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Vancomycin pharmacokinetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705450/clinical-outcome-and-antimicrobial-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-for-the-treatment-of-infections-in-acute-burn-patients
#1
Anna Silva Machado, Maura S Oliveira, Cristina Sanches, Carlindo Vieira da Silva Junior, David S Gomez, Rolf Gemperli, Silvia Regina Cavani Jorge Santos, Anna S Levin
PURPOSE: In critical burn patients, the pharmacokinetic parameters (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) of many classes of drugs, including antibiotics, are altered. The aim of this study was to compare 2 groups of burn patients undergoing treatment for health care-associated infections with and without therapeutic drug monitoring. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a clinical intervention (ie, a before/after study) was conducted with patients with health care-associated pneumonia, burn infection, bloodstream infection, and urinary tract infection in the burn intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital...
July 10, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675684/high-performance-liquid-chromatography-method-for-rich-pharmacokinetic-sampling-schemes-in-translational-rat-toxicity-models-with-vancomycin
#2
M D Joshi, J N O'Donnell, N Venkatesan, J Chang, H Nguyen, N J Rhodes, G Pais, R L Chapman, B Griffin, M H Scheetz
A translational need exists to understand and predict vancomycin-induced kidney toxicity. We describe: (i) a vancomycin high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for rat plasma and kidney tissue homogenate; (ii) a rat pharmacokinetic (PK) study to demonstrate utility; and (iii) a catheter retention study to enable future preclinical studies. Rat plasma and pup kidney tissue homogenate were analyzed via HPLC for vancomycin concentrations ranging from 3-75 and 15.1-75.5 μg/mL, respectively, using a Kinetex Biphenyl column and gradient elution of water with 0...
July 4, 2017: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674307/effects-of-teicoplanin-on-the-pt-inr-controlled-by-warfarin-in-infection-patients
#3
Takafumi Nakano, Tomomi Nakamura, Yoshihio Nakamura, Keiichi Irie, Keisuke Sato, Kohichi Matsuo, Osamu Imakyure, Kentaro Ogata, Kenichi Mishima, Hidetoshi Kamimura
 Warfarin (WF) shows a number of interactions with other drugs, which alter its anticoagulant effects. The albumin binding interaction is one such pharmacokinetic mechanism of drug interaction with WF, which induces a rise in the free WF concentration and thus increases the risk of WF toxicity. Teicoplanin (TEIC) is an anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus drug, which also binds strongly to albumin in the plasma. Therefore, co-administration of TEIC may displace WF from the albumin binding site, and possibly result in a toxicity...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650363/population-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamic-target-attainment-of-vancomycin-in-neonates-on-extracorporeal-life-support
#4
Jeffrey J Cies, Wayne S Moore, Kristen Nichols, Chad A Knoderer, Dominick M Carella, Arun Chopra
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic target attainment of vancomycin in neonates with a contemporary ¼-inch extracorporeal life support circuit with a Quadrox-iD Pediatric oxygenator (Maquet Cardiovascular, LLC, Wayne, NJ). DESIGN: Retrospective medical record review. SETTING: Two free-standing tertiary/quaternary pediatric children's hospitals. PATIENTS: Neonates receiving either veno-arterial or veno-venous extracorporeal life support and vancomycin for empiric or definitive therapy with resulting serum concentrations...
June 22, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646502/the-liver-gut-microbiota-axis-modulates-hepatotoxicity-of-tacrine-in-the-rat
#5
Lian Yee Yip, Chiu Cheong Aw, Sze Han Lee, Yi Shuen Hong, Han Chen Ku, Winston Hecheng Xu, Jessalyn Mei Xuan Chan, Eleanor Jing Yi Cheong, Kern Rei Chng, Amanda Hui Qi Ng, Niranjan Nagarajan, Ratha Mahendran, Yuan Kun Lee, Edward R Browne, Eric Chun Yong Chan
The gut microbiota possesses diverse metabolic activities but its contribution towards heterogeneous toxicological responses is poorly understood. Here, we elucidate the role of the liver-gut microbiota axis in underpinning the hepatotoxicity of tacrine. We employed an integrated strategy combining pharmacokinetics, toxicology, metabonomics, genomics and metagenomics to elucidate and validate the mechanism of tacrine-induced hepatotoxicity in Lister hooded rats. Pharmacokinetic studies in rats demonstrated 3...
June 23, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640009/augmented-renal-clearance-using-population-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-in-critically-ill-pediatric-patients
#6
Sean N Avedissian, Erin Bradley, Diana Zhang, John S Bradley, Lama H Nazer, Tri M Tran, Austin Nguyen, Jennifer Le
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to: 1) evaluate the prevalence of augmented renal clearance in critically ill pediatric patients using vancomycin clearance; 2) derive the pharmacokinetic model that best describes vancomycin clearance in critically ill pediatric patients; and 3) correlate vancomycin clearance with creatinine clearance estimated by modified Schwartz or Cockcroft-Gault. DESIGN: Retrospective, two-center, cohort study from 2003 to 2016...
June 20, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625235/-pharmacokinetics-of-vancomycin-in-patients-with-severe-acute-pancreatitis-and-its-influencing-factors-analysis-of-7-years-data
#7
Juan He, Enqiang Mao, Feng Jing, Huiting Jiang, Wanhua Yang, Erzhen Chen
OBJECTIVE: To observe the change of the serum trough concentration and its pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), and to analyze the factors influencing vancomycin concentration. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted. Steady-state trough concentrations of vancomycin from patients (18-80 years old) with SAP concomitantly with G(+) infection admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine from January 2010 to December 2016 were enrolled...
June 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617036/an-lc-ms-ms-method-to-determine-vancomycin-in-plasma-total-and-unbound-urine-and-renal-replacement-therapy-effluent
#8
Suzanne L Parker, Yarmarly C Guerra Valero, Jenny L Ordóñez Mejia, Claire Roger, Jeffrey Lipman, Jason A Roberts, Steven C Wallis
AIM: Critical illness and medical interventions, such as renal replacement therapy, can cause changes to vancomycin pharmacokinetics and lead to suboptimal dosing. To comprehensively characterize vancomycin pharmacokinetic a method must measure vancomycin in a range of clinical matrices. RESULTS: A LC-MS/MS method was developed using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and microsample volumes, where possible. For all matrices, the linear concentration range was 1-100 μg/ml, interassay accuracy and precision was within 15%, and recovery above 80%...
June 2017: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607023/pharmacokinetic-assessment-of-vancomycin-loading-dose-in-critically-ill-patients
#9
Osvaldo Álvarez, Jose Cristian Plaza-Plaza, Manuel Ramirez, Alexis Peralta, Cristián A Amador, Roberto Amador
Background: The vancomycin loading dose (LD) of 25-30 mg/kg is a frequently practiced strategy to achieve effective concentrations from the first-treatment dose. However, considering only the body weight for dosing might be inadequate in critically ill patients due to pharmacokinetics changes.Objective: Assess achieving optimal trough serum levels of vancomycin and AUC0-24/MIC in the first 24-hours of treatment, by using a LD based on population pharmacokinetic parameters of critically ill patients.Methods: We performed a concurrent cohort study over 22 months of patients with severe sepsis who received intravenous vancomycin...
June 12, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532398/clinical-outcomes-of-linezolid-and-vancomycin-in-patients-with-nosocomial-pneumonia-caused-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-stratified-by-baseline-renal-function-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#10
Ping Liu, Blair Capitano, Amy Stein, Ali A El-Solh
BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this study is to assess whether baseline renal function impacts treatment outcomes of linezolid and vancomycin (with a dose-optimized regimen) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of data generated from a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial (NCT 00084266). The analysis included 405 patients with culture-proven MRSA pneumonia. Baseline renal function was stratified based on creatinine clearance...
May 22, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529861/local-intra-wound-administration-of-powdered-antibiotics-in-orthopaedic-surgery
#11
REVIEW
Andrew N Fleischman, Matthew S Austin
Surgical site infection (SSI) is one of the most common complications after orthopaedic surgery, leading to significant morbidity and its associated costs. Surgical guidelines strongly recommend the use of systemic antibiotic prophylaxis to reduce the risk for developing SSI. Locally administered powdered antibiotics have the potential to provide remarkably high intra-wound concentrations without risk for systemic toxicity. However, a paucity of high quality evidence in the orthopaedic literature has prevented widespread adoption of this technique...
2017: Journal of bone and joint infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528396/penetration-of-vancomycin-into-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Jessica E Beach, Jerrold Perrott, Ricky D Turgeon, Mary H H Ensom
INTRODUCTION: Infectious disease and pharmacokinetic textbooks indicate that vancomycin has poor penetration into the central nervous system due to its hydrophilic nature and high molecular weight. Recent literature suggests that penetration of vancomycin into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is higher than previously reported; therefore, we conducted a systematic review to assess the penetration of vancomycin into CSF. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL electronic databases for English-language human studies evaluating serum and CSF concentrations of intravenous vancomycin...
May 20, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527358/improving-the-pharmacokinetics-and-tissue-distribution-of-pyrinezolid-by-self-assembled-polymeric-micelles
#13
Haiyue Long, Xiaoling Li, Zitai Sang, Lan Mei, Tao Yang, Zicheng Li, Liangxue Zhou, Yu Zheng, Gu He, Gang Guo, Zhenling Wang, Yong Deng, Youfu Luo
Antibiotic-resistance by bacteria is a growing global concern within the healthcare field, and it has provided an impetus for continued antimicrobial development. Pyrinezolid (PZ), a novel oxazolidinone compound, can effectively inhibit most gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE). Though PZ is a promising antimicrobial candidate, the druggability of PZ is limited by its poor water solubility. Therefore, the amphipathic mPEG-PLLA copolymer was used to prepare the pyrinezolid micelles (PZ-M)...
May 8, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515506/impact-of-pharmacy-practice-model-expansion-on-pharmacokinetic-services-optimization-of-vancomycin-dosing-and-improved-patient-safety
#14
Zhe Han, Natasha N Pettit, Emily M Landon, Benjamin D Brielmaier
Background: The impact of pharmacy interventions on optimizing vancomycin therapy has been described, however interventions vary among studies and the most optimal pharmacy practice model (PPM) for pharmacokinetic (PK) services has not been established. Objective: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the value of 24 hours a day, 7 days a week (24/7) PK services. Methods: New PK services were implemented in 2 phases with institutional PPM expansion. Phase 1 included universal monitoring by pharmacists with recommendations made to prescribers during business hours...
April 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504034/a-simulation-of-loading-doses-for-vancomycin-continuous-infusion-regimens-in-intensive-care
#15
Martin Šíma, Karolína Hronová, Jan Hartinger, Ondřej Slanař
BACKGROUND: Delayed achievement of target vancomycin serum concentrations may adversely affect clinical outcomes. The objective of this retrospective study was to compare the prediction accuracy of different body weight descriptors for volume of distribution and to propose an optimal loading dose (LD) for continuous infusion regimens in adults. METHODS: Pharmacokinetic variables were computed using one-compartmental analysis. Simulated LDs of vancomycin were evaluated for each patient...
September 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494340/simple-and-rapid-quantification-of-vancomycin-in-serum-urine-and-peritoneal-pleural-effusion-via-uhplc-ms-ms-applicable-to-personalized-antibiotic-dosing-research
#16
Lenka Javorska, Lenka Kujovska Krcmova, Petr Solich, Milan Kaska
Management of the therapy of life-threatening bacterial infection is extremely based on an optimal antibiotic treatment. Achieving the correct vancomycin dosage in blood and target tissues can be complicated in special situations, e.g., where large fluid sequestration and/or acute renal failure occur. A UHPLC-MS/MS method operating in electrospray (ESI) positive ion mode was applied for the determination of vancomycin in serum, urine and peritoneal/pleural effusion. Sample pretreatment was composed of dilution and simple protein precipitation where only a small volume (50μL) of serum, urine or peritoneal/pleural effusion was required...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481829/a-population-pharmacokinetic-analysis-to-study-the-effect-of-therapeutic-hypothermia-on-vancomycin-disposition-in-children-resuscitated-from-cardiac-arrest
#17
Nicole R Zane, Michael D Reedy, Marc R Gastonguay, Adam S Himebauch, Evan Z Ramsey, Alexis A Topjian, Athena F Zuppa
OBJECTIVES: Limited data exist on the effects of therapeutic hypothermia on renal function and pharmacokinetics in pediatric patients after cardiac arrest. The objective was to describe the differences in vancomycin disposition in pediatric patients following cardiac arrest treated with either therapeutic hypothermia or normothermia using population pharmacokinetic modeling. DESIGN: Single-center, retrospective cohort study. SETTING: A tertiary care hospital pediatric and cardiac ICU...
July 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475731/evaluation-of-daptomycin-combinations-with-cephalosporins-or-gentamicin-against-streptococcus-mitis-group-strains-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-simulated-endocardial-vegetations-sevs
#18
Juwon Yim, Jordan R Smith, Nivedita B Singh, Seth Rice, Kyle Stamper, Cristina Garcia de la Maria, Arnold S Bayer, Nagendra N Mishra, José M Miró, Truc T Tran, Cesar A Arias, Paul Sullam, Michael J Rybak
Objectives: Among viridans group streptococcal infective endocarditis (IE), the Streptococcus mitis group is the most common aetiological organism. Treatment of IE caused by the S. mitis group is challenging due to the high frequency of β-lactam resistance, drug allergy and intolerability of mainstay antimicrobial agents such as vancomycin or gentamicin. Daptomycin has been suggested as an alternative therapeutic option in these scenarios based on its excellent susceptibility profile against S...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416551/comparative-pharmacodynamics-of-telavancin-and-vancomycin-in-the-neutropenic-murine-thigh-and-lung-infection-models-against-staphylococcus-aureus
#19
Alexander J Lepak, Miao Zhao, David R Andes
The pharmacodynamics of telavancin and vancomycin were compared using neutropenic murine thigh and lung infection models. Four Staphylococcus aureus strains were included. The telavancin MIC ranged from 0.06 to 0.25 mg/liter, and the vancomycin MIC ranged from 1 to 4 mg/liter. The plasma pharmacokinetics of escalating doses (1.25, 5, 20, and 80 mg/kg of body weight) of telavancin and vancomycin were linear over the dose range. Epithelial lining fluid (ELF) pharmacokinetics for each drug revealed that penetration into the ELF mirrored the percentage of the free fraction (the fraction not protein bound) in plasma for each drug...
July 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406088/population-pharmacokinetics-of-vancomycin-in%C3%A2-chinese-infants%C3%A2
#20
Xiao-Yan Sheng, Chao-Yang Chen, Ling-Yue Ma, Ya-Ou Liu, Ying Zhou, Yi-Min Cui
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pharmacokinetics (PK) of vancomycin in Chinese infant patients using a population pharmacokinetic (PKK) approach in order to provide support for individualized vancomycin therapy. METHOD: The data included 72 sets of steady-state peak and trough serum concentrations from 61 infants (0 - 1 years). PPK analysis was performed using the nonlinear mixed-effects modeling software. Inter- and intraindividual variability was estimated for the clearance and distribution volume of vancomycin...
April 13, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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