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Resiliency

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926674/prior-mental-disorders-and-lifetime-suicidal-behaviors-among-us-army-soldiers-in-the-army-study-to-assess-risk-and-resilience-in-servicemembers-army-starrs
#1
Alexander J Millner, Robert J Ursano, Irving Hwang, Andrew J King, James A Naifeh, Nancy A Sampson, Alan M Zaslavsky, Murray B Stein, Ronald C Kessler, Matthew K Nock
We report on associations of retrospectively reported temporally prior mental disorders and Army career characteristics with subsequent first onset of suicidal behaviors in a large, representative sample of US Army soldiers who participated in the Consolidated All-Army Survey of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (N = 29,982). Results reveal that among men and women, all self-reported lifetime disorders measured (some assessed with screening scales) are associated with subsequent onset of suicide ideation...
September 19, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926597/altered-embryonic-development-in-northern-bobwhite-quail-colinus-virginianus-induced-by-pre-incubation-oscillatory-thermal-stresses-mimicking-global-warming-predictions
#2
Kelly S Reyna, Warren W Burggren
Global warming is likely to alter reproductive success of ground-nesting birds that lay eggs normally left unattended for days or even weeks before actual parental incubation, especially in already warm climates. The native North American bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) is such a species, and pre-incubation quail eggs may experience temperatures ≥45°C. Yet, almost nothing is known about embryonic survival after such high pre-incubation temperatures. Freshly laid bobwhite quail eggs were exposed during a 12 day pre-incubation period to one of five thermal regimes: low oscillating temperatures (25-40°C, mean = 28...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926525/effect-of-a-mentor-based-supportive-expressive-program-be-resilient-to-breast-cancer-on-survival-in-metastatic-breast-cancer-a-randomised-controlled-intervention-trial
#3
Zeng Jie Ye, Hong Zhong Qiu, Mu Zi Liang, Mei Ling Liu, Peng Fei Li, Peng Chen, Zhe Sun, Yuan Liang Yu, Shu Ni Wang, Zhang Zhang, Kun Lun Liao, Cai Fen Peng, Hui Huang, Guang Yun Hu, Yun Fei Zhu, Zhen Zeng, Qu Hu, Jing Jing Zhao
BACKGROUND: Because of medical advances, metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is now viewed as a chronic disease, rather than an imminent death sentence. Helping women live with this disease requires more than a medical approach to symptoms. Thus, a mentor-based and supportive-expressive program 'Be Resilient to Breast Cancer' (BRBC) was designed to help Chinese women with MBC enhance their resilience levels, biopsychosocial functions, and potentially extend their life span. METHODS: A total of 226 women with MBC were randomly assigned, in a 1 : 1 ratio, to an intervention group (IG) that participated in BRBC or to a control group (CG) that received no intervention...
September 19, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926148/biodiversity-and-species-competition-regulate-the-resilience-of-microbial-biofilm-community
#4
Kai Feng, Zhaojing Zhang, Weiwei Cai, Wenzong Liu, Meiying Xu, Huaqun Yin, Aijie Wang, Zhili He, Ye Deng
The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem stability is poorly understood in microbial communities. Biofilm communities in small bioreactors called microbial electrolysis cells (MEC) contain moderate species numbers and easy tractable functional traits, thus providing an ideal platform for verifying ecological theories in microbial ecosystems. Here, we investigated the resilience of biofilm communities with a gradient of diversity, and explored the relationship between biodiversity and stability in response to a pH shock...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926000/the-bdnf-val66met-polymorphism-regulates-glucocorticoid-induced-corticohippocampal-remodeling-and-behavioral-despair
#5
M Notaras, X Du, J Gogos, M van den Buuse, R A Hill
The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism has been associated with sensitivity to stress and affective disorders. We therefore sought to model the inter-causality of these relationships under controlled laboratory conditions. We subjected humanized BDNF Val66Met (hBDNF(Val66Met)) transgenic mice to a history of stress, modeled by chronic late-adolescent corticosterone (CORT) exposure, before evaluating affective-related behavior using the forced-swim test (FST) in adulthood. While hBDNF(Met/Met) mice had a depression-like phenotype in the FST irrespective of CORT, hBDNF(Val/Val) wildtype mice had a resilient phenotype but developed an equally robust depressive-like phenotype following CORT...
September 19, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925881/coping-with-stress-during-aging-the-importance-of-a-resilient-brain
#6
P Sampedro-Piquero, P Álvarez-Suárez, A Begega
BACKGROUND: Resilience is the ability to achieve a positive outcome when we are in the face of adversity. It supposes an active resistance to adversity by coping mechanisms in which genetic, molecular, neural and environmental factors are involved. Resilience has been usually studied in early ages and few is known about it during aging. METHODS: In this review, we will address the age-related changes in the brain mechanisms involved in regulating the stress response...
September 15, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925807/suicide-risk-among-holocaust-survivors-following-psychiatric-hospitalizations-a-historic-cohort-study
#7
Ido Lurie, Nehama Goldberger, Adi Gur, Ziona Haklai
OBJECTIVES: The association between Holocaust experience, suicide and psychiatric hospitalization has not been unequivocally established. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of suicide among three Jewish groups with past or current psychiatric hospitalizations: Holocaust survivors (HS), survivors of pre- Holocaust persecution (early HS) and a comparison group of similar European background who did not experience Holocaust persecution. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study based on the Israel National Psychiatric Case Register (NPCR) and the database of causes of death, all suicides in the years 1981-2009 were found for HS (n = 16,406), early HS (n = 1,212) and a comparison group (n = 4,286)...
September 19, 2017: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924608/a-versatile-3d-tissue-matrix-scaffold-system-for-tumor-modeling-and-drug-screening
#8
Girdhari Rijal, Weimin Li
Most of the anticancer drug candidates entering preclinical trials fail to be approved for clinical applications. The following are among the main causes of these failures: studying molecular mechanisms of cancer development, identifying therapeutic targets, and testing drug candidates using inappropriate tissue culture models, which do not recapitulate the native microenvironment where the cancer cells originate. It has become clear that three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures are more biologically and clinically relevant than 2D models...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924195/patterns-of-change-in-high-frequency-precipitation-variability-over-north-america
#9
Susana Roque-Malo, Praveen Kumar
Precipitation variability encompasses attributes associated with the sequencing and duration of events of the full range of magnitudes. However, climate change studies have largely focused on extreme events. Using analyses of long-term weather station data, we show that high frequency events, such as fraction of wet days in a year and average duration of wet and dry periods, are undergoing significant changes across North America. Further, these changes are more prevalent and larger than those associated with extremes...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923953/interaction-networks-ecological-stability-and-collective-antibiotic-tolerance-in-polymicrobial-infections
#10
Marjon G J de Vos, Marcin Zagorski, Alan McNally, Tobias Bollenbach
Polymicrobial infections constitute small ecosystems that accommodate several bacterial species. Commonly, these bacteria are investigated in isolation. However, it is unknown to what extent the isolates interact and whether their interactions alter bacterial growth and ecosystem resilience in the presence and absence of antibiotics. We quantified the complete ecological interaction network for 72 bacterial isolates collected from 23 individuals diagnosed with polymicrobial urinary tract infections and found that most interactions cluster based on evolutionary relatedness...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923923/hydrologic-regulation-of-plant-rooting-depth
#11
Ying Fan, Gonzalo Miguez-Macho, Esteban G Jobbágy, Robert B Jackson, Carlos Otero-Casal
Plant rooting depth affects ecosystem resilience to environmental stress such as drought. Deep roots connect deep soil/groundwater to the atmosphere, thus influencing the hydrologic cycle and climate. Deep roots enhance bedrock weathering, thus regulating the long-term carbon cycle. However, we know little about how deep roots go and why. Here, we present a global synthesis of 2,200 root observations of >1,000 species along biotic (life form, genus) and abiotic (precipitation, soil, drainage) gradients. Results reveal strong sensitivities of rooting depth to local soil water profiles determined by precipitation infiltration depth from the top (reflecting climate and soil), and groundwater table depth from below (reflecting topography-driven land drainage)...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923161/comparing-the-cognitive-process-of-circular-causality-in-two-patients-with-strokes-through-qualitative-analysis
#12
Seyed Alireza Derakhshanrad, Emily Piven, Bahareh Zeynalzadeh Ghoochani
Walter J. Freeman pioneered the neurodynamic model of brain activity when he described the brain dynamics for cognitive information transfer as the process of circular causality at intention, meaning, and perception (IMP) levels. This view contributed substantially to establishment of the Intention, Meaning, and Perception Model of Neuro-occupation in occupational therapy. As described by the model, IMP levels are three components of the brain dynamics system, with nonlinear connections that enable cognitive function to be processed in a circular causality fashion, known as Cognitive Process of Circular Causality (CPCC)...
October 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921694/protease-activated-receptor-2-controls-myelin-development-resiliency-and-repair
#13
Hyesook Yoon, Maja Radulovic, Grant Walters, Alex R Paulsen, Kristen Drucker, Phillip Starski, Jianmin Wu, David P Fairlie, Isobel A Scarisbrick
Oligodendrocytes are essential regulators of axonal energy homeostasis and electrical conduction and emerging target cells for restoration of neurological function. Here we investigate the role of protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2), a unique protease activated G protein-coupled receptor, in myelin development and repair using the spinal cord as a model. Results demonstrate that genetic deletion of PAR2 accelerates myelin production, including higher proteolipid protein (PLP) levels in the spinal cord at birth and higher levels of myelin basic protein and thickened myelin sheaths in adulthood...
September 18, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921611/dendritic-spines-provide-cognitive-resilience-against-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Benjamin D Boros, Kelsey M Greathouse, Erik G Gentry, Kendall A Curtis, Elizabeth L Birchall, Marla Gearing, Jeremy H Herskowitz
OBJECTIVE: Neuroimaging and other biomarker assays suggest that the pathological processes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) initiate years prior to clinical dementia onset. However some 30%-50% of older individuals that harbor AD pathology do not become symptomatic in their lifetime. It is hypothesized that such individuals exhibit cognitive resilience that protects against AD dementia. We hypothesized that in cases with AD pathology structural changes in dendritic spines would distinguish individuals that had or did not have clinical dementia...
September 16, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919483/national-landscape-of-interventions-to-improve-pediatric-resident-wellness-and-reduce-burnout
#15
Paria M Wilson, Kathi J Kemper, Charles J Schubert, Maneesh Batra, Betty B Staples, Janet R Serwint, Hilary McClafferty, John D Mahan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919191/benefits-of-the-restorative-exercise-and-strength-training-for-operational-resilience-and-excellence-yoga-program-for-chronic-lower-back-pain-in-service-members-a-pilot-randomized-control-trial
#16
Krista Beth Highland, Audrey Schoomaker, Winifred Rojas, Josh Suen, Ambareen Ahmed, Zhiwei Zhang, Sarah Fink Carlin, Christian Calilung, Michael Kent, Chester Buckenmaier
OBJECTIVE: To examine the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of an individualized yoga program. DESIGN: Pilot randomized control trial. SETTING: Military medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Patients (N=68) with chronic LBP. INTERVENTIONS: Restorative Exercise and Strength Training for Operational Resilience and Excellence (RESTORE) program (9-12 individual yoga sessions) or treatment-as-usual (control) for 8-week period...
September 14, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919088/resilience-in-mathematics-after-early-brain-injury-the-roles-of-parental-input-and-early-plasticity
#17
Dana E Glenn, Özlem Ece Demir-Lira, Dominic J Gibson, Eliza L Congdon, Susan C Levine
Children with early focal unilateral brain injury show remarkable plasticity in language development. However, little is known about how early brain injury influences mathematical learning. Here, we examine early number understanding, comparing cardinal number knowledge of typically developing children (TD) and children with pre- and perinatal lesions (BI) between 42 and 50 months of age. We also examine how this knowledge relates to the number words children hear from their primary caregivers early in life...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918822/a-theoretical-model-to-explain-the-smart-technology-adoption-behaviors-of-elder-consumers-elderadopt
#18
Stephen M Golant
A growing global population of older adults is potential consumers of a category of products referred to as smart technologies, but also known as telehealth, telecare, information and communication technologies, robotics, and gerontechnology. This paper constructs a theoretical model to explain whether older people will adopt smart technology options to cope with their discrepant individual or environmental circumstances, thereby enabling them to age in place. Its proposed constructs and relationships are drawn from multiple academic disciplines and professional specialties, and an extensive literature focused on the factors influencing the acceptance of these smart technologies...
August 2017: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918349/inhibition-of-anaerobic-digestion-processes-applications-of-molecular-tools
#19
REVIEW
Yamrot M Amha, Muhammad Zohaib Anwar, Andrew Brower, Carsten S Jacobsen, Lauren B Stadler, Tara M Webster, Adam L Smith
Inhibition of anaerobic digestion (AD) due to perturbation caused by substrate composition and/or operating conditions can significantly reduce performance. Such perturbations could be limited by elucidating microbial community response to inhibitors and devising strategies to increase community resilience. To this end, advanced molecular methods are increasingly being applied to study the AD microbiome, a diverse community of microbial populations with complex interactions. This literature review of AD inhibition studies indicates that inhibitory concentrations are highly variable, likely stemming from differences in community structure or activity profile and previous exposure to inhibitors...
September 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918001/in%C3%A2-vitro-evaluation-of-antimicrobial-agents-on-acanthamoeba-sp-and-evidence-of-a-natural-resilience-to-amphotericin-b
#20
Alexandre Taravaud, Philippe M Loiseau, Sébastien Pomel
The free-living amoeba (FLA) Acanthamoeba sp. is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause amoebic keratitis (AK) or granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE). While current treatments of AK are long with some relapses, no consensus therapy has been developed for GAE remaining lethal in 90% of the cases. In this context, efficient antiacanthamoebal drugs have to be identified. In this work, 15 drugs used in the treatment of AK or GAE or in other parasitic diseases were evaluated for their in vitro activity on A...
September 8, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
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