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Vancomycin pharmacokinetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114643/analytical-evaluation-of-a-vancomycin-immunoassay-in-synovial-fluid
#1
REVIEW
Francesca Luceri, Fiamma Balboni, Giovanni Balato, Paola Pezzati, Nicoletta Cini, Gianni Virgili, Andrea Baldini
In clinical laboratories performing routine activities, the need to answer the burning clinical question in emerging field may be limited by lack of technology support or assays accessibility. Commercially available methods, although originally validated for specific biological matrices, may be employed for other matrices, following appropriate guidelines such as Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) EP 19. We investigated the use of a vancomycin assay with synovial fluid samples, in view of a possible employment in vancomycin release study...
June 2017: Joints
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109163/evaluation-of-oritavancin-dosing-strategies-against-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-isolates-with-or-without-reduced-susceptibility-to-daptomycin-in-an-in-vitro-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-model
#2
Adam Belley, Francis A Arhin, Greg Moeck
Clinical development of nonsusceptibility to the lipopeptide antibiotic daptomycin remains a serious concern during therapy for infections caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm). The long-acting lipoglycopeptide oritavancin exhibits potent in vitro activity against VREfm although its safety and efficacy in treating clinical VREfm infections have not been established. In this study, novel dosing regimens of daptomycin and oritavancin were assessed against both VREfm and daptomycin-nonsusceptible VREfm isolates in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model...
November 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097070/characterization-of-variables-for-potential-impact-on-vancomycin-pharmacokinetics-in-thermal-or-inhalation-injury
#3
Katie Elder, David M Hill, William L Hickerson
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin dosing in thermal or inhalation injury as they relate to percent total body surface area burn (TBSA) and days since injury (DSI). METHODS: This retrospective 3-year study included patients with thermal or inhalation injury receiving vancomycin. Patient demographics and course data were collected using the institution's electronic medical record. RESULTS: Six hundred and fifty-four patients were included in the study; 124 remained after exclusion...
October 30, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092996/the-levels-of-vancomycin-in-the-blood-and-the-wound-after-the-local-treatment-of-bone-and-soft-tissue-infection-with-antibiotic-loaded-calcium-sulphate-as-carrier-material
#4
P Wahl, M Guidi, E Benninger, K Rönn, E Gautier, T Buclin, J-L Magnin, F Livio
AIMS: Calcium sulphate (CaSO4) is a resorbable material that can be used simultaneously as filler of a dead space and as a carrier for the local application of antibiotics. Our aim was to describe the systemic exposure and the wound fluid concentrations of vancomycin in patients treated with vancomycin-loaded CaSO4 as an adjunct to the routine therapy of bone and joint infections. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 680 post-operative blood and 233 wound fluid samples were available for analysis from 94 implantations performed in 87 patients for various infective indications...
November 2017: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084032/dosopt-a-tool-for-personalized-bayesian-dose-adjustment-of-vancomycin-in-neonates
#5
Tõnis Tasa, Tuuli Metsvaht, Riste Kalamees, Jaak Vilo, Irja Lutsar
BACKGROUND: Our main aim has been to design a framework to improve vancomycin dosing in neonates. This required the development and verification of a computerized dose adjustment application, DosOpt, to guide the selection. METHODS: Model fitting in DosOpt uses Bayesian methods for deriving individual pharmacokinetic (PK) estimates from population priors and patient therapeutic drug monitoring measurements. These are used to simulate concentration-time curves and target-constrained dose optimization...
December 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063877/optimisation-of-antimicrobial-dosing-based-on-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-principles
#6
REVIEW
Grace Si Ru Hoo, Yi Xin Liew, Andrea Lay-Hoon Kwa
While suboptimal dosing of antimicrobials has been attributed to poorer clinical outcomes, clinical cure and mortality advantages have been demonstrated when target pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) indices for various classes of antimicrobials were achieved to maximise antibiotic activity. Dosing optimisation requires a good knowledge of PK/PD principles. This review serves to provide a foundation in PK/PD principles for the commonly prescribed antibiotics (β-lactams, vancomycin, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides), as well as dosing considerations in special populations (critically ill and obese patients)...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063519/clinical-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-oxazolidinones
#7
REVIEW
Claire Roger, Jason A Roberts, Laurent Muller
Oxazolidinones are a class of synthetic antimicrobial agents with potent activity against a wide range of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Oxazolidinones exhibit their antibacterial effects by inhibiting protein synthesis acting on the ribosomal 50S subunit of the bacteria and thus preventing formation of a functional 70S initiation complex. Currently, two oxazolidinones have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration: linezolid and more recently tedizolid...
October 23, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058823/single-dose-bone-pharmacokinetics-of-vancomycin-in-a-porcine-implant-associated-osteomyelitis-model
#8
Mats Bue, Pelle Hanberg, Janne Koch, Louise Kruse Jensen, Martin Lundorff, Bent Aalbaek, Henrik Elvang Jensen, Kjeld Søballe, Mikkel Tøttrup
The increasing incidence of orthopaedic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections represents a significant therapeutic challenge. Being effective against MRSA, the role of vancomycin may become more important in the orthopaedic setting in the years to come. Nonetheless, vancomycin bone and soft tissue penetration during infection remains unclear. In eight pigs, implant-associated osteomyelitis was induced on day 0, using a Staphylococcus aureus strain. Following administration of 1,000 mg of vancomycin on day 5, vancomycin concentrations were obtained with microdialysis for eight hours in the implant bone cavity, in cancellous bone adjacent to the implant cavity, in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCT) adjacent to the implant cavity, and in healthy cancellous bone and healthy SCT in the contralateral leg...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056665/review-on-usage-of-vancomycin-in-livestock-and-humans-maintaining-its-efficacy-prevention-of-resistance-and-alternative-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Panditharathnalage Nishantha Kumara Wijesekara, Wikum Widuranga Kumbukgolla, Jayaweera Arachchige Asela Sampath Jayaweera, Diwan Rawat
Vancomycin is one of the "last-line" classes of antibiotics used in the treatment of life-threatening infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Even though vancomycin was discovered in the 1950s, it was widely used after the 1980s for the treatment of infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococci, as the prevalence of these strains were increased. However, it is currently evident that vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci have developed for various reasons, including the use of avaparcin-an analog of vancomycin-as a feed additive in livestock...
January 26, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037461/sustained-improvement-in-vancomycin-dosing-and-monitoring-post-implementation-of-guidelines-results-of-a-three-year-follow-up-after-a-multifaceted-intervention-in-an-australian-teaching-hospital
#10
Cameron J Phillips, Ross A McKinnon, Richard J Woodman, David L Gordon
INTRODUCTION: Despite vancomycin being in use for over half-a-century, it is still not dosed or monitored appropriately in many centers around the world. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention to implement a vancomycin dosing and monitoring guideline across multiple medical and surgical units over time. METHODS: This was an observational before-and-after interventional cohort study. The pre-intervention period was August to December 2010-2011 and the post-intervention period was September to November 2012-2014...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027654/pharmacokinetic-drug-drug-interactions-in-the-intensive-care-unit-single-centre-experience-and-literature-review
#11
Piotr Łój, Aleksanda Olender, Weronika Ślęzak, Łukasz J Krzych
BACKGROUND: Drug-drug interactions constitute a serious health hazard in everyday clinical practice in critically ill patients. Drug-drug interactions may be pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic in their nature. We aimed to investigate the quantity and quality of possible drug-drug interactions, and their possible side effects in intensive care unit patients in a 12-month period. METHODS: This retrospective study covered data on pharmacological treatment of 43 consecutive patients (11 females, 32 males) aged 62 ± 15 years, hospitalized between January 2015 and February 2016...
October 13, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976419/predictive-performance-of-vancomycin-trough-concentrations-in-patients-with-diabetes-with-microalbuminuria
#12
Hiroshi Kimura, Marie Shigematsu, Akihiro Tanaka, Shinichi Watanabe, Shingo Takatori, Mamoru Tanaka, Takashi Mizuma, Hiroaki Araki
BACKGROUND: The performance of a population pharmacokinetic model in predicting trough concentrations after the initial vancomycin dose was evaluated in patients with albuminuria compared with patients who did not have albuminuria. METHODS: Data were collected from 52 patients infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (excluding patients undergoing dialysis and acute kidney injury) and treated with vancomycin. The data included urinary albumin concentration...
December 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970410/early-vancomycin-concentrations-and-the-applications-of-a-pharmacokinetic-extrapolation-method-to-recognize-sub-therapeutic-outcomes
#13
Oscar Santalo, Umima Baig, Mara Poulakos, Daniel Brown
Vancomycin trough concentrations should be measured within 30 min of the next dose, but studies have shown that troughs are often measured too early, producing erroneous results that could lead to dosing errors. The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency of early trough measurements and to evaluate whether pharmacokinetically extrapolating mistimed concentrations may locate sub-therapeutic concentrations. Vancomycin troughs were retrospectively reviewed. For troughs ≥10 mg/L and measured >0...
November 10, 2016: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948652/pharmacokinetic-changes-of-antibiotic-antiviral-antituberculosis-and-antifungal-agents-during-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-critically-ill-adult-patients
#14
REVIEW
J Hahn, J H Choi, M J Chang
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-saving system used for critically ill patients with cardiac and/or respiratory failure. The pharmacokinetics (PK) of drugs can change in patients undergoing ECMO, which can result in therapeutic failure or drug toxicity requiring further management of drug complications. In this review, we discussed changes in the PK of antibiotic, antiviral, antituberculosis and antifungal agents administered to adult patients on ECMO...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936957/-pk-pd-of-vancomycin-in-patients-with-severe-acute-pancreatitis-combined-with-augmented-renal-clearance
#15
Juan He, Enqiang Mao, Feng Jing, Huiting Jiang, Wenyun Xu, Wanhua Yang, Erzhen Chen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the serum trough concentration and the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) of vancomycin in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), and analyze the effect of vancomycin continuous infusion for optimizing the characteristics of its PK/PD. METHODS: The inhospital patients with SAP received vancomycin treatment and admitted to emergency intensive care unit (EICU) of Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine from January 2011 to December 2016 were enrolled...
September 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923303/an-extremely-high-bioavailability-of-orally-administered-vancomycin-in-a-patient-with-severe-colitis-and-renal-insufficiency
#16
Shingo Yamazaki, Takaaki Suzuki, Tatsuya Suzuki, Hirokazu Takatsuka, Masayuki Ishikawa, Noriyuki Hattori, Takeshi Fujishiro, Hideaki Miyauchi, Takehiko Oami, Noritaka Ariyoshi, Shigeto Oda, Hisahiro Matsubara, Itsuko Ishii
Because there is little absorption of orally administered vancomycin hydrochloride (VCM) through the normal intestinal microvillus membrane, the pharmacokinetics of VCM absorbed from the digestive tract are mostly unknown. Here we report a case of severe colitis and renal insufficiency in which the serum concentration of VCM reached the supratherapeutic range after oral administration. A 54-year-old man receiving outpatient chemotherapy for rectal cancer was admitted to our hospital for severe sepsis and acute renal failure...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914105/bone-and-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-pharmacokinetics-of-vancomycin-in-total-knee-replacement-patients
#17
Mats Bue, Mikkel Tøttrup, Pelle Hanberg, Otto Langhoff, Hanne Birke-Sørensen, Theis M Thillemann, Torben L Andersson, Kjeld Søballe
Background and purpose - The incidence of orthopedic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections is increasing. Vancomycin may therefore play an increasingly important role in orthopedic perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis. Studies investigating perioperative bone and soft tissue concentrations of vancomycin are sparse and challenged by a lack of appropriate methods. We assessed single-dose plasma, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCT) and bone concentrations of vancomycin using microdialysis in male patients undergoing total knee replacement...
September 15, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905331/antibiotic-distribution-into-cerebrospinal-fluid-can-dosing-safely-account-for-drug-and-disease-factors-in-the-treatment-of-ventriculostomy-associated-infections
#18
Nilesh Kumta, Jason A Roberts, Jeffrey Lipman, Menino Osbert Cotta
Ventriculostomy-associated infections, or ventriculitis, in critically ill patients are associated with considerable morbidity. Efficacious antibiotic dosing for the treatment of these infections may be complicated by altered antibiotic concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid due to variable meningeal inflammation and antibiotic properties. Therefore, doses used to treat infections with a higher degree of meningeal inflammation (such as meningitis) may often fail to achieve equivalent exposures in patients with ventriculostomy-associated infections such as ventriculitis...
September 13, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893792/influence-of-mechanical-ventilation-on-vancomycin-pharmacokinetics-administered-by-continuous-infusion-in-critically-ill-patients
#19
Susanna Edith Medellín-Garibay, Silvia Romano-Moreno, Pilar Tejedor-Prado, Noelia Rubio-Álvaro, Aida Rueda-Naharro, Miguel Angel Blasco-Navalpotro, Benito García, Emilia Barcia
Pathophysiological changes involved on drug disposition in critically ill patients, should be considered on the dosing optimization of vancomycin administered by continuous infusion, and certain strategies must be applied to reach therapeutic targets on the first day of treatment. The aim of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model of vancomycin to determine clinical covariates, including mechanical ventilation, that influence the wide variability of this antimicrobial. Vancomycin plasma concentrations from 54 critically ill patients were simultaneously analyzed by population pharmacokinetic approach...
September 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836582/influences-of-renal-function-descriptors-on-population-pharmacokinetic-modeling-of-vancomycin-in-chinese-adult-patients
#20
Xi-Wei Ji, Shuang-Min Ji, Xiao-Rong He, Xiao Zhu, Rong Chen, Wei Lu
Vancomycin, a glycopeptide antibiotic for the treatment of grampositive infections, is mainly eliminated via glomerular filtration. Thus, its therapeutic effects are affected predominantly by renal function. The aim of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model of vancomycin for Chinese adult patients and to investigate the influence of different renal function descriptors on the predictability of the model. A retrospective analysis was performed based on the blood concentrations of vancomycin in 218 Chinese adult patients...
August 24, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
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