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Vancomycin pharmacokinetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332251/clinical-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-telavancin-compared-with-the-other-glycopeptides
#1
REVIEW
Valentin Al Jalali, Markus Zeitlinger
Telavancin was discovered by modifying the chemical structure of vancomycin and belongs to the group of lipoglycopeptides. It employs its antimicrobial potential through two distinct mechanisms of action: inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis and induction of bacterial membrane depolarization and permeabilization. In this article we review the clinically relevant pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data of telavancin. For comparison, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data of the other glycopeptides are presented...
January 13, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319495/investigation-of-the-age-dependency-of-vancomycin-clearance-by-population-pharmacokinetic-modeling
#2
Muhammad Usman, Manfred Fobker, Georg Hempel
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of age and other possible covariates on vancomycin clearance in order to define a possible cut off value of age for dose optimization in elderly patients from data obtained during therapeutic drug monitoring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Population pharmacokinetic analysis of 256 samples obtained from 144 patients was performed by using NONMEM®. A one-compartment model was applied as the base model with first-order conditional estimation method with interaction (FOCE-I)...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290237/antibiotic-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-parameters-in-pediatric-clinical-practice
#3
R Cohen, E Grimprel
Progress in the knowledge of antibiotic mechanisms of action allows to determine the pharmacodynamics/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) parameters predictive of antibiotic efficacy in bacterial infections. According to the antibiotic compound, the bacterial species implicated, the location of the infection, and the severity of the disease, these parameters may vary. The PK/PD parameters described in this paper, focus only on blood compartments. These PK/PD parameters best predict efficacy in the most frequent infections (e...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285245/a-population-pharmacokinetic-model-for-individualised-dosage-regimens-of-vancomycin-in-chinese-neonates-and-young-infants
#4
Lin Song, Cui-Yao He, Nan-Ge Yin, Fang Liu, Yun-Tao Jia, Yao Liu
Population pharmacokinetic (PPK) modelling is an easy and impartment method for estimating drug concentration for use inindividualized therapy, especially for young patients and to help protect drug-induced diseases. The purpose of this study was to develop a PPK model for effective dosing of vancomycin in Chinese neonates and young infants. The PPK modelling tool Phoenix® NLME™ was use to assess demographic and routine clinical pharmacokinetic (PK) data retrospectively collected for patients admitted to Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University between 2011 and 2016...
December 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284156/vancomycin-dosing-in-chronic-high-flux-haemodialysis-a-systematic-review
#5
Katrina Hui, Lydia Upjohn, Michelle Nalder, Kirsty Buising, Eugenie Pedagogos, Craig Nelson, Carl M J Kirkpatrick, David C M Kong
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to systematically evaluate if non-weight-based (non-WBD) or weight-based dosing (WBD) of vancomycin led to a higher proportion of patients achieving the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target. METHODS: Studies from January 1985 to February 2017 were identified through Cochrane, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Those conducted in adults with end-stage renal disease receiving high-flux haemodialysis and intravenous vancomycin were included...
December 25, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283952/is-there-still-a-role-for-vancomycin-in-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#6
Alessia Savoldi, Anna M Azzini, David Baur, Evelina Tacconelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin and soft-tissue infections (SSIs) are among the commonest infections encountered in clinical practice. Spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus SSIs continues to increase in both health care and community settings and presents a challenge for the best treatment choice. Vancomycin has been the mainstay of SSIs treatment, but recently its use has been questioned because of concerns about its efficacy, tolerability, and unfavorable pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile...
December 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273613/implementation-of-a-prioritized-scoring-tool-to-improve-time-to-pharmacist-intervention
#7
Andre Harvin, John J J Mellett, Daren Knoell, Jay Mirtallo, Ryan W Naseman, Nicole Brown, Crystal R Tubbs
PURPOSE: The implementation of a prioritized scoring tool to improve time to pharmacist intervention is described. SUMMARY: At the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, pharmacists are accepted providers of therapeutic drug monitoring of vancomycin and aminoglycosides. At the onset of this initiative and despite the implementation of an integrated electronic medical record (EMR), management of pharmacokinetically monitored medications was conducted using a paper monitoring form...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260505/vancomycin-dosing-and-monitoring-critical-evaluation-of-the-current-practice
#8
Fawzy Elbarbry
After more than six decades of its use as the mainstay antibiotic for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections, dosing and monitoring of vancomycin therapy have not been optimized. The current vancomycin therapeutic guidelines recommend empiric doses of 15-20 mg/kg administered by intermittent infusion every 8-12 h in patients with normal kidney function. Additionally, the guidelines recommend trough concentration of 15-20 mg/L as a therapeutic goal for adult patients with severe infections...
December 19, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258361/pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-dalbavancin-for-the-treatment-of-skin-infections
#9
M Galluzzo, S D'Adamio, L Bianchi, M Talamonti
Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSIs), defined as a bacterial infection of the skin with a lesion size area of at least 75 cm, are a leading cause of hospital admission and ambulatory care visits worldwide. Dalbavancin is a lipoglycopeptide antibiotic recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and by European Medicines Agency (EMA) for ABSSSIs. The authors review and provide updates of efficacy and safety by several studies on dalbavancin. Areas covered: A PubMed search was performed for relevant literature...
December 20, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243921/extra-sugar-on-vancomycin-new-analogues-for-combating-multidrug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#10
Dongliang Guan, Feifei Chen, Lun Xiong, Feng Tang, Faridoon Faridoon, Yunguang Qiu, Naixia Zhang, Likun Gong, Jian Li, Lefu Lan, Wei Huang
Lipophilic substitution on vancomycin is an effective strategy for development of novel vancomycin analogues against drug-resistant bacteria by enhancing bacterial cell wall interaction. However, hydrophobic structures usually led to long elimination half-life and accumulative toxicity, therefore hydrophilic fragments were also introduced to the lipo-vancomycin to regulate their PK/PD properties. Here, we synthesized a series of new vancomycin analogues carrying various sugar moieties on the 7th-amino acid phenyl ring and lipophilic substitutions on vancosamine with extensive SAR analysis...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229228/factors-influencing-norvancomycin-concentration-in-plasma-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-patients-after-craniotomy-and-dosing-guideline-a-population-approach
#11
Xingang Li, Yuanxing Wu, Shusen Sun, Qiang Wang, Zhigang Zhao
PURPOSE: Antibacterial spectrum and activity of norvancomycin are comparable with vancomycin, and it has been widely used in China. Norvancomycin can penetrate into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) through the damaged blood-brain barrier in patients after craniotomy. Because higher inter-individual variability was observed, we aimed to identify factors related to drug concentration to guide clinicians with norvancomycin dosing. METHODS: After craniotomy, patients with an indwelling catheter in the operational area/ventricle were intravenously administered norvancomycin...
December 8, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222405/multiple-weekly-dalbavancin-dosing-for-the-treatment-of-native-vertebral-osteomyelitis-caused-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-a-case-report
#12
Thamer A Almangour, Valerie Fletcher, Mohammed Alessa, Abdullah A Alhifany, Deanne Tabb
BACKGROUND Native vertebral osteomyelitis (NVO) is a common form of hematogenous osteomyelitis, with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) being the most commonly isolated organism. Dalbavancin is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) and has a sufficiently promising pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile to be considered for the treatment of vertebral osteomyelitis. We describe here what is probably the first reported case of using multiple weekly dalbavancin to treat a complicated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia and vertebral osteomyelitis...
December 9, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199252/-evaluation-of-pharmacotherapy-on-emergency-and-intensive-care-medicine-the-influence-of-intensity-and-duration-of-invasion
#13
Toru Imai
 Critically ill patients who receive high-level invasion show physiological changes different from those under more normal conditions, along with variable therapeutic effects and pharmacokinetics. The concept of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) has been introduced to describe the clinical state resulting from invasive actions taken under acute circumstances, resulting in an acute-phase systemic response. In particular, dosages of vancomycin (VCM) and phenytoin (PHT) need to be adjusted by therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) because of their narrow therapeutic concentration windows...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195829/importance-of-vancomycin-loading-doses-in-intermittent-infusion-regimens
#14
Martin Šíma, Jan Hartinger, Tereza Cikánková, Ondřej Slanař
PURPOSE: Delayed achievement of target vancomycin serum concentrations may adversely affect clinical outcomes. The objective of this retrospective study was to explore the real frequency of loading dose use and to evaluate the impact of loading dose for the achievement of vancomycin PK/PD target in adult patients treated with intermittent vancomycin. As a secondary aim we determined optimal vancomycin loading dose based on individual pharmacokinetic calculations. METHODS: Vancomycin pharmacokinetic models were computed using two-compartmental analysis...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180163/a-needs-assessment-of-pharmacokinetic-skills-performed-on-advanced-pharmacy-practice-experiences-by-student-pharmacists
#15
Emily K Dornblaser
INTRODUCTION: Pharmacokinetic (PK) calculations are an important competency for pharmacy students, however, there is little to guide which medications should be included in pharmacy curricula. Additionally, many new medications require therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM)-but not PK calculations-to ensure safe use. The objectives of this study were to quantify which medications are most frequently encountered by pharmacy students during advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE's) and to what extent PK calculations or TDM were completed by students while on APPE's at the University of New England...
January 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178308/effect-of-intra-wound-vancomycin-for-spinal-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Lun-Li Xie, Jun Zhu, Mao-Sheng Yang, Chang-Yuan Yang, Shun-Hong Luo, Yu Xie, Dan Pu
Intra-site prophylactic vancomycin in spine surgery is an effective method of decreasing the incidence of postsurgical wound infection. However, there are differences in the prophylactic programs used for various spinal surgeries. Thus, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of using intra-wound vancomycin during spinal surgery and to explore the effects of dose-dependence and the method of administration in a subgroup analysis. A total of 628 citations or studies were searched in PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, and Google Scholar that were published before August 2016 with the terms "local vancomycin", "intra-wound vancomycin", "intraoperative vancomycin", "intra-site vancomycin", "topical vancomycin", "spine surgery", and "spinal surgery"...
November 2017: Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169279/evaluation-of-intravenous-vancomycin-pharmacokinetic-parameters-in-patients-with-acute-brain-injury
#17
Allison Oswalt, Anny-Claude Joseph, Adam Sima, Lisa Kurczewski
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic that is primarily cleared by renal elimination. Patients with acute brain injury often exhibit augmented renal clearance which has been associated with subtherapeutic vancomycin concentrations. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether population pharmacokinetics accurately predict vancomycin empiric dose frequency in patients with acute brain injury. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study conducted following institutional review board approval at Virginia Commonwealth University Health System...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114643/analytical-evaluation-of-a-vancomycin-immunoassay-in-synovial-fluid
#18
REVIEW
Francesca Luceri, Fiamma Balboni, Giovanni Balato, Paola Pezzati, Nicoletta Cini, Gianni Virgili, Andrea Baldini
In clinical laboratories performing routine activities, the need to answer the burning clinical question in emerging field may be limited by lack of technology support or assays accessibility. Commercially available methods, although originally validated for specific biological matrices, may be employed for other matrices, following appropriate guidelines such as Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) EP 19. We investigated the use of a vancomycin assay with synovial fluid samples, in view of a possible employment in vancomycin release study...
June 2017: Joints
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109163/evaluation-of-oritavancin-dosing-strategies-against-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-isolates-with-or-without-reduced-susceptibility-to-daptomycin-in-an-in-vitro-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-model
#19
Adam Belley, Francis A Arhin, Greg Moeck
Clinical development of nonsusceptibility to the lipopeptide antibiotic daptomycin remains a serious concern during therapy for infections caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm). The long-acting lipoglycopeptide oritavancin exhibits potent in vitro activity against VREfm although its safety and efficacy in treating clinical VREfm infections have not been established. In this study, novel dosing regimens of daptomycin and oritavancin were assessed against both VREfm and daptomycin-nonsusceptible VREfm isolates in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model...
November 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097070/characterization-of-variables-for-potential-impact-on-vancomycin-pharmacokinetics-in-thermal-or-inhalation-injury
#20
Katie Elder, David M Hill, William L Hickerson
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin dosing in thermal or inhalation injury as they relate to percent total body surface area burn (TBSA) and days since injury (DSI). METHODS: This retrospective 3-year study included patients with thermal or inhalation injury receiving vancomycin. Patient demographics and course data were collected using the institution's electronic medical record. RESULTS: Six hundred and fifty-four patients were included in the study; 124 remained after exclusion...
October 30, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
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