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personality & social psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925799/factors-associated-with-marijuana-use-and-problems-among-college-students-in-colorado
#1
Kristina T Phillips, Michael M Phillips, Kerry D Duck
BACKGROUND: Past studies have shown that heavy marijuana use can impact student outcomes. Frequent use and misuse of marijuana have been associated with a range of psychological and personality factors in young adults, but there has been limited research focused on the college environment in states where marijuana has been legalized for recreational purposes. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether marijuana use and problems were associated with a range of demographic, personality, and psychological variables among college students at a midsized Colorado university...
September 19, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924684/psychotherapy-in-the-oncology-setting
#2
Mirjam de Vries, Friedrich Stiefel
A person who faces the diagnosis of cancer is subjected to changes within his body, but also with regard to his view of himself and his social relationships. Cancer related psychological distress occurs frequently and has a different prevalence according to-among other factors-cancer type and stage of disease. The main psychiatric disturbances observed in patients with cancer are adjustment disorders and affective disorders (anxiety and depression), which in the majority of patients are due to stressors related to the occurrence and threat of the disease and pre-existing psychological vulnerabilities; however, they might also be a direct consequence of biological causes either resulting from bodily modifications induced by the cancer or from treatment side effects...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924681/family-caregivers-to-adults-with-cancer-the-consequences-of-caring
#3
Anna-Leila Williams
A person living with cancer will potentially have some degree of physical, cognitive, and/or psychological impairment, periods of unemployment, financial concerns, social isolation, and existential questions, any or all of which can impact the family and friends who surround them. In our current era of health care, patients with cancer receive invasive diagnostic studies and aggressive treatment as outpatients, and then convalesce at home. As such, cancer family caregivers are de facto partners with the healthcare team...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922997/how-social-and-refractory-is-the-social-psychological-refractory-period
#4
Peter Wühr, Herbert Heuer
The social psychological refractory period (PRP) effect refers to an increase in RT to the second of two successive stimuli when another person responds to the first stimulus (shared dual-task condition) rather than when a single person responds to both stimuli (individual dual-task condition). We investigated (a) whether a social PRP effect would occur without explicit instruction concerning task priority and (b) whether there are crosstalk effects in the shared dual-task situation. We observed a strong PRP effect together with a small crosstalk effect in the individual dual-task condition, but in the shared dual-task condition both effects were absent...
July 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922942/preoperative-psychosocial-factors-predicting-patient-s-functional-recovery-after-total-knee-or-total-hip-arthroplasty-a-systematic-review
#5
Anouck N Bletterman, Marcella E de Geest-Vrolijk, Johanna E Vriezekolk, Maria W Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Nico Lu van Meeteren, Thomas J Hoogeboom
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the predictive value of preoperative psychosocial factors on the perceived and observed postoperative patient's functional recovery during the post-hospital phase and up to 12 months after hospital discharge of patients who underwent total knee or total hip arthroplasty. METHODS: A systematic review was performed. MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and PsychINFO were systematically screened in order to find prospective longitudinal studies. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified version of a 27-item checklist for prognostic studies, as previously used by Veerbeek...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922829/the-threshold-of-the-state-civil-defence-the-blackout-and-the-home-in-second-world-war-britain
#6
James Greenhalgh
This article reconsiders the way that the British state extended its control of the home during the Second World War, using the implementation of air raid precautions and the blackout as a lens through which to view the state's developing attitudes to domestic space. Presented here is not the familiar story of pitch-dark, dangerous streets or altered cityscapes of fear and destruction; instead, by examining personal testimony the article inverts traditional treatments of the blackout to look at the interior of dwellings, demonstrating how the realities of total warfare impinged upon the psychological elements that constituted the home...
June 1, 2017: 20 Century British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922736/reduced-white-matter-integrity-in-borderline-personality-disorder-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#7
Taiga Ninomiya, Harumi Oshita, Yoshihisa Kawano, Chiharu Goto, Mai Matsuhashi, Koji Masuda, Fuku Takita, Toshihiko Izumi, Ayako Inoue, Haruka Higuma, Masayuki Kanehisa, Jotaro Akiyoshi
BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotions. BPD may be linked to an abnormal brain anatomy, but little is known about possible impairments of the white matter microstructure in BPD or their relationship with impulsivity or risky behaviors. The aims of the present study were to explore the relationship between BPD and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters and psychological tests. METHODS: We evaluated 35 un-medicated BPD patients in a medication-free state and 50 healthy controls (HCs)...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922295/spiritual-needs-of-patients-with-cancer-in-palliative-care-an-integrative-review
#8
Ana Cláudia Mesquita, Érika de Cássia Lopes Chaves, Guilherme Antônio Moreira de Barros
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The experience of a life crisis, such as the experience of end-of-life terminality whenever facing cancer can make the spiritual needs of patients clear. The goal of this revision was to synthesize the existing evidence regarding the spiritual needs of patients with cancer in palliative care. RECENT FINDINGS: An integrated revision of the literature was conducted regarding the database sources from PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, LILACS and Scopus, without publishing year restrictions...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921584/we-didn-t-say-that-challenges-in-the-public-dissemination-of-a-research-finding-with-controversial-implications
#9
Zachary P Neal, Jennifer Watling Neal
In the March 2014 issue of American Journal of Community Psychology, we published an article that examined the tension between two core values in the field of community psychology: promoting contextual conditions that foster respect for diversity and promoting contextual conditions that foster sense of community. We concluded that processes of social network formation could help explain why diversity and sense of community are seemingly incompatible goals. The study's findings initially disseminated through the usual academic channels, and later through mainstream media outlets...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920523/the-social-consequences-of-stigma-related-self-concealment-after-acquired-brain-injury
#10
Barbara F Hagger, Gerard A Riley
Social relationships often decline after brain injury. Although much of this is due to psychosocial impairments caused by the injury, the reactions to the injury of others in the person's wider social network, along with the response of the person with the injury to those reactions, also need to be considered. Anxiety about stigmatising reactions from others may lead some to conceal information about their brain injury. This study investigated some of the social consequences of such concealment. Sixty-five participants with acquired brain injury completed the Anticipated Stigma and Concealment Questionnaire, the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale, the UCLA Loneliness Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Social Integration subscale of the Community Integration Questionnaire, and the Enacted Social Support Questionnaire...
September 18, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916957/perspectives-of-women-considering-bilateral-prophylactic-mastectomy-and-their-peers-towards-a-telephone-based-peer-support-intervention
#11
D St-Pierre, K Bouchard, L Gauthier, J Chiquette, Michel Dorval
Prophylactic mastectomy is an effective strategy to reduce the risk of breast cancer for women carrying a BRCA1/2 germline mutation. This decision is complex and may raise various concerns. Women considering this surgery have reported their desire to discuss the implications of this procedure with women who have undergone prophylactic mastectomy. We conducted a qualitative study to describe the topics covered during a telephone-based peer support intervention between women considering prophylactic mastectomy (recipients) and women who had undergone this surgery (peers), and to explore their perspectives regarding the intervention...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915494/social-class-shapes-the-form-and-function-of-relationships-and-selves
#12
REVIEW
Rebecca M Carey, Hazel Rose Markus
Social class shapes relational realities, which in turn situate and structure different selves and their associated psychological tendencies. We first briefly review how higher class contexts tend to foster independent models of self and lower class contexts tend to foster interdependent models of self. We then consider how these independent and interdependent models of self are situated in and adapted to different social class-driven relational realities. We review research demonstrating that in lower social class contexts, social networks tend to be small, dense, homogenous and strongly connected...
September 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914155/psychological-foundations-of-xenophilia-understanding-and-measuring-the-motivational-functions-of-exploratory-cross-cultural-contact
#13
Stefan Stürmer, Alison E F Benbow
Two multipart studies (total N = 1,638) were conducted to introduce and test a functional perspective on exploratory cross-cultural contact. Studies 1a and 1b addressed the lack of standardized measures and developed a psychometrically valid inventory of six individual motivational functions: knowledge and understanding, value expression, professional advancement, social development, personal-, and group-image concerns. Studies 2a and 2b produced experimental evidence that different environments offer differing "fulfillment opportunities" such that the motivating potential of a distinct contact function results from a function by environment fit...
August 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914154/the-failure-of-null-hypothesis-significance-testing-when-studying-incremental-changes-and-what-to-do-about-it
#14
Andrew Gelman
A standard mode of inference in social and behavioral science is to establish stylized facts using statistical significance in quantitative studies. However, in a world in which measurements are noisy and effects are small, this will not work: selection on statistical significance leads to effect sizes which are overestimated and often in the wrong direction. After a brief discussion of two examples, one in economics and one in social psychology, we consider the procedural solution of open postpublication review, the design solution of devoting more effort to accurate measurements and within-person comparisons, and the statistical analysis solution of multilevel modeling and reporting all results rather than selection on significance...
September 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906409/the-study-on-the-core-personality-trait-words-of-chinese-medical-university-students-based-on-social-network-analysis
#15
Ying Wu, Yunzhen Xue, Zhanling Xue
The medical university students in China whose school work is relatively heavy and educational system is long are a special professional group. Many students have psychological problems more or less. So, to understand their personality characteristics will provide a scientific basis for the intervention of psychological health.We selected top 30 personality trait words according to the order of frequency. Additionally, some methods such as social network analysis (SNA) and visualization technology of mapping knowledge domain were used in this study...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906068/human-mating-strategies-from-past-causes-to-present-consequences
#16
REVIEW
Daniele Marzoli, Jan Havlíček, S Craig Roberts
In both humans and nonhuman animals, mating strategies represent a set of evolutionary adaptations aimed at promoting individual fitness by means of reproduction with the best possible partners. Given this critical role, mating strategies influence numerous aspects of human life. In particular, between-sex divergence in the intensity of intrasexual competition could account for robust cross-cultural sex differences in psychology and behavior (e.g., personality, psychiatric disorders, social behavior, violence)...
September 14, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905636/the-role-of-leisure-activities-in-the-relationship-between-marital-transition-in-later-midlife-and-psychological-well-being-trajectories
#17
Yi-Han Hu, Ching-Ju Chiu, Jen D Wong, Dai-Chan Lin, Linda A Wray
This study examined the levels and rates of changes in psychological well-being for middle-aged adults of different statuses or marital transitions. The moderating effects of different leisure activities were also tested. Longitudinal data on 1,270 persons aged 50 to 65 years at baseline from the Taiwan longitudinal study on aging were analyzed. Adults who were stably unmarried or unpartnered reported worse mental health at baseline, but their psychological well-being improved over time. The trajectory of depressive symptoms fluctuated markedly in adults who became widowed during our observation period...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904594/psychological-well-being-in-italian-families-an-exploratory-approach-to-the-study-of-mental-health-across-the-adult-life-span-in-the-blue-zone
#18
Paul Kenneth Hitchcott, Maria Chiara Fastame, Jessica Ferrai, Maria Pietronilla Penna
Self-reported measures of psychological well-being and depressive symptoms were examined across differently aged family members, while controlling for the impact of marital status and personal satisfaction about family and non-family relations. Twenty-one grandchildren (i.e., ages 21-36 years) were recruited with their parents (i.e., 48-66 years old) and grandparents (i.e., 75-101 years of age) in the 'blue zone' of Ogliastra, an Italian area known for the longevity of its inhabitants. Each participant was individually presented a battery of questionnaires assessing their lifestyle and several perceived mental health indices, including the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS, Tennant et al...
August 2017: Europe's journal of psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903706/cross-situational-self-consistency-in-nine-cultures-the-importance-of-separating-influences-of-social-norms-and-distinctive-dispositions
#19
Kenneth D Locke, A Timothy Church, Khairul A Mastor, Guy J Curtis, Pamela Sadler, Kelly McDonald, José de Jesús Vargas-Flores, Joselina Ibáñez-Reyes, Hiroaki Morio, Jose Alberto S Reyes, Helena F Cabrera, Rina Mazuera Arias, Brigida Carolina Rincon, Neida Coromoto Albornoz Arias, Arturo Muñoz, Fernando A Ortiz
We assessed self-consistency (expressing similar traits in different situations) by having undergraduates in the United States ( n = 230), Australia ( n = 220), Canada ( n = 240), Ecuador ( n = 101), Mexico ( n = 209), Venezuela ( n = 209), Japan ( n = 178), Malaysia ( n = 254), and the Philippines ( n = 241) report the traits they expressed in four different social situations. Self-consistency was positively associated with age, well-being, living in Latin America, and not living in Japan; however, each of these variables showed a unique pattern of associations with various psychologically distinct sources of raw self-consistency, including cross-situationally consistent social norms and injunctions...
July 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903659/sage-on-the-stage-women-s-representation-at-an-academic-conference
#20
Camille S Johnson, Pamela K Smith, Chunlei Wang
Who presents at conferences matters. Presenting research benefits speakers, and presenters shape the conclusions audiences draw about who can succeed in a field. This is particularly important for members of historically underrepresented or disadvantaged groups, such as women. We investigated gender representation over a 13-year period among speakers at the largest social and personality psychology conference. On average, women were underrepresented as speakers, though this effect diminished over time. Chairs appeared to serve as gatekeepers: In symposia chaired by women, almost half of the invited speakers were women, whereas in symposia chaired by men, it was a third...
April 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
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