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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344846/evaluation-of-psychosocial-and-biological-parameters-in-women-seeking-for-a-caesarean-section-and-women-who-are-aiming-for-vaginal-delivery-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Benjamin Tuschy, Sebastian Berlit, Paul Stützer, Stefanie Lis, Christian Schmahl, Ulf Baumgärtner, Marc Sütterlin
PURPOSE: To investigate psychosocial and biological parameters that may influence decision-making concerning the mode of delivery in women with caesarean section on maternal request (CSMR). METHODS: Two hundred and two women were enrolled prospectively. The study sample (n = 93) consisted of women who aimed for CSMR, the control sample were women who seeked for vaginal delivery (n = 109). Parturients of both samples were enrolled during the pre-birth counselling at the delivery room at the University Medical Centre Mannheim, University Heidelberg, Germany...
January 17, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341514/opportunity-costs-in-paediatric-training-the-specialist-registrars-experience
#2
M B O'Neill, T Nabialek, N Kandamany
In the training process, there is a tension between the work life and home life of trainees. This study explored both the personal impact and the opportunity costs of training from the Specialist Paediatric Registrar (SPR) perspective. The survey explored 1) career progression, 2) perceived functional effectiveness at work, 3) psychological impact of hospital based training, and 4) the personal and social cost of training. Fifty-three (71%) SPRs responded of whom 47 (89%)were married or in long term relationships...
August 8, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339194/vaginal-construction-and-treatment-providers-experiences-a-qualitative-analysis
#3
Katrina Roen, Sarah M Creighton, Peter Hegarty, Lih-Mei Liao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate specialist clinicians' experiences of treating vaginal agenesis. DESIGN: Semi-structured interviews. SETTING: 12 hospitals in Sweden and the UK. SAMPLE: 32 health professionals connected to multidisciplinary teams including medical specialists and psychologists. METHODS: Theoretical thematic analysis of recorded verbatim data. RESULTS: The gynecologist and psychologist interviewees share certain observations including the importance of psychological readiness for and appropriate timing of treatment...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337582/perceiving-groups-the-people-perception-of-diversity-and-hierarchy
#4
L Taylor Phillips, Michael L Slepian, Brent L Hughes
The visual perception of individuals has received considerable attention (visual person perception), but little social psychological work has examined the processes underlying the visual perception of groups of people (visual people perception). Ensemble-coding is a visual mechanism that automatically extracts summary statistics (e.g., average size) of lower-level sets of stimuli (e.g., geometric figures), and also extends to the visual perception of groups of faces. Here, we consider whether ensemble-coding supports people perception, allowing individuals to form rapid, accurate impressions about groups of people...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334921/a-pilot-feasibility-randomised-controlled-trial-of-an-adjunct-brief-social-network-intervention-in-opiate-substitution-treatment-services
#5
Ed Day, Alex Copello, Jennifer L Seddon, Marilyn Christie, Deborah Bamber, Charlotte Powell, Carmel Bennett, Shabana Akhtar, Sanju George, Andrew Ball, Emma Frew, Ilias Goranitis, Nick Freemantle
BACKGROUND: Approximately 3% of people receiving opioid substitution therapy (OST) in the UK manage to achieve abstinence from prescribed and illicit drugs within three years of commencing treatment. Involvement of families and wider social networks in supporting psychological treatment may be an effective strategy in facilitating recovery, and this pilot study aimed to evaluate the impact of a social network-focused intervention for patients receiving OST. METHODS: A two-site, open feasibility trial randomised patients receiving OST for at least 12 months but still reporting illicit opiate use in the past 28 days to one of three treatments: 1) treatment as usual (TAU), 2) Brief Social Behaviour and Network Therapy (B-SBNT) + TAU, or 3) Personal Goal Setting (PGS) + TAU...
January 15, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334821/development-and-validation-of-a-facial-expression-database-based-on-the-dimensional-and-categorical-model-of-emotions
#6
Tomomi Fujimura, Hiroyuki Umemura
The present study describes the development and validation of a facial expression database comprising five different horizontal face angles in dynamic and static presentations. The database includes twelve expression types portrayed by eight Japanese models. This database was inspired by the dimensional and categorical model of emotions: surprise, fear, sadness, anger with open mouth, anger with closed mouth, disgust with open mouth, disgust with closed mouth, excitement, happiness, relaxation, sleepiness, and neutral (static only)...
January 15, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332052/when-art-meets-gardens-does-it-enhance-the-benefits-the-nancy-hypothesis-of-care-for-persons-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Thérèse Rivasseau Jonveaux, Reinhard Fescharek
The creation of healing gardens for persons with Alzheimer's disease and related diseases (ADRD) offers vast potential. They can play a role in the scaffolding of cognitive disorders, emotional stress, sensory processing, sense of harmony, and appeasement. These effects are achieved through a distributed interplay of psychological functions with the immediate environment and local culture on the one hand, and dialogue on the other. The garden, a natural canvas created by man, shares with art the ability to foster an esthetic sense for which the perception can be measured by functional neurological imaging exploration...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331600/a-real-world-study-on-the-genetic-cognitive-and-psychopathological-differences-of-obese-patients-clustered-according-to-eating-behaviours
#8
Mariarita Caroleo, Amedeo Primerano, Marianna Rania, Matteo Aloi, Valentina Pugliese, Fabio Magliocco, Gilda Fazia, Andrea Filippo, Flora Sinopoli, Marco Ricchio, Franco Arturi, Susana Jimenez-Murcia, Fernando Fernandez-Aranda, Pasquale De Fazio, Cristina Segura-Garcia
BACKGROUND: Considering that specific genetic profiles, psychopathological conditions and neurobiological systems underlie human behaviours, the phenotypic differentiation of obese patients according to eating behaviours should be investigated. The aim of this study was to classify obese patients according to their eating behaviours and to compare these clusters in regard to psychopathology, personality traits, neurocognitive patterns and genetic profiles. METHODS: A total of 201 obese outpatients seeking weight reduction treatment underwent a dietetic visit, psychological and psychiatric assessment and genotyping for SCL6A2 polymorphisms...
December 14, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327349/status-of-the-trait-concept-in-contemporary-personality-psychology-are-the-old-questions-still-the-burning-questions
#9
Małgorzata Fajkowska, Shulamith Kreitler
This special issue of Journal of Personality addresses one of the cardinal concerns of personality psychology, namely, the status of traits in contemporary personality science. Trait theory is a major scientific model for personality explanation and research. Although there have been critiques of traits, typically formulated from the point of view of the social-cognitive perspective, the trait approach can be viewed as a continuously developing paradigm. However, personality psychology persists in tackling burning questions concerning the status of traits that need to be answered...
February 2018: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323416/citizenship-and-community-mental-health-care
#10
Allison N Ponce, Michael Rowe
Citizenship is an approach to supporting the social inclusion and participation in society of people with mental illnesses. It is receiving greater attention in community mental health discourse and literature in parallel with increased awareness of social determinants of health and concern over the continued marginalization of persons with mental illness in the United States. In this article, we review the definition and principles of our citizenship framework with attention to social participation and access to resources as well as rights and responsibilities that society confers on its members...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317595/hippocampal-metabolic-differences-implicate-distinctions-between-physical-and-psychological-stress-in-four-rat-models-of-depression
#11
Lanxiang Liu, Xinyu Zhou, Yuqing Zhang, Juncai Pu, Lining Yang, Shuai Yuan, Libo Zhao, Chanjun Zhou, Hanping Zhang, Peng Xie
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a heterogeneous and multi-factorial disorder, and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. However, many studies have indicated that the molecular mechanisms underlying depression in response to different stress may differ. After screening, 28-30 rats were included in each model of depression (chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS); learned helplessness (LH); chronic restraint stress (CRS); or social defeat (SD)). Non-targeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to profile the metabolic changes in the hippocampus...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317182/a-collective-perspective-shared-attention-and-the-mind
#12
REVIEW
Garriy Shteynberg
I review the recent literature on shared attention, instances in which one's personal perspective is also another's. As described by Shteynberg [6••], shared attention involves the activation of a psychological perspective that is personal and plural and irreducibly collective-a perspective in which the world is experienced from 'our attention'. When shared attention is perceived, information under shared attention receives deeper cognitive processing. By updating mutual knowledge, shared attention facilitates communication and, quite possibly, the creation of shared attitudes and beliefs...
December 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314094/empowering-the-poor-a-field-study-of-the-social-psychological-consequences-of-receiving-autonomy-or-dependency-aid-in-panama
#13
Katherina Alvarez, Esther van Leeuwen, Esteban Montenegro-Montenegro, Mark van Vugt
This field study investigated the consequences of receiving poverty aid through conditional transfer programmes in the form of autonomy-oriented help (i.e., cash) or dependency-oriented help (i.e., vouchers) in impoverished rural communities in Panama. The empowering effects of autonomy- (vs. dependency-) help have so far only been studied in laboratory settings, or in settings where help could easily be refused. Little is known about the reactions of people who rely on help for extended periods of time. This study provides insights into how aid recipients are influenced by the type of aid they receive...
January 4, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304292/integrating-covariates-into-social-relations-models-a-plausible-values-approach-for-handling-measurement-error-in-perceiver-and-target-effects
#14
Oliver Lüdtke, Alexander Robitzsch, Ulrich Trautwein
The Social Relations Model (SRM) is a conceptual and analytical approach to examining dyadic behaviors and interpersonal perceptions within groups. In an SRM, the perceiver effect describes a person's tendency to perceive other group members in a certain way, whereas the target effect measures the tendency to be perceived by others in certain ways. In SRM research, it is often of interest to relate these individual SRM effects to covariates. However, the estimated individual SRM effects might not provide a very reliable measure of the true, unobserved SRM effects, resulting in distorted estimates of associations with other variables...
January 2018: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300228/loneliness-in-multiple-sclerosis-possible-antecedents-and-correlates
#15
Julia M Balto, Lara A Pilutti, Robert W Motl
PURPOSE: The prevalence and possible antecedents and correlates of loneliness in multiple sclerosis (MS) was examined. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, comparative study of MS (n = 63) and healthy adults (n = 21). METHODS: Data were collected using self-reports of loneliness and antecedents and correlates and analyzed using inferential statistics. FINDINGS: Those with MS had significantly higher loneliness scores than healthy adults (p < ...
January 3, 2018: Rehabilitation Nursing: the Official Journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294793/elder-abuse-in-the-iberian-peninsula-and-bolivia-a-multicountry-comparative-study
#16
Juan Manuel Carmona-Torres, Rosa Carvalhal, Ruth Mary Gálvez-Rioja, África Ruiz-Gandara, Thomas Goergen, Mª Aurora Rodríguez-Borrego
The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of abuse of vulnerable older persons in the family and community environment in the following regions-Spain (Andalusia-Córdoba), Portugal (Azores), and Bolivia (Santa Cruz de la Sierra)-and to identify risk factors and delineate a profile of abused older persons. For this, a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample consisted of people in the age group 65 years plus living in the catchment areas of health centers. The following were used as instruments to collect data: the medical record of the patients of relevant health centers, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), daily activities autonomy test, adaptability, partnership, growth, affection, and resolve (APGAR) familiar test, The Elder Abuse Suspicion Index (EASI) and the Social Work Evaluation Form...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294749/adolescents-at-serious-psychosocial-risk-what-is-the-role-of-additional-exposure-to-violence-in-the-home
#17
Cristina Díez, Yolanda Fontanil, Yolanda Alonso, Esteban Ezama, Laura E Gómez
Research into the effects of interpartner violence on the psychosocial development of the children of maltreated mothers is a relatively new field. This work examines the impact of exposure to interpartner violence (EIPV) on minors in middle and late adolescence, where this vicarious maltreatment is in addition to other situations of severe psychosocial risk. A group of adolescents who had suffered various types of direct maltreatment were compared with another group who, in addition to experiencing direct maltreatment, had mothers who had also been the victims of interpartner violence...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294678/prevalence-and-correlates-of-sexual-physical-and-psychological-violence-against-women-and-men-of-60-to-74-years-in-sweden
#18
Petra Ahnlund, Tommy Andersson, Fredrik Snellman, Madelene Sundström, Gun Heimer
Past-year sexual, physical, and psychological violence against women and men aged 60 to 74 years was studied. The data derived from a nationally representative survey on violence in which approximately 2,800 women and men aged 60 to 74 years in Sweden participated. Women were significantly more likely to have been subjected to at least one form of violence in the past year. The prevalence of sexual violence as well as systematic and repeated psychological violence was found to be significantly higher for women than for men...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294658/exploring-violence-socialization-and-approval-of-intimate-partner-violence-among-university-students-in-kosovo
#19
Kaltrina Kelmendi, František Baumgartner
Intimate partner violence (IPV) among university students is a prevalent problem in many countries; however, it is not currently recognized in Kosovo as a social issue in terms of research, prevention, and intervention. The aim of this article was to examine the relationship between violence socialization experiences, approval of violence, and IPV perpetration/victimization among university students in Kosovo. The questionnaires were administrated to a convenience sample of 700 students of University of Prishtina who were in relationship for 1 month or longer...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290270/instruments-and-taxonomy-of-workplace-bullying-in-health-care-organizations
#20
REVIEW
Eun-Jun Park, Mikyoung Lee, Myungsook Park
PURPOSE: This study was aimed to evaluate the methodological issues and comprehensiveness of workplace bullying instruments and to suggest a taxonomy of psychological abuse. METHODS: Nineteen instruments applied in health care organizations and 469 questionnaire items mainly regarding psychological abuse were collected through a literature review. Three researchers classified the questionnaire items according to a "taxonomy of psychological abuse in the workplace...
December 2017: Asian Nursing Research
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