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Early childhood and infant physical therapy

Dawn Phillips, Laura E Case, Donna Griffin, Kim Hamilton, Sergio Lerma Lara, Beth Leiro, Jessica Monfreda, Elaine Westlake, Priya S Kishnani
Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare inborn error of metabolism resulting in undermineralization of bone and subsequent skeletal abnormalities. The natural history of HPP is characterized by rickets and osteomalacia, increased propensity for bone fracture, early loss of teeth in childhood, and muscle weakness. There is a wide heterogeneity in disease presentation, and the functional impact of the disease can vary from perinatal death to gait abnormalities. Recent clinical trials of enzyme replacement therapy have begun to offer an opportunity for improvement in survival and function...
September 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Paolo Spagnolo, Andrew Bush
Childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) represents a highly heterogeneous group of rare disorders associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Although our understanding of chILD remains limited, important advances have recently been made, the most important being probably the appreciation that disorders that present in early life are distinct from those occurring in older children and adults, albeit with some overlap. chILD manifests with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and nonspecific respiratory signs and symptoms, making exclusion of common conditions presenting in a similar fashion an essential preliminary step...
June 2016: Pediatrics
Janna Tenenbaum Katan, Philipp Hofemeier, Josué Sznitman
BACKGROUND: Inhalation therapy targeted to the deep alveolated regions holds great promise, specifically in pediatric populations. Yet, inhalation devices and medical protocols are overwhelmingly derived from adult guidelines, with very low therapeutic efficiency in young children. During the first years of life, airway remodeling and changing ventilation patterns are anticipated to alter aerosol deposition with underachieving outcomes in infants. As past research is still overwhelmingly focused on adults or limited to models of upper airways, a fundamental understanding of inhaled therapeutic transport and deposition in the acinar regions is needed to shed light on delivering medication to the developing alveoli...
June 2016: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Olena Chorna, Jill Heathcock, Alexandra Key, Garey Noritz, Helen Carey, Ellyn Hamm, Mary Ann Nelin, Micah Murray, Amy Needham, James C Slaughter, Nathalie L Maitre
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common physical disability in childhood. It is a disorder resulting from sensory and motor impairments due to perinatal brain injury, with lifetime consequences that range from poor adaptive and social function to communication and emotional disturbances. Infants with CP have a fundamental disadvantage in recovering motor function: they do not receive accurate sensory feedback from their movements, leading to developmental disregard. Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) is one of the few effective neurorehabilitative strategies shown to improve upper extremity motor function in adults and older children with CP, potentially overcoming developmental disregard...
December 7, 2015: BMJ Open
L I Landau
The goals of asthma treatment are to eliminate symptoms, prevent acute attacks, maintain as normal a lifestyle as possible, avoid drug side-effects, and normalize lung function. Treatment must therefore be based on recognizing symptoms of asthma, accurately characterizing severity of asthma and perceiving increasing severity during an acute attack. Criteria are necessary to provide instructions for increasing reliever medications during acute attacks as well as for appropriate preventive medications in long term management...
April 1997: Pediatric Pulmonology
Maureen Grissom
The family physician is one of the few individuals from whom families receive feedback about their children's development; this makes early identification of potential delays an important responsibility. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends formal developmental screening for all children at the 9-, 18-, and 24- and/or 30-month well-child visits as well as developmental surveillance at every office visit through age 5 years. A formal screening measure is recommended, taking into account administration time and cost, characteristics of the patient population (eg, availability of screening tool in numerous languages), and psychometrics (eg, reliability, sensitivity, specificity)...
July 2013: FP Essentials
Stephanie Watkins, Michele Jonsson-Funk, M Alan Brookhart, Steven A Rosenberg, T Michael O'Shea, Julie Daniels
OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the use of ensemble tree-based methods (random forest classification [RFC] and bagging) for propensity score estimation and to compare these methods with logistic regression, in the context of evaluating the effect of physical and occupational therapy on preschool motor ability among very low birth weight (VLBW) children. DATA SOURCE: We used secondary data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) between 2001 and 2006...
October 2013: Health Services Research
Barbara Rath, Franziska Tief, Katharina Karsch, Susann Muehlhans, Patrick Obermeier, Eleni Adamou, Xi Chen, Lea Seeber, Christian Peiser, Christian Hoppe, Max von Kleist, Tim Conrad, Brunhilde Schweiger
Acute respiratory infections represent common diseases in childhood and a challenge to infection control, public heath, and the clinical management of patients and their families. Children are avid spreaders of respiratory viruses, and seasonal outbreaks of influenza create additional disease burden and healthcare cost. Infants under the age of two and children with chronic conditions are at high risk. The absence of pre-defined risk factors however, does not protect from serious disease. Immunisation rates remain low, and physical interventions are of limited value in young children...
February 2013: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Kirsten Hawkins Malerba, Jan Stephen Tecklin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Children often are referred for physical therapy with the diagnosis of hypotonia when the definitive cause of hypotonia is unknown. The purpose of this case report is to describe the clinical decision-making process using the Hypothesis-Oriented Algorithm for Clinicians II (HOAC II) for an infant with hypotonia and gross motor delay. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient was a 5-month-old infant who had been evaluated by a neurologist and then referred for physical therapy by his pediatrician...
June 2013: Physical Therapy
Shelley S Selph, Christina Bougatsos, Ian Blazina, Heidi D Nelson
BACKGROUND: In 2004, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force determined that evidence was insufficient to recommend behavioral interventions and counseling to prevent child abuse and neglect. PURPOSE: To review new evidence on the effectiveness of behavioral interventions and counseling in health care settings for reducing child abuse and neglect and related health outcomes, as well as adverse effects of interventions. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and PsycINFO (January 2002 to June 2012), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (through the second quarter of 2012), Scopus, and reference lists...
February 5, 2013: Annals of Internal Medicine
E La Orden Izquierdo, E Salcedo Lobato, I Cuadrado Pérez, M S Herráez Sánchez, L Cabanillas Vilaplana
INTRODUCTION: Premature baby's oral feeding is not possible until the reflex of sucking-swallowing-breathing adquisition. Its delay extends hospital stay and increases the incidence of oral motor disorders in early childhood. AIMS: To analyze the transition from enteral to oral nutrition, the comorbidity associated with its delay and the impact of an early suction stimulation in a cohort of premature babies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective checking of 95 infants less than 32 gestation weeks (GW) admitted to a neonatal ICU in the last 4 years...
July 2012: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Diana Patel, Priscilla Matyanga, Tichaona Nyamundaya, Delia Chimedza, Karen Webb, Barbara Engelsmann
INTRODUCTION: Early diagnosis of children living with HIV is a prerequisite for accessing timely paediatric HIV care and treatment services and for optimizing treatment outcomes. Testing of HIV-exposed infants at 6 weeks and later is part of the national prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programme in Zimbabwe, but many opportunities to test infants and children are being missed. Early childhood development (ECD) playcentres can act as an entry point providing multiple health and social services for orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) under 5 years, including facilitating access to HIV treatment and care...
2012: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Peter Weber, Oskar Jenni
BACKGROUND: Pediatric screening enables the prevention or early detection of diseases and developmental disturbances in infancy and childhood. Screening is a standard component of pediatric practice in many countries, but its scientific basis is not well known. METHODS: The scientific justification for pediatric screening beyond the neonatal period is presented on the basis of a selective review of the literature on some aspects of pediatric screening. RESULTS: The level of evidence varies highly among pediatric screening interventions and can be difficult to determine because of confounding variables...
June 2012: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Liam Delaney, James P Smith
This article first documents evidence on the changing prevalence of childhood physical and mental health problems, focusing on the development of childhood health conditions in the United States. Authors Liam Delaney and James Smith present evidence on the changing prevalence of childhood chronic conditions over time using recalled data as well as contemporaneous accounts of these childhood health problems. The raw data from both sources show sharp increases in the prevalence of most childhood physical health problems (such as asthma, allergies, respiratory problems, and migraines) over time...
2012: Future of Children
Li Ming Wen, Louise A Baur, Chris Rissel, Vicki Flood, Judy M Simpson, Alison Hayes, Louise L Hardy, Karen Wardle
BACKGROUND: In 2007, we commenced the Healthy Beginnings Trial (HBT) Phase 1 study, which is the first randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the effectiveness of an early childhood obesity intervention in children aged up to 2 years. The results were promising with significant improvements in infant feeding practices and a lower mean body mass index (BMI). The aims of this proposed Phase 2 study are to determine if the early intervention will lead to a lower mean BMI, lower screen time, improved dietary behaviours and demonstrated cost-effectiveness of the intervention, in children aged 3½ and 5 years...
March 2012: Contemporary Clinical Trials
C Schnopp, M Mempel
Acne vulgaris is a very common inflammatory skin disease originating from the pilosebaceous unit. Peak incidence is at puberty, but acne can affect all age groups. Prepubertal acne is rare, but important to recognize as diagnostic and therapeutic procedures differ from pubertal acne. Acne neonatorum is a mild, self-limiting disease, whereas acne infantum commonly presents with moderate to severe lesions and high risk of scarring thus requiring early intervention. Mid-childhood or prepubertal acne raises the suspicion of hyperandrogenemia, further investigations are indicated to rule out underlying disease...
August 2011: Minerva Pediatrica
Muhammad Ali Pervaiz, Fran Kendal, Madhuri Hegde, Rani H Singh
Very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is one of the genetic defects of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation presenting in early infancy or childhood. If undiagnosed and untreated, VLCAD deficiency may be fatal, secondary to cardiac involvement. We assessed the effect of replacing part of the fat in the diet of a 2 ½-month-old male infant, who was diagnosed with VLCAD deficiency,with medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil and essential fats. The patient presented with vomiting, dehydration, and was found to have persistent elevation of liver function tests, hepatomegaly, pericardial and pleural effusion, right bundle branch block, and biventricular hypertrophy...
January 2011: Indian Journal of Human Genetics
Laura K Vogtle
The need for interdisciplinary preservice educational programs for professionals serving infants and young children has been well-established. Physical and occupational therapy education, however, provides entry-level education to prepare clinicians for practice as generalists. Requirements of accrediting agencies and focus on licensure examination pass rates as evidence of program efficacy support this generalist focus, in spite of the fact that significant numbers of both disciplines practice in pediatric settings...
2008: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
Marta Biernacka, Anna Jakubowska-Winecka, Anna Tylki-Szymańska
INTRODUCTION: Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) Hurler syndrome, Hurler/Scheie i Scheie is a metabolic disorder manifesting in early childhood, and characterized by the accumulation of mucopolysaccharides (glycosaminoglycans - GAG) in the cells, blood, and connective tissues. Eventually, this causes damage to cells and organs, leading to progressive impairment of the child's physical abilities, organ function, and mental development. Treatment with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) alleviates many symptoms of the disease, however, there is no evidence indicating that ERT is effective in the prevention of nervous system degradation...
2010: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Dan Miron, Zachi Grossman
A first urinary tract infection (UTI) in childhood is more prevalent in females < 5-years-old. Circumcision generally protects males from UTI, however, during the month following the procedure, the prevalence of infection increases up to 12 times in circumcised boys when compared with those not circumcised. Almost all the infections are caused by aerobic Gram-negative bacteria of which E. coli are responsible for 70-90% of the cases. Signs and symptoms of UTI vary in different age groups. Factors associated with the likelihood of UTI are: non-circumcised male, fever > 40 degrees C, and a fever > 39 degrees C for more than 48 hours with no other focus of infection on physical examination...
November 2009: Harefuah
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