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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526169/the-second-victim-a-review
#1
REVIEW
B Coughlan, D Powell, M F Higgins
Amongst the lay and media population there is a perception that pregnancy, labour and delivery is always physiological, morbidity and mortality should be "never events" and that error is the only cause of adverse events. Those working in maternity care know that it is an imperfect art, where adverse outcomes and errors will occur. When errors do occur, there is a domino effect with three groups being involved - the patient (first victim), the staff (second victims) and the organization (third victims). If the perceived expectation of patients on all clinicians is that of perfection, then clinicians may suffer the consequences of adverse outcomes in isolation and silence...
June 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525776/from-liability-to-challenge-complex-environments-are-associated-with-favorable-psychosocial-outcomes-in-adolescent-sport-participants
#2
Enrique García Bengoechea, Philip M Wilson, Steven Dunn
This study aimed to identify different groups of adolescents who have distinct profiles based upon their perceptions of interpersonal and activity-based dimensions of the sport environment. A sample of 310 adolescents from Eastern Canada (Mage = 14.69 ± 1.60 years; 54.8% girls) completed questionnaires assessing selected interpersonal, activity-based, demographic and sport-specific variables. Using TwoStep Cluster Analysis, we identified three groupings of adolescent sport participants. Consistent with the literature, we labeled these groups 'negative context,' 'positive context,' and 'complex context,' respectively...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525586/prevalence-and-correlates-of-frailty-among-community-dwelling-chinese-older-adults-the-china-health-and-retirement-longitudinal-study
#3
Chenkai Wu, Ellen Smit, Qian-Li Xue, Michelle C Odden
Background.: Frailty is an age-related clinical syndrome of decreased resilience to stressors and is associated with numerous adverse outcomes. Although there is preponderance of literature on frailty in developed countries, limited investigations have been conducted in less developed regions including China-a country that has the world's largest aging population. We examined frailty prevalence in China by socio-demographics and geographic region, and investigated correlates of frailty...
May 19, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525406/blood-pressure-among-australian-aboriginal-children
#4
Nicholas Larkins, Armando Teixeira-Pinto, Emily Banks, Hasantha Gunasekera, Alan Cass, Jane Kearnes, Jonathan C Craig
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of elevated blood pressure (BP) and potential predictors of SBP and DBP in urban Australian aboriginal children. METHODS: The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health is a prospective cohort study of urban Aboriginal children attending four Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services in New South Wales, Australia. Clinical measures included a manual BP measured by research officers using standardized protocols...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524230/the-etiology-of-autistic-traits-in-preschoolers-a-population-based-twin-study
#5
Eveline L de Zeeuw, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Rosa A Hoekstra, Meike Bartels, Dorret I Boomsma
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are highly heritable, but the exact etiological mechanisms underlying the condition are still unclear. METHODS: Using a multiple rater twin design in a large sample of general population preschool twins, this study aimed to (a) estimate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to autistic traits, controlling for the possible effects of rater bias, (b) to explore possible sex differences in etiology and (c) to investigate the discordance in autistic traits in monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twin pairs...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522975/hypoxia-and-inactivity-related-physiological-changes-constipation-inflammation-are-not-reflected-at-the-level-of-gut-metabolites-and-butyrate-producing-microbial-community-the-planhab-study
#6
Robert Šket, Nicole Treichel, Tadej Debevec, Ola Eiken, Igor Mekjavic, Michael Schloter, Marius Vital, Jenna Chandler, James M Tiedje, Boštjan Murovec, Zala Prevoršek, Blaž Stres
We explored the assembly of intestinal microbiota in healthy male participants during the run-in (5 day) and experimental phases [21-day normoxic bed rest (NBR), hypoxic bedrest (HBR)], and hypoxic ambulation (HAmb) in a strictly controlled laboratory environment, balanced fluid, and dietary intakes, controlled circadian rhythm, microbial ambiental burden, and 24/7 medical surveillance. The fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2) and partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2) were 0.209 and 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg for NBR and 0...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522567/myeloid-epithelial-crosstalk-coordinates-synthesis-of-the-tissue-protective-cytokine-leukemia-inhibitory-factor-during-pneumonia
#7
Katrina E Traber, Elise M Symer, Eri Allen, Yuri Kim, Kristie L Hilliard, Gregory A Wasserman, Colin L Stewart, Matthew R Jones, Joseph P Mizgerd, Lee Joseph Quinton
In bacterial pneumonia, lung damage resulting from epithelial cell injury is a major contributor to the severity of disease, and in some cases, can lead to long-term sequelae, especially in the setting of severe lung injury or ARDS. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a member of the IL-6 cytokine family, is a critical determinant of lung tissue protection during pneumonia, but the cellular sources of LIF and the signaling pathways leading to its production in the infected lung are not known. Here, we demonstrate that lung epithelium, specifically alveolar type II cells, is the predominant site of LIF transcript induction in pneumonic mouse lungs...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521645/exploring-protective-strategies-among-rural-women-in-an-abusive-relationship
#8
Kim M Anderson, Lynette M Renner, Tina L Bloom
The purpose of this study was to explore rural women's accounts of intimate partner violence and the strategies they used to protect themselves from such adversity. Convenience sampling included women currently in an abusive relationship (N = 22), who were receiving mental health services at a rural victim-service provider. Standardized measures indicated, on average, that study participants were symptomatic for depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet exhibited higher resilience than other PTSD populations...
May 19, 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521644/slope-stability-and-bearing-capacity-of-landfills-and-simple-on-site-test-methods
#9
Atsushi Yamawaki, Yoichi Doi, Kiyoshi Omine
This study discusses strength characteristics (slope stability, bearing capacity, etc.) of waste landfills through on-site tests that were carried out at 29 locations in 19 sites in Japan and three other countries, and proposes simple methods to test and assess the mechanical strength of landfills on site. Also, the possibility of using a landfill site was investigated by a full-scale eccentric loading test. As a result of this, landfills containing more than about 10 cm long plastics or other fibrous materials were found to be resilient and hard to yield...
May 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521046/cellular-and-population-level-processes-influence-the-rate-accumulation-and-observed-frequency-of-inherited-and-somatic-mtdna-mutations
#10
Richard G Melvin, John William O Ballard
Mitochondria are found in all animals and have the unique feature of containing multiple copies of their own small, circular DNA genome (mtDNA). The rate and pattern of mutation accumulation in the mtDNA are influenced by molecular, cellular and population level processes. We distinguish between inherited and somatic mtDNA mutations and review evidence for the often-made assumption that mutations accumulate at a higher rate in mtDNA than in nuclear DNA (nDNA). We conclude that the whole genome mutation accumulation rate is higher for mtDNA than for nDNA but include the caveat that rates overlap considerably between the individual mtDNA- and nDNA-encoded genes...
May 1, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520770/life-history-trade-off-moderates-model-predictions-of-diversity-loss-from-climate-change
#11
Helen Moor
Climate change can trigger species range shifts, local extinctions and changes in diversity. Species interactions and dispersal capacity are important mediators of community responses to climate change. The interaction between multispecies competition and variation in dispersal capacity has recently been shown to exacerbate the effects of climate change on diversity and to increase predictions of extinction risk dramatically. Dispersal capacity, however, is part of a species' overall ecological strategy and are likely to trade off with other aspects of its life history that influence population growth and persistence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520758/cumulative-family-risks-across-income-levels-predict-deterioration-of-children-s-general-health-during-childhood-and-adolescence
#12
Yi-Ching Lin, Dong-Chul Seo
Family is considered an important agent in the health development of children. This process is significant but quite complex because the prevalence of potential risk factors in the family can hinder children's health. This study examined if multiple family risks might have cumulative effect on children and youth's health across various levels of household income. The data in this study were drawn from the 2011-2012 U.S. National Survey of Children's Health (N = 79,601). A cumulative family risk (CFR) index was developed, which included such constructs as single-parenthood, unstable employment, large family, parenting stress, poor maternal education, poor maternal general health and poor maternal mental health...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517968/a-community-based-qualitative-study-of-intergenerational-resilience-with-palestinian-refugee-families-facing-structural-violence-and-historical-trauma
#13
Devin G Atallah
The purpose of this study was to explore resilience processes in Palestinian refugee families living under Israeli occupation for multiple generations. Qualitative methods, critical postcolonial theories, and community-based research approaches were used to examine intergenerational protective practices and to contribute to reconceptualizations of resilience from indigenous perspectives. First, the researcher developed a collaborative partnership with a nongovernmental organization (NGO) in a UN refugee camp in the occupied West Bank...
January 1, 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515880/resistance-and-resilience-of-root-fungal-communities-to-water-limitation-in-a-temperate-agroecosystem
#14
Jessie R Furze, Adam R Martin, Joshua Nasielski, Naresh V Thevathasan, Andrew M Gordon, Marney E Isaac
Understanding crop resilience to environmental stress is critical in predicting the consequences of global climate change for agricultural systems worldwide, but to date studies addressing crop resiliency have focused primarily on plant physiological and molecular responses. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form mutualisms with many crop species, and these relationships are key in mitigating the effects of abiotic stress in many agricultural systems. However, to date there is little research examining whether (1) fungal community structure in agroecosystems is resistant to changing environmental conditions, specifically water limitation and (2) resilience of fungal community structure is moderated by agricultural management systems, namely the integration of trees into cropping systems...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515539/why-does-positive-mental-health-buffer-against-psychopathology-an-exploratory-study-on-self-compassion-as-a-resilience-mechanism-and-adaptive-emotion-regulation-strategy
#15
Hester R Trompetter, Elian de Kleine, Ernst T Bohlmeijer
Growing evidence suggests that positive mental health or wellbeing protects against psychopathology. How and why those who flourish derive these resilient outcomes is, however, unknown. This exploratory study investigated if self-compassion, as it continuously provides a friendly, accepting and situational context for negative experiences, functions as a resilience mechanism and adaptive emotion regulation strategy that protects against psychopathology for those with high levels of positive mental health. Participants from the general population (n = 349) provided measures at one time-point on positive mental health (MHC-SF), self-compassion (SCS-SF), psychopathology (HADS) and negative affect (mDES)...
2017: Cognitive Therapy and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515237/increasing-the-illumination-slowly-over-several-weeks-protects-against-light-damage-in-the-eyes-of-the-crustacean-mysis-relicta
#16
Martta L M Viljanen, Noora E Nevala, Cecilia L Calais-Granö, K Magnus W Lindström, Kristian Donner
The eyes of two glacial-relict populations of opossum shrimp Mysis relicta inhabiting the different photic environments of a deep, dark-brown freshwater lake and a variably lit bay of the Baltic Sea differ in their susceptibility to functional depression from strong light exposures. The lake population is much more vulnerable than the sea population. We hypothesized that the difference reflects physiological adaptation mechanisms operating on long time scales rather than genetically fixed differences between the populations...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515162/dietary-protein-and-the-health-nutrition-agriculture-connection-in-india
#17
REVIEW
Sumedha Minocha, Tinku Thomas, Anura V Kurpad
The connection between the production, availability, and consumption of high-quality food is becoming very important in developing countries. The requirement of protein is linked to its quality, or its digestibility and ability to meet human indispensable amino acid requirements. This requirement is particularly relevant in India, where commonly consumed cereal-based diets and cereal-based food subsidy programs offer low-quality protein and therefore pose a risk of quality protein deficiency. The production of and access to sustainable sources of high-quality protein will be important parts of mitigating risks to human health...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513664/a-resilient-and-luminescent-stimuli-responsive-hydrogel-from-a-heterotopic-1-8-naphthalimide-derived-ligand
#18
Chris S Hawes, Amy D Lynes, Kevin Byrne, Wolfgang Schmitt, Gavin Ryan, Matthias E Möbius, Thorfinnur Gunnlaugsson
A heterotopic naphthalimide ligand N-(4-picolyl)-4-(4'-carboxyphenoxy)-1,8-naphthalimide HL is utilised for the formation of self-assembled soft materials. In the presence of K(+) ions, L(-) forms a robust photoluminescent hydrogel 1 which is reversible under thermal, mechanical or chemical stimuli.
May 17, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512766/mental-health-outcomes-of-developmental-coordination-disorder-in-late-adolescence
#19
Ian Harrowell, Linda Hollén, Raghu Lingam, Alan Emond
AIM: To assess the relationship between developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and mental health outcomes in late adolescence. METHOD: Data were analyzed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Moderate-to-severe DCD was defined at 7 to 8 years according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria. Mental health was assessed at 16 to 18 years using self-reported questionnaires: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire, and the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale...
May 16, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512308/quantum-key-distribution-with-hacking-countermeasures-and-long-term-field-trial
#20
A R Dixon, J F Dynes, M Lucamarini, B Fröhlich, A W Sharpe, A Plews, W Tam, Z L Yuan, Y Tanizawa, H Sato, S Kawamura, M Fujiwara, M Sasaki, A J Shields
Quantum key distribution's (QKD's) central and unique claim is information theoretic security. However there is an increasing understanding that the security of a QKD system relies not only on theoretical security proofs, but also on how closely the physical system matches the theoretical models and prevents attacks due to discrepancies. These side channel or hacking attacks exploit physical devices which do not necessarily behave precisely as the theory expects. As such there is a need for QKD systems to be demonstrated to provide security both in the theoretical and physical implementation...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
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