs) and the subsequent effects of increased PD-L1 on key defence responses...
2015: PloS One
Marcela Potin
Conjugated pneumococal vaccines had a notable impact on prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in vacccinated and non vaccinated (herd immunity) populations. In Chile a 10 valent conjugated vaccine (PCV10) was introduced in the Nacional Immunization Program (NIP) in 2011, initially in a 3+1 schedule at 2, 4, 6 and 12 months of age, and since 2012 in a 2+1 schedule (2, 4 and 12 months). In prematures schedule 3+1 was maintained. No catch up or high risk groups vaccination strategies were used. The inclusion of PCV10 has reduced the rates of IPD; 66% in infants less than 12 months old and a 60% in 12-24 months old...
August 2014: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Qingli Zhang, Wei Ji, Zhongqin Guo, Zhenjiang Bai, Noni E Macdonald
OBJECTIVE: To compare clinical features and outcomes of children hospitalized in China with pandemic (p)H1N1 between 2009 and 2010 versus seasonal influenza A between 2008 and 2009. METHODS: Systematic review of laboratory-confirmed admissions to the Children's Hospital, Soochow University (Suzhou, China). RESULTS: Seventy-five children younger than 14 years of age were admitted with pH1N1, 70 with H3N2 and three with seasonal H1N1. With pH1N1, the mean age was older (36 months versus seven months), the length of stay was longer (nine days versus seven days), underlying conditions were more common (29% versus 15%), anemia was more common (11% versus 0%) (P<0...
2012: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
Traditional vaccines can only be really effective when the antigenic diversity or variability of the micro-organisms in the same bacterial species or viral family is no more than marginally different, and when protection is mainly dependent from antibody-mediated immunity. One solution is to identify the antigens common to all of the strains in a species or family that are significantly capable of eliciting inactivating antibodies. A number of attempts have recently been made to develop vaccines with conserved and highly immunogenic antigens made using various and sometimes highly innovative approaches...
September 2011: Human Vaccines
Samara L Freeman, Laura Fisher, J Bruce German, Patrick S Leung, Harry Prince, Carlo Selmi, Stanley M Naguwa, M Eric Gershwin
With the progressive aging of the world's population, immunosenescence is rapidly becoming a clinical concern as it accounts for a higher incidence of severe infections and poor response to vaccines. To identify nutritional approaches that may counteract immunosenescence is of obvious importance in clinical practice. Dairy products in general and whey proteins in particular share the capacity to stimulate the immune system within the digestive tract while the antibody response to Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccine is a good marker of the immune function...
March 2010: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
C Levy, E Varon, E Bingen, C Picard, F de La Rocque, Y Aujard, R Cohen et al.
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal meningitis represents one major cause of morbidity and mortality in children in France. The GPIP/ACTIV (Groupe de Pathologie Infectieuse Pédiatrique and Association Clinique et Thérapeutique Infantile du Val de Marne) set up an active surveillance network to analyze the clinical and biological features of pneumococcal meningitis and the impact of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). METHODS: From 2001 to 2007, 252 French pediatric wards working with 168 microbiology laboratories enrolled all children (0-18 years old) with bacterial meningitis...
December 2008: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
J Cao, D Li, Y Gong, N Yin, T Chen, C K Wong, W Xu, J Luo, X Zhang, C W K Lam, Y Yin
Invasive pneumococcal diseases incur significant mortality, morbidity and economic costs. The most effective strategy currently available to reduce the burden of these diseases is vaccination. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of immunizing mice with caseinolytic protease (ClpP) protein antigen whose gene sequences were shown to be highly conserved in different strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae in an invasive-disease model (intraperitoneal infection model), and protection against invasive challenge with 12 different serotypes of S...
April 2009: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
S Fanconi
The literature shows that obesity is a public health problem concerning especially the general paediatrician. While prevention has probably more chances of success than treatment, drugs or, in case of failure, the surgical approach are reserved for extreme cases. In the domain of infectiology the different laboratory tests allow only partially to diagnose severe infections. But in the context of a potential influenza pandemic rapid virologic tests become more and more important. They allow a more precise diagnosis and a reduction of hospitalisations and of antibiotic prescriptions...
January 11, 2006: Revue Médicale Suisse
D Bogaert, R H Veenhoven, M Sluijter, E A M Sanders, R de Groot, P W M Hermans
The efficacy of pneumococal conjugate vaccines in young children may be complicated by serotype replacement. We developed a colony blot assay which enables the identification of re-colonization with novel serotypes (replacement), overgrowth by minor co-colonizing serotypes or suppression of previously predominant vaccine serotype strains as a result of vaccination. This method allows the identification of multiple serotypes in a single specimen in a ratio of 1:1000. In order to demonstrate the potential of our method, we investigated the consecutive nasopharyngeal samples of 26 children who had shown a shift in pneumococcal colonization after conjugate vaccination...
July 1, 2004: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology
F Mawas, I M Feavers, M J Corbel
The cellular and antibody responses to type 14 and type 19F Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharides (PS) conjugated to CRM(197) were investigated in a mouse model developed for pre-clinical evaluation and quality control of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Total IgG antibody and IgG subclasses against PS and the carrier protein for both conjugates were measured in addition to the T cell proliferation and cytokine profiles induced by these conjugates. While unconjugated PS 14 and 19F were at best only weakly immunogenic, both types of conjugate induced strong primary and secondary IgG responses to PS...
December 8, 2000: Vaccine
T Q Tan
Infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population worldwide. Development of increasing resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics is making treatment of infections caused by this organism much more difficult. In order to prevent disease, a 23-valent pneumococal polysaccharide vaccine is available. However, this vaccine is poorly immunogenic in infants and young children. The development and licensing of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines that are safe and effective in the pediatric population is an important step in our ability to decrease the prevalence of pneumococcal disease seen...
October 2000: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Y Lazizi, S Badur, Y Perk, O Ilter, J Pillot
Thirty four out of 158 (22%) newborns to mothers chronically infected by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) did not produce antibodies (Ab) to HBsAg 1 month after the last injection of the HBV vaccine supplemented with HBV specific immunoglobulins. At birth, HBV genome was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of a large majority (28 out of 34) of these non-responder newborns but never in the other newborns who responded to the HBsAg vaccine. HBV genome was detected in serum, only in some cases (nine out of 34) and never in the absence of HBV DNA in PBMC...
July 1997: Vaccine
B H Belohradsky, S Däumling, R Roos, A M Holschneider, C Griscelli
Morbidity and lethality rates in pneumococal infections are higher among children with underlying diseases associated with restricted or absent splenic function. Vaccination with polyvalent vaccine is indicated in all children who are more than 2 years old and who have been splenectomized or have a congenital asplenia. Since protection by vaccination is 80% only, we combine the vaccination with penicillin prophylaxis for at present at least three to five years after splenectomy and draw the express attention of parents and family physicians to the limited nature of protection afforded by vaccination...
April 1982: Surgery in Infancy and Childhood
P H Mäkelä, M Sibakov, E Herva, J Henrichsen, J Luotonen, M Timonen, M Leinonen, M Koskela, J Pukander, S Pöntynen, P Grönroos, P Karma
After an acute attack of otitis media 827 children aged 3 months to 6 years were assigned randomly to receive either 14-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine or a control vaccine (Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide). In children older than 6 months serum antibody responses to most of the vaccine polysaccharides were satisfactory. The response to type 6A was poor. Correspondingly, no clinical protection was seen below 6 months of age or against otitis media caused by group 6 pneumococci...
September 13, 1980: Lancet
R Austrian, V M Howie, J H Ploussard
The bacteriologic findings of 1205 episodes of pneumococcal otitis media are analyzed. Capsular types 6, 14, 19 and 23 have been found to account for more than half the initial and subsequent infections of the middle ear. Initial infection has been shown to be related to age, and recurrent infection with pneumococci of heterologous capsular types has been found to occur most often within six months of the initial attack. Nasopharyngeal carriage of the pneumococcal types most frequently causing otitis media may occur without causing infection, may antedate infection by as long as 13 months and may persist after infection for as long as 30 months...
September 1977: Johns Hopkins Medical Journal
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