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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528219/the-ongoing-saga-of-the-mechanism-s-of-mhc-class-i-restricted-cross-presentation
#1
Jeff E Grotzke, Debrup Sengupta, Qiao Lu, Peter Cresswell
Cross-presentation is an MHC-I antigen processing pathway that results in the presentation of peptides from exogenous viral, bacterial, parasitic, and tumor antigens and ultimately leads to priming of naïve CD8(+) T cells. This process involves several cellular compartments and multiple components. Successful generation of MHC-I-peptide complexes requires that these components act together in a coordinated fashion. We discuss recent findings on the source of MHC-I, the role of the TAP transporter, the importance of intracellular trafficking events, mechanisms of antigen access the cytosol, and how innate immune signals can affect presentation, with an emphasis on how these pathways compare to conventional antigen presentation and how they correlate with existing data...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497793/image-guided-genomics-of-phenotypically-heterogeneous-populations-reveals-vascular-signalling-during-symbiotic-collective-cancer-invasion
#2
J Konen, E Summerbell, B Dwivedi, K Galior, Y Hou, L Rusnak, A Chen, J Saltz, W Zhou, L H Boise, P Vertino, L Cooper, K Salaita, J Kowalski, A I Marcus
Phenotypic heterogeneity is widely observed in cancer cell populations. Here, to probe this heterogeneity, we developed an image-guided genomics technique termed spatiotemporal genomic and cellular analysis (SaGA) that allows for precise selection and amplification of living and rare cells. SaGA was used on collectively invading 3D cancer cell packs to create purified leader and follower cell lines. The leader cell cultures are phenotypically stable and highly invasive in contrast to follower cultures, which show phenotypic plasticity over time and minimally invade in a sheet-like pattern...
May 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482463/nanoencapsulation-of-lutein-and-its-effect-on-mice-s-declarative-memory
#3
Jéssica Thaís do Prado Silva, Júlia Maria Tonin Geiss, Sara Marchesan Oliveira, Evelyne da Silva Brum, Sara Cristina Sagae, Daniela Becker, Fernanda Vitória Leimann, Rafael Porto Ineu, Gustavo Petri Guerra, Odinei Hess Gonçalves
Lutein is a xanthophyll carotenoid widely known by its biological properties and low toxicity. When located in the brain, lutein may inhibit damage mechanisms, acting in neural cells maintenance. However, this carotenoid is very sensitive to external agents such as heat, light, pH and oxidation, besides presenting low absorption in gastrointestinal tract due its low solubility in water. Encapsulation procedures have shown promising results to increase lutein stability and bioavailability. In this work, lutein was encapsulated in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) matrix by the dissolution in common solvent method...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482173/evaluation-of-a-combination-tumor-treatment-using-thermo-triggered-liposomal-drug-delivery-and-carbon-ion-irradiation
#4
Daisuke Kokuryo, Ichio Aoki, Eiji Yuba, Kenji Kono, Sadahito Aoshima, Jeff Kershaw, Tsuneo Saga
The combination of radiotherapy with chemotherapy is one of the most promising strategies for cancer treatment. Here, a novel combination strategy utilizing carbon ion irradiation as a high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiotherapy and a thermo-triggered nanodevice is proposed, and drug accumulation in the tumor and treatment effects are evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging relaxometry and immunohistology (Ki-67, n = 15). The thermo-triggered liposomal anticancer nanodevice was administered into colon-26 tumor-grafted mice, and drug accumulation and efficacy was compared for 6 groups (n = 32) that received or did not receive the radiotherapy and thermo trigger...
April 21, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474886/multivalent-soluble-antigen-arrays-exhibit-high-avidity-binding-and-modulation-of-b-cell-receptor-mediated-signaling-to-drive-efficacy-against-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#5
Brittany L Hartwell, Chad J Pickens, Martin Leon, Cory Berkland
A pressing need exists for antigen-specific immunotherapies (ASIT) that induce selective tolerance in autoimmune disease while avoiding deleterious global immunosuppression. Multivalent soluble antigen arrays (SAgAPLP:LABL), consisting of a hyaluronic acid (HA) linear polymer backbone cografted with multiple copies of autoantigen (PLP) and cell adhesion inhibitor (LABL) peptides, are designed to induce tolerance to a specific multiple sclerosis (MS) autoantigen. Previous studies established that hydrolyzable SAgAPLP:LABL, employing a degradable linker to codeliver PLP and LABL, was therapeutic in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in vivo and exhibited antigen-specific binding with B cells, targeted the B cell receptor (BCR), and dampened BCR-mediated signaling in vitro...
May 17, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469531/cancer-metastasis-enactment-of-the-script-for-human-reproductive-drama
#6
Xichun Sun, Xiwu Liu
Based on compelling evidence from many biological disciplines, we put forth a hypothesis for cancer metastasis. In the hypothesis, the metastatic cascade is depicted as human reproduction in miniature. Illustrated in a reproductive light, the staggering resemblance of cancer metastasis to human reproduction becomes evident despite some ostensible dis-similarities. In parallel to the appearance of primordial germ cells during early embryogenesis, the cancer reproductive saga starts with the separation of metastasis initiating cells (MICs) from cancer initiating cells when the primary cancer is still in its infancy...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466516/the-ongoing-saga-of-poor-blood-pressure-measurement-past-present-and-future-perspectives
#7
Jennifer Ringrose, Raj Padwal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458285/development-of-adcs-using-molecular-imaging
#8
Masahiro Yasunaga, Shino Manabe, Atsushi Tsuji, Mamoru Furuta, Koretsugu Ogata, Yoshikatsu Koga, Yuki Fujiwara, Tsuneo Saga, Yasuhiro Matsumura
 Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) comprise an antibody, a linker, and a drug or payload. The selection of a tumor-specific antibody and development of a linker having an efficient controlled drug release (CDR) are critical steps in developing a fully functional and effective ADC. In our research strategy, molecular imaging technologies have been employed to evaluate the efficiency of antibody delivery and CDR of the linker. In preclinical setting, antibody delivery into the tumor area or antibody penetration through the tumor stroma in malignant lymphoma or pancreatic tumor was evaluated by in vivo fluorescence imaging technique...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452005/dual-isotope-cardiac-spect-the-twin-peaks-saga-in-nuclear-cardiology
#9
EDITORIAL
C Marcassa, O Zoccarato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442999/roles-of-multiple-globus-pallidus-territories-of-monkeys-and-humans-in-motivation-cognition-and-action-an-anatomical-physiological-and-pathophysiological-review
#10
REVIEW
Yosuke Saga, Eiji Hoshi, Léon Tremblay
The globus pallidus (GP) communicates with widespread cortical areas that support various functions, including motivation, cognition and action. Anatomical tract-tracing studies revealed that the anteroventral GP communicates with the medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices, which are involved in motivational control; the anterodorsal GP communicates with the lateral prefrontal cortex, which is involved in cognitive control; and the posterior GP communicates with the frontal motor cortex, which is involved in action control...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433332/cardiovascular-outcomes-in-patients-with-peripheral-arterial-disease-as-an-initial-or-subsequent-manifestation-of%C3%A2-atherosclerotic-disease-results-from-a-swedish-nationwide-study
#11
Birgitta Sigvant, Pål Hasvold, Björn Kragsterman, Mårten Falkenberg, Saga Johansson, Marcus Thuresson, Joakim Nordanstig
OBJECTIVE: Long-term progression of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) as initial manifestation of atherosclerotic arterial disease is not well described. Cardiovascular (CV) risk was examined in different PAD populations diagnosed in a hospital setting in Sweden. METHODS: Data for this retrospective cohort study were retrieved by linking data on morbidity, medication use, and mortality from Swedish national registries. Primary CV outcome was a composite of myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke (IS), and CV death...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424805/cruising-through-the-journey-without-getting-drowned-the-saga-of-a-phd-student-in-the-netherlands
#12
Louise van Galen, Joyce Wachelder
Young medical trainees all over the world are encouraged to investigate unknown areas of medicine that need clarification. This often leads them to undertake a PhD (Doctor of Philosophy). Being curious, critical, and creative are necessary competences which enable us to engender scientific research within acute (internal) medicine. Worldwide, huge numbers of professionals are pursuing a PhD, with the aim of receiving a 'Doctor'-title. These PhD trajectories vary distinctly between countries. Since the distances in the scientific world are getting smaller and it is becoming more easy to work with each other across borders, it might be interesting to know what it requires to become an academic 'doctor' overseas...
2017: Acute Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418815/educational-activity-for-the-radiation-emergency-system-in-the-northern-part-of-japan-meeting-report-on-the-3rd-educational-symposium-on-radiation-and-health-esrah-by-young-scientists-in-2016
#13
Yusuke Matsuya, Takakiyo Tsujiguchi, Masaru Yamaguchi, Takaaki Kimura, Ryosuke Mori, Ryota Yamada, Ryo Saga, Yohei Fujishima, Hiroyuki Date
In the northern part of Japan, close cooperation is essential in preparing for any possible emergency response to radiation accidents because several facilities, such as the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility, the MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant and the Vitrified Waste Storage Center, exist in Rokkasho Village (Aomori Prefecture). After the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, special attention should be given to the relationship between radiation and human health, as well as establishing a system for managing with a radiation emergency...
April 18, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412741/opposite-effects-of-gcn5-and-pcaf-knockdowns-on-the-alternative-mechanism-of-telomere-maintenance
#14
Maya Jeitany, Dalal Bakhos-Douaihy, David C Silvestre, Jose R Pineda, Nicolas Ugolin, Angela Moussa, Laurent R Gauthier, Didier Busso, Marie-Pierre Junier, Hervé Chneiweiss, Sylvie Chevillard, Chantal Desmaze, François D Boussin
Cancer cells can use a telomerase-independent mechanism, known as alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), to elongate their telomeres. General control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5) and P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) are two homologous acetyltransferases that are mutually exclusive subunits in SAGA-like complexes. Here, we reveal that down regulation of GCN5 and PCAF had differential effects on some phenotypic characteristics of ALT cells. Our results suggest that GCN5 is present at telomeres and opposes telomere recombination, in contrast to PCAF that may indirectly favour them in ALT cells...
April 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400515/saga-complex-mediates-the-transcriptional-up-regulation-of-antiviral-rna-silencing
#15
Ida Bagus Andika, Atif Jamal, Hideki Kondo, Nobuhiro Suzuki
Pathogen recognition and transcriptional activation of defense-related genes are crucial steps in cellular defense responses. RNA silencing (RNAi) functions as an antiviral defense in eukaryotic organisms. Several RNAi-related genes are known to be transcriptionally up-regulated upon virus infection in some host organisms, but little is known about their induction mechanism. A phytopathogenic ascomycete, Cryphonectria parasitica (chestnut blight fungus), provides a particularly advantageous system to study RNAi activation, because its infection by certain RNA viruses induces the transcription of dicer-like 2 (dcl2) and argonaute-like 2 (agl2), two major RNAi players...
April 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392545/sudden-death-phenomenon-while-bathing-in-japan%C3%A3-mortality-data
#16
Masaru Suzuki, Takuro Shimbo, Toshiharu Ikaga, Shingo Hori
BACKGROUND: Bath-related sudden cardiac arrest frequently occurs in Japan, but the mortality data have not been sufficiently reported.Methods and Results:This prospective cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the Tokyo Metropolis, Saga Prefecture and Yamagata Prefecture between October 2012 and March 2013 (i.e., in winter). We investigated the data for all occurrences in these areas for which the emergency medical system needed to be activated because of an accident or acute illness related to bathing...
April 8, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386106/myeloproliferative-leukemia-protein-activation-directly-induces-fibrocyte-differentiation-to-cause-myelofibrosis
#17
T Maekawa, Y Osawa, T Izumi, S Nagao, K Takano, Y Okada, N Tachi, M Teramoto, T Kawamura, T Horiuchi, R Saga, S Kato, T Yamamura, J Watanabe, A Kobayashi, S Kobayashi, K Sato, M Hashimoto, S Suzu, F Kimura
Myelofibrosis (MF) may be caused by various pathogenic mechanisms such as elevation in circulating cytokine levels, cellular interactions and genetic mutations. However, the underlying mechanism of MF still remains unknown. Recent studies have revealed that fibrocytes, the spindle-shaped fibroblast-like hematopoietic cells, and the thrombopoietin (TPO)/myeloproliferative leukemia protein (MPL; TPO receptor) signaling pathway play a certain role in the development of MF. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between fibrocytes and MPL activation...
April 25, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381689/meningeal-infiltration-of-malignant-lymphoma-presenting-with-froin-s-syndrome
#18
Tomoyuki Saga, Toshimichi Ishihara, Michiyo Kanagawa
Froin's syndrome is characterized by a combination of marked coagulation, elevated protein levels, and xanthochromia of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It is due to blockage of CSF flow by a spinal cord mass or results from meningeal irritation during meningitis. However, Froin's syndrome has not been reported in hematological malignancies. Herein, we present two cases of lymphomatous leptomeningitis with Froin's syndrome. A 66-year-old man suffered consciousness disturbance during chemotherapy for a relapse of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified...
2017: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357186/lesch-nyhan-syndrome-the-saga-of-metabolic-abnormalities-and-self-injurious-behavior
#19
Nitesh Tewari, Vijay Prakash Mathur, Divesh Sardana, Kalpana Bansal
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is an X-linked recessive disorder of purine metabolism caused by a mutation in Xq26.2-q26.3 (OMIM 308000.0004). The presence of the diagnostic triad, i.e. signs of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and results of pedigree analysis and novel molecular biology & genetic testing, confirms the diagnosis of LNS. With a level of hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase 1 (HPRT1) enzyme activity < 2%, patients develop neurological, neurocognitive, and neuromotor symptoms along with SIB...
February 2017: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352469/successful-treatment-of-pulmonary-nocardiosis-with-fluoroquinolone-in-bronchial-asthma-and-bronchiectasis
#20
Hironori Sadamatsu, Koichiro Takahashi, Hiroki Tashiro, Kazutoshi Komiya, Tomomi Nakamura, Naoko Sueoka-Aragane
A 72-year-old Japanese woman was admitted at Saga University Hospital for fever, malaise, and productive cough. Six years ago, she had been diagnosed with bronchial asthma and was treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Chest radiograph and computed tomography on admission showed infiltrates in the right middle lobe, a mass lesion in the left lower lobe, and bronchiectasis in both lower lobes. Sputum examination showed Gram-positive rods with phagocytosis by neutrophils. These bacilli were identified as Nocardia otitidiscaviarum by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing...
May 2017: Respirology Case Reports
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