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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742338/advanced-materials-technologies-and-complex-systems-analyses-emerging-opportunities-to-enhance-urban-water-security
#1
Katherine R Zodrow, Qilin Li, Regina M Buono, Wei Chen, Glenn Daigger, Leonardo Duenas-Osorio, Menachem Elimelech, Xia Huang, Guibin Jiang, Jae-Hong Kim, Bruce E Logan, David L Sedlak, Paul Westerhoff, Pedro J J Alvarez
Innovation in urban water systems is required to address the increasing demand for clean water due to population growth and aggravated water stress caused by water pollution, aging infrastructure, and climate change. Advances in materials science, modular water treatment technologies, and complex systems analyses, coupled with the drive to minimize the energy and environmental footprints of cities, provide new opportunities to ensure a resilient and safe water supply. We present a vision for enhancing efficiency and resiliency of urban water systems and discuss approaches and research needs for overcoming associated implementation challenges...
July 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742221/effects-of-concentrated-and-dephytinized-wheat-bran-and-rice-bran-addition-on-bread-properties
#2
Berrin Özkaya, Burcu Baumgartner, Hazim Özkaya
Wheat bran and rice bran were concentrated in terms of dietary fiber and were dephytinized by two different methods (fermentation and hydrothermal). Untreated, concentrated, concentrated-dephytinized by fermentation method, and concentrated-dephytinized by hydrothermal method bran samples were each incorporated into flour at levels of 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20%, and their effects on bread properties were investigated. Unprocessed wheat bran and rice bran addition decreased the volume yield, and the specific volume of the bread depends on the incorporation level...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742161/abundance-and-co-occurrence-of-extracellular-capsules-increases-environmental-breadth-implications-for-the-emergence-of-pathogens
#3
Olaya Rendueles, Marc Garcia-Garcerà, Bertrand Néron, Marie Touchon, Eduardo P C Rocha
Extracellular capsules constitute the outermost layer of many bacteria, are major virulence factors, and affect antimicrobial therapies. They have been used as epidemiological markers and recently became vaccination targets. Despite the efforts to biochemically serotype capsules in a few model pathogens, little is known of their taxonomic and environmental distribution. We developed, validated, and made available a computational tool, CapsuleFinder, to identify capsules in genomes. The analysis of over 2500 prokaryotic genomes, accessible in a database, revealed that ca...
July 24, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741351/ultralight-interconnected-graphene-amorphous-carbon-hierarchical-foam-with-mechanical-resiliency-for-high-sensitive-and-durable-strain-sensor
#4
Yuxiao Ma, Mei Yu, Jianhua Liu, Xinjie Li, Songmei Li
Ultralight graphene-amorphous carbon hierarchical foam (G-ACHF) was synthesized by chemical vapor deposition at 1065(o)C, close to the melting point of copper. The high temperature leads to hierarchical structure with an inner layer of graphene and an outer layer of amorphous carbon (AC). The inner graphene layer with high conductivity and integrity provides high sensitivity. The outer AC layer helps to enhance its durability and mechanical resiliency. The hierarchical structure recovers without damaging structural integrity after a large strain of 90%...
July 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741136/predictors-of-resilience-and-posttraumatic-growth-among-people-living-with-hiv-a-longitudinal-study
#5
Helena Garrido-Hernansaiz, Patrick J Murphy, Jesús Alonso-Tapia
This longitudinal study investigated the predictors of HIV-related resilience (HR) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) among Spanish-speaking HIV-positive people. Perceived past resilience, internalised stigma, and coping strategies were hypothesised as possible predictors. Data were collected at two time points from 119 HIV-positive people. Path analyses with latent variables revealed that half of HR 8 months after diagnosis was predicted by rumination, emotional expression, positive thinking, internalised stigma, and perceived past resilience...
July 24, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739839/dog-ownership-supports-the-maintenance-of-physical-activity-during-poor-weather-in-older-english-adults-cross-sectional-results-from-the-epic-norfolk-cohort
#6
Yu-Tzu Wu, Robert Luben, Andy Jones
BACKGROUND: Dog ownership has been suggested to encourage physical activity in older adults and may enhance resilience to poor environmental conditions. This study investigates the role of dog ownership and walking as a means of supporting the maintenance of physical activity in older adults during periods of inclement weather. METHODS: The analysis used data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Norfolk cohort. Daily physical activity (counts per minute) and minutes of sedentary behaviour were measured using accelerometers over 7 days...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738816/disease-activity-resilience-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-chinese-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-multi-center-cross-sectional-study
#7
Li Liu, Xin Xu, Neili Xu, Lie Wang
BACKGROUND: Positive psychological constructs that can moderate or mediate the negative impact of disease activity on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have not been explored widely. This study aimed to assess the associations of disease activity, resilience with HRQOL and the moderating and mediating roles of resilience among Chinese RA patients. METHODS: A multi-center, cross-sectional study was conducted in RA inpatients in northeast of China...
July 24, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738731/grandchildren-s-depressive-symptoms-and-perceptions-of-family-functioning-protective-and-influencing-factors
#8
Carol M Musil, Heather M Rice, Mark Singer, Sarah E Givens, Camille B Warner, Jaclene A Zauszniewski, Christopher J Burant, Valerie B Toly, Alexandra B Jeanblanc
A recent increase in children living with grandparents places more children at increased risk for emotional, psychological, or behavioral problems. This study used the Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment, and Adaptation to examine how children's living situation, parental monitoring, child's resourcefulness, and perceived support affect depressive symptoms and perceived family functioning. Of participants, 36% ( n = 56) lived with their parents only, 44% ( n = 69) lived with a grandmother as their primary caregiver, and 20% ( n = 31) lived in a multigenerational household...
July 1, 2017: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738687/critical-incident-stress-debriefing-after-adverse-patient-safety-events
#9
Reema Harrison, Albert Wu
Adverse events (AEs) are common, estimated to occur in around 10% internationally. Although preventable harm can be minimized, when AEs occur it is important that they be managed appropriately. AEs can be traumatic not only for patients, their friends, and relatives, but also for the involved clinicians, who have been referred to as "second victims" in a growing body of international research. Despite the frequency with which AEs occur, organizational mechanisms for supporting staff in these circumstances are not routinely embedded in healthcare settings...
May 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738316/-what-kept-me-going-a-qualitative-study-of-avoidant-responses-to-war-related-adversity-and-perpetration-of-violence-by-former-forcibly-recruited-children-and-youth-in-the-acholi-region-of-northern-uganda
#10
Helle Harnisch, Edith Montgomery
This qualitative study investigates what, according to 36 former forcibly recruited women and men, enabled them to "keep on going" during and after their forced recruitment in the twenty-year-long civil war in northern Uganda. Furthermore, the study conveys the ways most of the former forcibly recruited kept on going and today cope with ongoing war-related adversity and difficult reintegration processes without relying on psycho-social intervention. Thirty-five of the 36 women and men were forcibly recruited when they were children by the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) from the Acholi region of northern Uganda...
July 11, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737954/an-app-a-day-keeps-the-doctor-away-guided-education-and-training-via-smartphones-in-subthreshold-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#11
Michael J Roy, Michelle E Costanzo, Krista B Highland, Cara Olsen, Denece Clayborne, Wendy Law
Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are common in military service members (SMs), but stigma can impede treatment initiation. Smartphone applications (apps) are available anywhere, anytime, with the potential to both mitigate the impact of stigma and reduce PTSD symptom severity. We provided 144 SMs or family members, with subthreshold PTSD symptoms (PTSD Checklist [PCL] scores of 28-49), with apps promoting psychoeducation, social engagement, and relaxation and randomized them to 6 weeks of resilience enhancement (brief cognitive-behavioral session, followed by daily text messages directing app use) or a control group (daily text messages of inspirational quotes)...
July 24, 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737489/nfatc2-enhances-tumor-initiating-phenotypes-through-the-nfatc2-sox2-aldh-axis-in-lung-adenocarcinoma
#12
Zhi-Jie Xiao, Jing Liu, Si-Qi Wang, Yun Zhu, Xu-Yuan Gao, Vicky Pui-Chi Tin, Jing Qin, Jun-Wen Wang, Maria Pik Wong
Tumor initiating cells (TIC) are dynamic cancer cell subsets that display enhanced tumor functions and resilience to treatment but the mechanism of TIC induction or maintenance in lung cancer is not fully understood. In this study, we show the calcium pathway transcription factor NFATc2 is a novel regulator of lung TIC phenotypes, including tumorspheres, cell motility, tumorigenesis, as well as in vitro and in vivo responses to chemotherapy and targeted therapy. In human lung cancers, high NFATc2 expression predicted poor tumor differentiation, adverse recurrence-free and cancer-specific overall survivals...
July 24, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737175/natural-variation-of-macrophage-activation-as-disease-relevant-phenotype-predictive-of-inflammation-and-cancer-survival
#13
Konrad Buscher, Erik Ehinger, Pritha Gupta, Akula Bala Pramod, Dennis Wolf, George Tweet, Calvin Pan, Charles D Mills, Aldons J Lusis, Klaus Ley
Although mouse models exist for many immune-based diseases, the clinical translation remains challenging. Most basic and translational studies utilize only a single inbred mouse strain. However, basal and diseased immune states in humans show vast inter-individual variability. Here, focusing on macrophage responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we use the hybrid mouse diversity panel (HMDP) of 83 inbred strains as a surrogate for human natural immune variation. Since conventional bioinformatics fail to analyse a population spectrum, we highlight how gene signatures for LPS responsiveness can be derived based on an Interleukin-12β and arginase expression ratio...
July 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736897/taking-culture-seriously-can-we-improve-the-developmental-health-and-well-being-of-australian-aboriginal-children-in-out-of-home-care
#14
S Raman, S Ruston, S Irwin, P Tran, P Hotton, S Thorne
BACKGROUND: Children in out-of-home care have well-documented health and developmental needs. Research suggests that Aboriginal children in care have unmet health and intervention needs. In metropolitan Sydney, Kari Aboriginal Resources Inc. (KARI), an Aboriginal organization, provides support to indigenous children in care, including clinical assessment and intervention. We wanted to determine the health and developmental needs of a subset of children in out-of-home care with KARI, who had been in stable care for at least a year...
July 23, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736840/issop-position-statement-on-migrant-child-health
#15
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
Greater numbers of children are on the move than ever before. In 2015, the number of forcibly displaced people across the globe reached 65.3 million. Of the more than 1 million migrants, asylum seekers, and refugees who arrived in Europe in 2015, nearly one third were children, and 90,000 of these children were unaccompanied. Child migrants are among the most vulnerable, even after arriving at their destination. The health of migrant children is related to their health status before their journey, the conditions during their journey and at their destination, and the physical and mental health of their caregivers...
July 23, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736806/a-skill-set-for-supporting-displaced-children-in-psychological-recovery-after-disasters
#16
REVIEW
Betty Pfefferbaum, Anne K Jacobs, Russell T Jones, Gilbert Reyes, Karen F Wyche
Helping children, adolescents, and families displaced following a natural disaster is a daunting task made more challenging by the relatively small research base to inform services and interventions. This paper describes the current literature pertaining to intervention practices used with displaced youth. Where gaps in the literature exist, we pull from the more general research on relocation and post-disaster intervention to assist practitioners in tailoring their efforts. Specifically discussed are ways to enhance youth resilience, to help youth build new social connections and adjust to change and uncertainty while coping with trauma-related symptoms, and to meet needs through the systems in which children are embedded...
September 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736756/advancing-the-science-of-myocardial-recovery-with-mechanical-circulatory-support-a-working-group-of-the-national-heart-lung-and-blood-institute
#17
Stavros G Drakos, Francis D Pagani, Martha S Lundberg, J Timothy Baldwin
The medical burden of heart failure (HF) has spurred interest in clinicians and scientists to develop therapies to restore the function of a failing heart. To advance this agenda, the National Heart Lung Blood Institute (NHLBI) convened a Working Group of experts on June 2-3, 2016 in Bethesda Maryland to develop recommendations for the NHLBI aimed at advancing the science of cardiac recovery in the setting of mechanical circulatory support (MCS). MSC devices effectively reduce volume and pressure overload that drives the cycle of progressive myocardial dysfunction, thereby triggering structural and functional reverse remodeling...
June 2017: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735767/measuring-participation-in-chronic-back-pain-patients-the-5-item-pain-disability-index
#18
Ashley B McKillop, Linda J Carroll, Bruce D Dick, Michele C Battié
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Of the three broad outcome domains of body functions and structures, activities, and participation (e.g., engaging in valued social roles) outlined in the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), it has been argued that participation is the most important to individuals, particularly those with chronic health problems. Yet, participation is not commonly measured in back pain research. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the construct validity of a modified 5-Item Pain Disability Index (PDI) score as a measure of participation in people with chronic back pain...
July 20, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735641/risk-and-resilience-brain-networks-in-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia
#19
Eleni P Ganella, Caio Seguin, Cali F Bartholomeusz, Sarah Whittle, Chad Bousman, Cassandra M J Wannan, Maria A Di Biase, Christina Phassouliotis, Ian Everall, Christos Pantelis, Andrew Zalesky
BACKGROUND: Genes, molecules and neural circuits that are associated with, or confer risk to developing schizophrenia have been studied and mapped. It is hypothesized that certain neural systems may counterbalance familial risk of schizophrenia, and thus confer resilience to developing the disorder. This study sought to identify resting-state functional brain connectivity (rs-FC) representing putative risk or resilience endophenotypes in schizophrenia. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was performed in 42 individuals with treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS), 16 unaffected first-degree family members (UFM) and 42 healthy controls...
July 20, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735591/-we-expect-seniors-to-be-able-to-prepare-and-recover-from-a-cyclone-as-well-as-younger-members-of-this-community-emergency-management-s-expectations-of-older-adults-residing-in-aging-remote-hamlets-on-australia-s-cyclone-prone-coastline
#20
Sandra Astill, Evonne Miller
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the extent to which older residents feel they can remain "self-reliant" during future natural disasters and to compare the findings with the viewpoints of local policy-makers and with those charged with caring for the elderly both on a day-to-day basis and in times of crisis. METHODS: This study used an array of non-probability snowballing techniques to seek the participation of senior citizens over the age of 65 years, emergency services officers, community health carers, and local government disaster managers located in aging, remote, coastal Australian communities vulnerable to cyclones and storm surges...
July 24, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
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