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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036825/the-emergence-of-a-new-conceptual-framework-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Dubois Bruno
The New Criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), published by a group of experts in 2007, have resulted in a revolution in the comprehension of the disease. Before 2007, the diagnosis of AD dementia was done through a process of exclusion: it was considered in the case of patients with a dementia syndrome without identified etiologies. This traditional algorithm had three major limitations that penalize the disease: 1) a low accuracy of the performance which may share responsibility for negative results in clinical trials; 2) a late identification of the patients only when they reach the threshold of dementia which may delay the activation of optimal care; and last but not least, 3) an absence of clear recognition of AD as a disease because of the lack of specific arguments for its identification...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036231/vildagliptin-increases-butyrate-producing-bacteria-in-the-gut-of-diabetic-rats
#2
Qian Zhang, Xinhua Xiao, Ming Li, Miao Yu, Fan Ping, Jia Zheng, Tong Wang, Xiaojing Wang
Emerging evidence supports a key role for the gut microbiota in metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin is highly efficacious in treating T2D. However, whether vildagliptin can alter the gut microbiome is still unclear. This study aimed to identify whether vildagliptin modifies the gut microbiota structure during T2D treatment. Diabetic Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were induced by a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection (HFD/STZ). Diabetic rats were orally administered a low dose of vildagliptin (LV, 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035384/effect-of-anthelmintic-treatment-on-leptin-adiponectin-and-leptin-to-adiponectin-ratio-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
D L Tahapary, K de Ruiter, I Martin, E A T Brienen, L van Lieshout, Y Djuardi, C C Djimandjaja, J J Houwing-Duistermaat, P Soewondo, E Sartono, T Supali, J W A Smit, M Yazdanbakhsh
Emerging evidence suggests that helminths might confer protection against the development of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to assess the role of adipokines in mediating the effect of helminths on insulin resistance. Serum samples were obtained from a randomized-controlled trial of anthelmintic treatment in an area endemic for soil-transmitted helminths (STH), Flores Island, Indonesia. In STH-infected subjects, anthelmintic treatment significantly increased the ratio of leptin to adiponectin (treatment effect factor (95% confidence interval (CI)), P-value for interaction: 1...
October 16, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033948/unique-features-of-pancreatic-resident-regulatory-t-cells-in-autoimmune-type-1-diabetes
#4
REVIEW
Jingli Lu, Chaoqi Zhang, Lifeng Li, Wenhua Xue, Chengliang Zhang, Xiaojian Zhang
Recent progress in regulatory T cells (Tregs) biology emphasizes the importance of understanding tissue-resident Tregs in response to tissue-specific environment. Now, emerging evidence suggests that pancreatic-resident forkhead box P3(+) Tregs have distinguishable effects on the suppression of over-exuberant immune responses in autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D). Thus, there is growing interest in elucidating the role of pancreatic-resident Tregs that function and evolve in the local environment. In this review, we discuss the phenotype and function of Tregs residing in pancreatic tissues and pancreatic lymph nodes, with emphasis on the unique subpopulations of Tregs that control the disease progression in the context of T1D...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031829/gain-of-function-variants-in-nlrp1-protect-against-the-development-of-diabetic-kidney-disease-nlrp1-inflammasome-role-in-metabolic-stress-sensing
#5
Jaine Soares, Fernanda Pereira Fernandes, Thiago Andrade Patente, Maria B Monteiro, Maria C Parisi, Daniel Giannella-Neto, Maria L Corrêa-Giannella, Alessandra Pontillo
Although inflammasome plays a well-known role in animal models of renal injury, limited studies in humans are available, and its participation in diabetic kidney disease (DKD) remains unknown. Aim of this study was to elucidate the contribution of inflammasome genetics in the development of DKD in type-1 diabetes (T1D). The association of functional variants in inflammasome genes with DKD was assessed by multivariate analysis in a retrospective and in a prospective cohort. NLRP1 rs2670660 and rs11651270 polymorphisms were significantly associated with a decrease risk to develop DKD (padj<0...
October 11, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031728/single-cell-rna-sequencing-reveals-a-distinct-population-of-proglucagon-expressing-cells-specific-to-the-mouse-upper-small-intestine
#6
Leslie L Glass, Fernando J Calero-Nieto, Wajid Jawaid, Pierre Larraufie, Richard G Kay, Berthold Göttgens, Frank Reimann, Fiona M Gribble
OBJECTIVES: To identify sub-populations of intestinal preproglucagon-expressing (PPG) cells producing Glucagon-like Peptide-1, and their associated expression profiles of sensory receptors, thereby enabling the discovery of therapeutic strategies that target these cell populations for the treatment of diabetes and obesity. METHODS: We performed single cell RNA sequencing of PPG-cells purified by flow cytometry from the upper small intestine of 3 GLU-Venus mice. Cells from 2 mice were sequenced at low depth, and from the third mouse at high depth...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028677/are-people-with-a-history-of-disease-more-susceptible-to-a-short-term-exposure-to-asian-dust-a-case-crossover-study-among-the-elderly-in-japan
#7
Saori Kashima, Takashi Yorifuji, Etsuji Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Factors influencing the susceptibility of the elderly to the adverse health effects of short-term exposure to desert dust have yet to be explored. We aimed to identify the disease histories that increase the susceptibility of the elderly to disease onset induced by dust events. METHODS: We used a time-stratified case-crossover design using data on 17,874 elderly residents (≥65 years) of Okayama, Japan, who were transported to hospital emergency rooms because of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases between 2006 and 2010...
October 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028228/preventing-emergence-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-myanmar-s-transitioning-health-system
#8
Mishal S Khan, Coll Hutchison, Richard J Coker, Joanne Yoong, Khaung M Hane, Anh L Innes, Tin M Khaing, Sithu Aung
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a particular threat to the populations of resource-limited countries. Although inadequate treatment of TB has been identified as a major underlying cause of drug resistance, essential information to inform changes in health service delivery and policy is missing. We investigate factors that may be driving the emergence of MDR-TB in Myanmar, a country where investment and health system reforms are ongoing to address the unexplained, high occurrence of MDR-TB. We conducted a multi-centre, retrospective case-control study in 10 townships across Yangon...
October 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026969/extended-serum-lipid-profile-predicting-long-term-survival-in-patients-treated-for-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms
#9
Niina Khan, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Jahangir Khan, Ilkka Seppälä, Antti Lehtomäki, Tommi Kuorilehto, Velipekka Suominen, Terho Lehtimäki, Niku Oksala
BACKGROUND: Individuals treated for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are high-risk patients in whom better risk prediction could improve survival. Contemporary serum lipid parameters, such as apolipoproteins and lipoprotein subfractions, may improve or complement the prognostic value of traditional serum lipids. The aim of this study was to ascertain the extended serum lipid profiles, long-term prognosis and their association in AAA patients. METHODS: Altogether 498 patients treated for AAAs and with available serum lipid values were retrospectively analysed...
October 12, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026763/comparative-evaluation-of-indian-diabetes-risk-score-and-finnish-diabetes-risk-score-for-predicting-risk-of-diabetes-mellitus-type-ii-a-teaching-hospital-based-survey-in-maharashtra
#10
Shivshakti D Pawar, Jayashri D Naik, Priya Prabhu, Gajanan M Jatti, Sachin B Jadhav, B K Radhe
CONTEXT: India is currently becoming capital for diabetes mellitus. This significantly increasing incidence of diabetes putting an additional burden on health care in India. Unfortunately, half of diabetic individuals are unknown about their diabetic status. Hence, there is an emergent need of effective screening instrument to identify "diabetes risk" individuals. AIMS: The aim is to evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS) and Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC)...
January 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026632/salmonella-oranienburg-haemorrhagic-cystitis-in-an-immunocompetent-young-male
#11
Jiasian Teh, Mark Quinlan, Damien Bolton
Introduction. Non-typhoidal salmonella (NTS) bacteriuria is extremely rare. Haemorrhagic cystitis is defined by urinary symptoms including haematuria, frequency, urgency and dysuria. Reports of haemorrhagic cystitis caused by NTS are exceptionally uncommon, especially in immunocompetent, young, male patients. Case presentation. A 27-year-old male with no past medical history presented to the Emergency Department with a 24 h history of visible haematuria having returned five days earlier from a five month trip across South America...
August 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025457/characteristics-and-correlates-of-alcohol-consumption-among-adult-chronic-care-patients-in-north-west-province-south-africa
#12
Arvin Bhana, Sujit D Rathod, One Selohilwe, Tasneem Kathree, Inge Petersen
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption patterns in South Africa (SA) tend to be characterised by risky patterns of drinking. Taken together with the large burden of disease associated with HIV and tuberculosis (TB), heavy alcohol consumption patterns with these chronic conditions has the potential to compromise the efficacy of treatment efforts among such patients. OBJECTIVE: To explore the characteristics, correlates and diagnoses of alcohol use disorders among chronic care patients in SA...
June 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025203/impact-of-targeted-education-on-managing-warning-and-error-signals-by-children-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-using-the-accu-chek-combo-insulin-pump-system
#13
Asma Deeb, Nabras Al Qahtani, Amal Al Ali, Mariette Akle
PURPOSE: Insulin pumps are widely used in diabetes. They are equipped with safety alarms to alert users. Pump manuals contain alarm codes and how to troubleshoot them. However, these manuals are lengthy and difficult to use, particularly in emergencies. We aim to assess the impact of targeted education on warnings and errors in improving competency to troubleshoot the alarms. METHODS: Twenty-one patients, with a median age of 13, were recruited over a 5-month period...
September 2017: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023081/frailty-predicts-adverse-outcomes-in-older-people-with-diabetes
#14
Joanna Ulley, Ahmed H Abdelhafiz
The greatest proportional increase in the number of people with diabetes by age group is predicted to occur in those aged 60 to 79. In older people living with diabetes, geriatric syndromes, which indicate frailty, are emerging as a third category of complications in addition to the traditional microvascular and macrovascular sequelae. Frailty is defined by the presence of three or more phenotypes (weight loss, weakness, decreased physical activity, exhaustion and slow gait speed). The presence of one or two phenotypes describes a pre-frail state, and the absence of phenotypes describes a non-frail person...
January 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022954/agreement-on-diabetic-retinopathy-grading-in-fundus-photographs-by-allied-ophthalmic-personnel-as-compared-to-ophthalmologist-at-a-community-setting-in-nepal
#15
Raba Thapa, Sanyam Bajimaya, Eli Pradhan, Govinda Paudyal
INTRODUCTION: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the emerging cause of blindness in the developing world. Timely detection of DR could save vision from its avoidable blinding condition. OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of DR grading in fundus photographs by the allied ophthalmic personnel (AOP) as compared to ophthalmologist at a community setting in Nepal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fundus photographs of known diabetes subjects attending for DR screening were graded by two groups of AOP and ophthalmologist...
January 2017: Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022506/autologous-cell-therapy-for-vascular-regeneration-the-role-of-proangiogenic-cells
#16
Vanessa Bianconi, Francesca Fallarino, Massimo Raffaele Mannarino, Francesco Bagaglia, Meisam Naeimi Kararoudi, Caterina Oriana Aragona, Rita Romani, Matteo Pirro
Autologous cell therapy represents a novel treatment option for vascular regeneration in different disease conditions. Both experimental and clinical studies indicate a therapeutic potential for different proangiogenic cells (PCs), including endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the treatment of peripheral artery disease. A significant improvement of ischemic symptoms has been reported in different trials evaluating PCs for the treatment of critical limb ischemia. However, contrasting results from different meta-analyses question the efficacy of PC-based approaches on long-term outcomes, including amputation and survival...
October 12, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022222/t-cell-receptor-profiling-in-type-1-diabetes
#17
REVIEW
Laura M Jacobsen, Amanda Posgai, Howard R Seay, Michael J Haller, Todd M Brusko
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The genetic susceptibility and dominant protection for type 1 diabetes (T1D) associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes, along with minor risk variants, have long been thought to shape the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire and eventual phenotype of autoreactive T cells that mediate β-cell destruction. While autoantibodies provide robust markers of disease progression, early studies tracking autoreactive T cells largely failed to achieve clinical utility...
October 11, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021311/acute-ischemic-stroke-with-tandem-lesions-technical-endovascular-management-and-clinical-outcomes-from-the-escape-trial
#18
Zarina Assis, Bijoy K Menon, Mayank Goyal, Andrew M Demchuk, Jai Shankar, Jeremy L Rempel, Daniel Roy, Alexander Y Poppe, Victor Yang, Cheemun Lum, Dar Dowlatshahi, John Thornton, Hana Choe, Paul A Burns, Donald F Frei, Blaise W Baxter, Michael D Hill
BACKGROUND: Tandem occlusions of the extracranial carotid and intracranial carotid or middle cerebral artery have a particularly poor prognosis without treatment. Several management strategies have been used with no clear consensus recommendations. We examined subjects with tandem occlusions enrolled in the ESCAPE trial and their outcomes. METHODS: Data are from the ESCAPE trial. Additional data were sought on interventions for each subject. RESULTS: There were 54 (17%) subjects with tandem extracranial and intracranial occlusions...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019269/the-burden-of-severe-hypoglycemia-in-type-1-diabetes
#19
Jieruo Liu, Rosa Wang, Michael L Ganz, Yurek Paprocki, Doron Schneider, James Weatherall
AIMS: Approximately 1.25 million people in the United States have type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), a chronic metabolic disease that develops from the body's inability to produce insulin, and requires life-long insulin therapy. Poor insulin adherence may cause severe hypoglycemia (SHO), leading to hospitalization and long-term complications; these, in turn, drive up costs of SHO and T1DM overall. This study's objective was to estimate the prevalence and costs of SHO-related hospitalizations and their additional longer-term impacts on patients with T1DM using basal-bolus insulin...
October 11, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017926/autonomic-nervous-system-and-pancreatic-islet-blood-flow
#20
Luc Pénicaud
Vascularization and innervation of the islet of Langerhans are highly interconnected and are critical for intercellular and intertissular communication. They are both involved in the control of islet blood flow which has been shown to have an important role in the control of endocine secretion. Both parameters are disturbed during the course of metabolic pathologies and particularly diabetes. A better understanding of these mechanisms has and will greatly benefit from the rapidly-emerging technologies particularly in vivo imaging enabling to study both anatomy and functions of the islet...
October 7, 2017: Biochimie
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