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Vancomycin pharmacokinetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904526/new-agents-approved-for-treatment-of-acute-staphylococcal-skin-infections
#1
Jan Tatarkiewicz, Anna Staniszewska, Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrożny
Vancomycin has been a predominant treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections for decades. However, growing reservations about its efficacy led to an urgent need for new antibiotics effective against MRSA and other drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. This review covers three new anti-MRSA antibiotics that have been recently approved by the FDA: dalbavancin, oritavancin, and tedizolid. The mechanism of action, indications, antibacterial activity profile, microbial resistance, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, interactions as well as available formulations and administration of each of these new antibiotics are described...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877096/a-prospective-pilot-study-on-the-systemic-absorption-of-oral-vancomycin-in-children-with-colitis
#2
James W Antoon, Margaret Hall, Diana Metropulos, Michael J Steiner, Ravi Jhaveri, Jacob A Lohr
BACKGROUND: Oral vancomycin is used to treat refractory colitis due to Clostridium dificile infection. Traditionally, oral vancomycin was thought to not be absorbed systemically, but recent adult studies have demonstrated detectable serum levels in over half of patients with severe colitis. This has not been studied in children. OBJECTIVE: To determine the absorption of oral vancomycin and the renal safety profile of oral vancomycin in children hospitalized with colitis. METHODS: We performed a prospective, observational, pilot proof of principle study at the North Carolina Children's Hospital in patients 2 years to 18 years of age receiving oral vancomycin for the treatment of C dificile colitis...
September 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861313/is-trough-concentration-of-vancomycin-predictive-of-the-area-under-the-curve-a-clinical-study-in-elderly-patients
#3
Anis Bel Kamel, Laurent Bourguignon, Micaela Marcos, Michel Ducher, Sylvain Goutelle
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines suggest that vancomycin trough concentrations (Cmin) between 15 and 20 mg/L should be achieved to optimize vancomycin exposure and effect. The objective of this study was to analyze the correlation between vancomycin Cmin and the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and assess the ability to predict an AUC target of 400 mg·h/L based on Cmin. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of vancomycin therapeutic drug monitoring data collected in 95 elderly patients treated with intermittent intravenous (IV) vancomycin was performed...
November 17, 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850405/767-evaluation-of-intravenous-vancomycin-pharmacokinetic-parameters-in-patients-with-acute-brain-injury
#4
Allison Oswalt, Lisa Kurczewski, Anny-Claude Joseph, Adam Sima
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836495/duration-of-systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome-influences-serum-vancomycin-concentration-in-patients-with-sepsis
#5
Masayuki Chuma, Makoto Makishima, Toru Imai, Naohiro Tochikura, Takako Sakaue, Norikazu Kikuchi, Kosaku Kinoshita, Morio Kaburaki, Yoshikazu Yoshida
PURPOSE: Vancomycin (VCM) is used in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. The dosage of VCM must be adjusted by using therapeutic drug monitoring because of the drug's narrow therapeutic concentration window. Although optimal administration based on population pharmacokinetic (PPK) analysis and/or a Bayesian method has improved prediction accuracy, serum concentrations of VCM in patients with sepsis often deviate significantly from predicted values. We investigated factors influencing prediction errors with PPK analysis in VCM dosing...
November 8, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809799/teicoplanin-based-antimicrobial-therapy-in-staphylococcus-aureus-bone-and-joint-infection-tolerance-efficacy-and-experience-with-subcutaneous-administration
#6
Olivier Peeters, Tristan Ferry, Florence Ader, André Boibieux, Evelyne Braun, Anissa Bouaziz, Judith Karsenty, Emmanuel Forestier, Frédéric Laurent, Sébastien Lustig, Christian Chidiac, Florent Valour
BACKGROUND: Staphylococci represent the first etiologic agents of bone and joint infection (BJI), leading glycopeptides use, especially in case of methicillin-resistance or betalactam intolerance. Teicoplanin may represent an alternative to vancomycin because of its acceptable bone penetration and possible subcutaneous administration. METHODS: Adults receiving teicoplanin for S. aureus BJI were included in a retrospective cohort study investigating intravenous or subcutaneous teicoplanin safety and pharmacokinetics...
November 3, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803487/improvement-of-predictivity-of-teicoplanin-serum-trough-concentrations-at-steady-state-calculated-by-vancomycin-pharmacokinetic-parameter
#7
Ryo Kobayashi, Shinya Otomo, Yusuke Shiba, Keiichi Ebinuma, Toshiaki Sudoh
 According to a recent study and meta-analysis, trough levels of >10 μg/mL teicoplanin (TEIC) may be acceptable for the treatment of uncomplicated infection, but no method of TEIC personalized medicine has been established. Vancomycin (VCM) and TEIC are glycopeptide antibiotic agents effective against methicillin-resistance Staphyloccocus aureus. This study aimed to establish TEIC personalized medicine at a steady state calculated by VCM pharmacokinetic parameters. Bayesian forecasting and population mean methods were employed to estimate individual total VCM clearance (CL) using existing population pharmacokinetics (PPK) parameter, and the differences between the CL calculated by these two methods were defined as ΔCL...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789965/pharmacist-managed-dose-adjustment-feedback-using-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-vancomycin-was-useful-for-patients-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-a-single-institution-experience
#8
Ryuichi Hirano, Yuichi Sakamoto, Junichi Kitazawa, Shoji Yamamoto, Naoki Tachibana
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin (VCM) requires dose adjustment based on therapeutic drug monitoring. At Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, physicians carried out VCM therapeutic drug monitoring based on their experience, because pharmacists did not participate in the dose adjustment. We evaluated the impact of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASP) on attaining target VCM trough concentrations and pharmacokinetics (PK)/pharmacodynamics (PD) parameters in patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778050/-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-antibiotics-in-intensive-care
#9
F Sörgel, R Höhl, R Glaser, C Stelzer, M Munz, M Vormittag, M Kinzig, J Bulitta, C Landersdorfer, A Junger, M Christ, M Wilhelm, U Holzgrabe
Optimized dosage regimens of antibiotics have remained obscure since their introduction. During the last two decades pharmacokinetic(PK)-pharmacodynamic(PD) relationships, originally established in animal experiments, have been increasingly used in patients. The action of betalactams is believed to be governed by the time the plasma concentration is above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Aminoglycosides act as planned when the peak concentration is a multiple of the MIC and vancomycin seems to work best when the area under the plasma vs...
October 24, 2016: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776124/towards-development-of-small-molecule-lipid-ii-inhibitors-as-novel-antibiotics
#10
Jamal Chauhan, Steven Cardinale, Lei Fang, Jing Huang, Steven M Kwasny, M Ross Pennington, Kelly Basi, Robert diTargiani, Benedict R Capacio, Alexander D MacKerell, Timothy J Opperman, Steven Fletcher, Erik P H de Leeuw
Recently we described a novel di-benzene-pyrylium-indolene (BAS00127538) inhibitor of Lipid II. BAS00127538 (1-Methyl-2,4-diphenyl-6-((1E,3E)-3-(1,3,3-trimethylindolin-2-ylidene)prop-1-en-1-yl)pyryl-1-ium) tetrafluoroborate is the first small molecule Lipid II inhibitor and is structurally distinct from natural agents that bind Lipid II, such as vancomycin. Here, we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of 50 new analogs of BAS00127538 designed to explore the structure-activity relationships of the scaffold...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757973/comparison-of-open-access-vancomycin-dosing-websites
#11
N P Fewel
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: There are many methods for dosing vancomycin. The purpose of this commentary was to compare open-access vancomycin dosing websites with Vancomycin-Calculator.com and describe how body weight can affect their pharmacokinetic (PK) calculations. COMMENT: A vancomycin dosing website, Vancomycin-Calculator.com, was developed to improve the dosing practice at our health system. Nine other vancomycin dosing calculators were identified, including three open-access websites...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690689/ceftobiprole-medocaril-bal-5788-for-the-treatment-of-complicated-skin-infections
#12
Amelia Deitchman, Daniel de Jong, April Barbour, Hartmut Derendorf
With resistance of S. aureus, the most prevalent identified pathogen in skin and soft tissue infections, on the rise, the need for safe, effective, and well-tolerated antibiotics is crucial. Ceftobiprole medocaril (BAL-5788), ceftobiprole's parenteral prodrug, is a bactericidal cephalosporin with broad Gram-positive and Gram-negative activity that has shown to be well-tolerated and noninferior to vancomycin and vancomycin plus ceftazidime in the treatment of MRSA complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) in clinical trials...
October 2, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681114/augmented-renal-clearance-in-patients-with-febrile-neutropenia-is-associated-with-increased-risk-for-subtherapeutic-concentrations-of-vancomycin
#13
Keita Hirai, Hidetoshi Ishii, Takayuki Shimoshikiryo, Tatsuki Shimomura, Daiki Tsuji, Kazuyuki Inoue, Toshihiko Kadoiri, Kunihiko Itoh
BACKGROUND: Augmented renal clearance (ARC) has frequently been observed in critically ill patients. The risk factors for ARC in patients, including those in the general ward, and their influences on vancomycin (VCM) treatment remain unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate the risk factors for ARC and to evaluate the influence of ARC on the pharmacokinetic parameters of VCM. METHODS: This study included a total of 292 patients with VCM treatment who had normal serum creatinine concentrations...
December 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671237/population-pharmacokinetics-of-vancomycin-in-postoperative-neurosurgical-patients-and-the-application-in-dosing-recommendation
#14
Xingang Li, Yuanxing Wu, Shusen Sun, Zhigang Zhao, Qiang Wang
Our previous study indicates that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) albumin level is a determinant of CSF vancomycin concentration for postoperative neurosurgical patients. We aimed to develop an improved vancomycin population pharmacokinetic model with incorporation of more covariates, and to provide dosing guidance for clinicians. Vancomycin was administered intravenously to 20 patients with external ventricular drains after neurosurgical operation. Blood and CSF were collected and vancomycin concentrations were measured by HPLC...
November 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646196/a-pharmacokinetic-approach-to-calculate-the-time-to-delay-the-next-vancomycin-dose-after-a-supratherapeutic-trough
#15
EDITORIAL
Loren Trager
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639260/a-population-pharmacokinetic-model-for-vancomycin-in-adult-patients-receiving-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-therapy
#16
J N Moore, J R Healy, B N Thoma, M M Peahota, M Ahamadi, L Schmidt, N C Cavarocchi, W K Kraft
The literature on the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy is sparse. A population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for vancomycin in ECMO patients was developed using a nonlinear mixed effects modeling on the concentration-time profiles of 14 ECMO patients who received intravenous vancomycin. Model selection was based on log-likelihood criterion, goodness of fit plots, and scientific plausibility. Identification of covariates was done using a full covariate model approach...
September 2016: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633945/serum-and-wound-vancomycin-levels-after-intrawound-administration-in-primary-total-joint-arthroplasty
#17
Jeremiah D Johnson, Joseph M Nessler, Ryan D Horazdovsky, Sandy Vang, Avis J Thomas, Scott B Marston
BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic joint infection is the most common cause of readmissions after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Intrawound vancomycin powder (VP) has reduced infection rates in spine surgery; however, there are no data regarding VP in primary TJA. METHODS: Thirty-four TJA patients received 2 g of VP intraoperatively to investigate VP's pharmacokinetics. Serum and wound concentrations were measured at multiple intervals over 24 hours after closure. RESULTS: All serum concentrations were subtherapeutic (<15μg/mL) and peaked 12 hours after closure (4...
October 26, 2015: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631462/pediatric-patients-with-solid-or-hematological-tumor-disease-vancomycin-population-pharmacokinetics-and-dosage-optimization
#18
Romain Guilhaumou, Amélie Marsot, Julien Dupouey, Claire Galambrun, Audrey Boulamery, Carole Coze, Nicolas Simon, Nicolas André
BACKGROUND: In pediatric cancer patients, determination of optimal vancomycin dosage is essential because of high risk of inadequate concentrations and bacterial resistance. The aim of this study was to determine vancomycin pharmacokinetic parameters in this population and propose dosage optimization to achieve optimal concentration. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the use of vancomycin in pediatric cancer patients with febrile neutropenia (hematological or solid tumor disease)...
October 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550347/activity-of-tedizolid-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-experimental-foreign-body-associated-osteomyelitis
#19
Kyung-Hwa Park, Kerryl E Greenwood-Quaintance, Jayawant Mandrekar, Robin Patel
BACKGROUND: We compared tedizolid alone and with rifampin against rifampin and vancomycin plus rifampin in rat model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) foreign body-associated osteomyelitis. METHODS: The study strain was a prosthetic joint infection-associated isolate. Steady-state pharmacokinetics for intraperitoneal administration of tedizolid, vancomycin, and rifampin were determined in uninfected rats. MRSA was inoculated into the proximal tibia, and a wire was implanted...
August 22, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546217/comparison-of-the-pharmacokinetics-of-vancomycin-in-neurosurgical-and-non-neurosurgical-patients
#20
A Jeong Kim, Ju-Yeun Lee, Soo An Choi, Wan Gyoon Shin
Although vancomycin concentrations in neurosurgical patients tend to be lower following standard dosing compared with other patient populations, factors influencing vancomycin pharmacokinetics in neurosurgical patients are poorly understood. In this study, pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters in neurosurgical and non-neurosurgical patients were compared. Furthermore, factors influencing vancomycin PK alterations, including those known to augment renal clearance, were determined. Routine therapeutic drug monitoring data from neurosurgical and non-neurosurgical patients were retrospectively collected...
October 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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