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personality & social psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792523/personality-homophily-and-geographic-distance-in-facebook
#1
Nyala Noë, Roger M Whitaker, Stuart M Allen
Personality homophily remains an understudied aspect of social networks, with the traditional focus concerning sociodemographic variables as the basis for assortativity, rather than psychological dispositions. We consider the effect of personality homophily on one of the biggest constraints to human social networks: geographic distance. We use the Big five model of personality to make predictions for each of the five facets: Openness to experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism...
May 24, 2018: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792115/using-machine-learning-to-advance-personality-assessment-and-theory
#2
Wiebke Bleidorn, Christopher James Hopwood
Machine learning has led to important advances in society. One of the most exciting applications of machine learning in psychological science has been the development of assessment tools that can powerfully predict human behavior and personality traits. Thus far, machine learning approaches to personality assessment have focused on the associations between social media and other digital records with established personality measures. The goal of this article is to expand the potential of machine learning approaches to personality assessment by embedding it in a more comprehensive construct validation framework...
May 1, 2018: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784232/the-aftermath-of-suicide-a-qualitative-study-with-guyanese-families
#3
Carla J Groh, Maureen Anthony, Jean Gash
INTRODUCTION: The suicide rate in Guyana was five times higher than the world average in 2014 (WHO) which puts Guyana at the top of the list with 44.2 per 100,000 people, the highest suicide rate in the world. For every completed suicide, there are survivors who experience high levels of psychological, physical, and social distress, and report feelings of guilt, shame, social stigma, and search for meaning. AIM: The aim of this qualitative study was to explore how family members coped and understand the suicide of their loved one, and to determine what resources were available to help them during this transition...
June 2018: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783256/-psychological-features-of-the-motivation-component-in-the-training-of-doctors-in-the-system-of-postgraduate-education
#4
Svitlana Koshova, Viktoriia Horachuk, Valerii Pishchykov
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Тhe problem of motivating adult learning in postgraduate education has so far been the subject of study primarily in methodological and pedagogical studies. They focus on the analysis of the content side of the motivation of adult learning activities. As for the problem of the dynamics of motivation for adult learning activities, including for doctors in the system of postgraduate medical education with continuous professional development, it has not been sufficiently studied so far...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783244/some-features-of-the-behavior-of-alcohol-dependent-persons
#5
Ihor М Karpinets, Oksana V Marusyn
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Alcoholism is characterized by psychological dependence and changes in human behavior, which affects the person's relationship with the social environment. The aim: to determine the behavior of alcohol dependent persons basing on the retrospective study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: On the basis of narcological offices of healthcare establishments and narcological clinic in Ivano-Frankivsk oblast, 552 people being in follow-up by a narcologist as addicted or abused have been examined for a specially developed extended program based on a standardized AUDIT screening test...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783004/-the-thing-that-really-gets-me-is-the-future-symptomatology-in-older-homeless-adults-in-the-hope-home-study
#6
Adam Bazari, Maria Patanwala, Lauren M Kaplan, Colette L Auerswald, Margot B Kushel
CONTEXT: The homeless population is aging. Older homeless adults experience premature development of age-related conditions and an elevated symptom burden. Little is known about symptom experience among older homeless adults. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the experience, understanding, and management of physical, psychological, social (e.g. loneliness), and existential (e.g. regret, loss of dignity) symptoms among older homeless adults. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews from June 2016 through March 2017 with a purposive sample of participants from the HOPE HOME cohort, a longitudinal study of homeless adults ages 50 and older...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781776/empathy-present-and-future
#7
Judith Hall, Rachel Schwartz
The empathy concept has central significance for social and personality psychology, and in many other domains including neuroscience, clinical/abnormal psychology, and the health professions. However, the current diversity in conceptual and operational definitions, and the promiscuous use of the term "empathy," threaten the ability of researchers to advance the field. The present article provides a quantitative review and conceptual analysis of empathy definitions and usages by examining 393 studies published between 2001 and 2013, and 96 studies published in 2017...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781459/family-caregivers-a-qualitative-study-to-better-understand-the-quality-of-life-concerns-and-needs-of-this-population
#8
Betty R Ferrell, Kate Kravitz, Tami Borneman, Ellen Taratoot Friedmann
BACKGROUND: While providing physical, psychological, and spiritual care to their loved ones with cancer, family caregivers (FCGs) are physically and emotionally vulnerable to the tolls of caregiving. Patients and FCGs experience the uncertainty that comes with illness and treatment, its side effects, the lack of control, the emotional upheaval, the spiritual doubt, and the helplessness of advancing disease. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to better understand the quality-of-life needs of the FCG population, particularly those who encounter financial strain related to patients' cancer and treatment...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777110/using-network-analysis-for-the-prediction-of-treatment-dropout-in-patients-with-mood-and-anxiety-disorders-a-methodological-proof-of-concept-study
#9
Wolfgang Lutz, Brian Schwartz, Stefan G Hofmann, Aaron J Fisher, Kristin Husen, Julian A Rubel
There are large health, societal, and economic costs associated with attrition from psychological services. The recently emerged, innovative statistical tool of complex network analysis was used in the present proof-of-concept study to improve the prediction of attrition. Fifty-eight patients undergoing psychological treatment for mood or anxiety disorders were assessed using Ecological Momentary Assessments four times a day for two weeks before treatment (3,248 measurements). Multilevel vector autoregressive models were employed to compute dynamic symptom networks...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776844/psychosocial-predictors-and-psychological-prevention-of-soccer-injuries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-literature
#10
REVIEW
Maamer Slimani, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Hela Znazen, Armin Paravlic, Fairouz Azaiez, David Tod
OBJECTIVES: To examine (a) the relationships between the psychosocial risk factors and injury rates and (b) the effects of psychological-based prevention interventions on the injury risk of soccer players. DESIGN: Scholarly electronic databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Scopus) were searched on 1 January 2017, complemented by manual searches of bibliographies. SETTING: Systematic review and meta-analysis. PARTICIPANTS: We identified 13 eligible studies, including a total of 1149 injured soccer players aged between 14 and 36 years...
May 15, 2018: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773148/personalized-treatment-outcomes-in-patients-with-somatoform-disorder-a-concept-mapping-study
#11
Sonja Klemm, Saskia van Broeckhuysen-Kloth, Sanne van Vliet, Lummy Oosterhuis, Rinie Geenen
OBJECTIVE: From a patient-centered perspective, treatment outcome measures in somatoform disorder need to be (1) personalized to the patient, (2) fit core problems that are targeted in therapy, and (3) reflect one's ability to adapt and self-manage anticipated deterioration. The aim of this study was to identify an encompassing set of treatment outcome variables in patients with somatoform disorder. METHODS: In-depth interviews yielded a comprehensive overview of 60 treatment outcomes that were sorted in a card sorting task according to similarity of meaning by 30 patients...
June 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769551/slow-touch-targeting-ct-fibres-does-not-increase-prosocial-behaviour-in-economic-laboratory-tasks
#12
Lisa Anna Rosenberger, Anbjørn Ree, Christoph Eisenegger, Uta Sailer
Field studies have demonstrated that humans become more generous, helpful and compliant after having been touched by another person. Here, we explored whether these effects are larger for touch activating the C-tactile (CT) fibres, as it is ascribed a particular role in establishing and maintaining bonds and affiliative interactions. The role of CT-targeted and non-targeted touch on prosocial behaviour was investigated in three different experiments using a trust game and a task measuring individual differences in social value orientations (the SVO task)...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759960/temporal-associations-between-social-activity-and-mood-fatigue-and-pain-in-older-adults-with-hiv-an-ecological-momentary-assessment-study
#13
Emily W Paolillo, Bin Tang, Colin A Depp, Alexandra S Rooney, Florin Vaida, Christopher N Kaufmann, Brent T Mausbach, David J Moore, Raeanne C Moore
BACKGROUND: Social isolation is associated with an increased risk for mental and physical health problems, especially among older persons living with HIV (PLWH). Thus, there is a need to better understand real-time temporal associations between social activity and mood- and health-related factors in this population to inform possible future interventions. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine real-time relationships between social activity and mood, fatigue, and pain in a sample of older PLWH...
May 14, 2018: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759920/dysphonia-perceived-control-and-psychosocial-distress-a-qualitative-study
#14
Stephanie Misono, Caroline Haut, Liza Meredith, Patricia A Frazier, Ali Stockness, Deirdre D Michael, Lisa Butcher, Eileen M Harwood
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine relationships between psychological factors, particularly perceived control, and voice symptoms in adults seeking treatment for a voice problem. METHODS: Semistructured interviews of adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of muscle tension dysphonia were conducted and transcribed. Follow-up interviews were conducted as needed for further information or clarification. A multidisciplinary team analyzed interview content using inductive techniques...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759913/improving-implementation-of-psychological-interventions-to-older-adult-patients-with-cancer-convening-older-adults-caregivers-providers-researchers
#15
Kelly M Trevino, Charlotte Healy, Peter Martin, Beverly Canin, Karl Pillemer, Jo Anne Sirey, M Cary Reid
INTRODUCTION: Older adults with cancer (OACs) are a large and growing population. Psychological distress is prevalent in this population yet few OACs receive evidence-based psychological care. The purpose of this project was to identify barriers and strategies for the implementation of psychological interventions to OACs from the perspective of OACs, OAC caregivers, researchers, clinicians, and advocacy organization members. METHODS: The Cornell Research-to-Practice (RTP) Consensus Workshop Model was used to organize and convene a consensus conference...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759098/psychological-flexibility-as-a-moderator-of-the-relationships-between-job-demands-and-resources-and-occupational-well-being
#16
Vladimir Pinto Novaes, Maria Cristina Ferreira, Felipe Valentini
The aim of this study was to identify the relations of job demands (work overload) and job resources (social support and autonomy) with subjective job well-being (job satisfaction, positive affects, negative affects), as well as the moderating role of personal resources (psychological flexibility at work) in such relationships. The sample consisted of 4,867 Brazilian workers, of both sexes, with ages ranging from 18 to 67 years. Structural equation modelling showed that the work overload was negatively associated with job satisfaction (β = -...
May 15, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756796/psychometric-properties-of-the-chinese-version-of-the-difficulties-in-emotion-regulation-scale-ders-factor-structure-reliability-and-validity
#17
Jian Li, Zhuo Rachel Han, Mengyu M Gao, Xin Sun, Nigela Ahemaitijiang
Numerous studies have identified the significant role of emotion regulation in an individual's psychological and social functioning. Ever since its development, the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) has been widely adopted as a comprehensive measure to assess emotion regulation problems among English-speaking adults. To assess emotion regulation in adults from Chinese-speaking societies and to promote future cross-cultural examination of the emotion regulation processes, the authors aimed to develop a Chinese version of the DERS and provide an initial validation of this instrument...
May 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755394/a-pathway-to-psychological-difficulty-perceived-chronic-social-adversity-and-its-symptomatic-reactions
#18
Cody Ding, Jingqiu Zhang, Dong Yang
In this paper, we attempt to predict and explain psychological maladjustment or difficulty. Specifically, we discuss the concept of perceived chronic social adversity, and we expect that such perceived chronic social adversity may potentially lead to chronic stress responses. Accordingly, we propose the symptomatic reactions of perceived chronic social adversity. We put forward a set of hypotheses regarding the relationships between perceived chronic social adversity and those chronic stress responses, and we further hypothesize a mediating role of individualized negative essentialism brought by perceived chronical social adversity...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755385/sex-age-and-emotional-valence-revealing-possible-biases-in-the-reading-the-mind-in-the-eyes-task
#19
Jana Kynast, Matthias L Schroeter
The 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' test (RMET) assesses a specific socio-cognitive ability, i.e., the ability to identify mental states from gaze. The development of this ability in a lifespan perspective is of special interest. Whereas former investigations were limited mainly to childhood and adolescence, the focus has been shifted towards aging, and psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases recently. Although the RMET is frequently applied in developmental psychology and clinical settings, stimulus characteristics have never been investigated with respect to potential effects on test performance...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755384/weibo-or-wechat-assessing-preference-for-social-networking-sites-and-role-of-personality-traits-and-psychological-factors
#20
Juan Hou, Yamikani Ndasauka, Xuefei Pan, Shuangyi Chen, Fei Xu, Xiaochu Zhang
Research trying to understand individual difference in the use of different social networking sites (SNSs) is minimal. In the present study, we collected data from 714 college students in China (273 males) to assess how personality traits and psychological factors relate to excessive use of WeChat and Weibo. We found that excessive use of Weibo and WeChat correlated positively with neuroticism, loneliness, and external locus of control and negatively with agreeableness, social support, and social interaction...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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