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bk nephropathy

Jennifer Trofe-Clark, Deirdre Sawinski
For more than 40 years, polyomaviruses (BK virus and JC virus) have been known to cause disease in human beings. Recently, 11 new polyomaviruses were discovered. However, the majority of these viruses are rare in renal transplant recipients and BK and JC viruses remain the most important polyomaviruses to impact this population. BK virus presents as BK virus nephropathy and has, in rare instances, been associated with hemorrhagic cystitis or ureteral strictures. JC virus can cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy or nephropathy in this population as well, but is uncommon...
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
Allison Ducharme-Smith, Ben Z Katz, Amy E Bobrowski, Carl L Backer, Elfriede Pahl
BKV infection and nephropathy complicate pediatric HTx, but the incidence and time course of the disease are unknown. We assessed the incidence of BKV infection and its association with kidney dysfunction in pediatric HTx recipients. A single center prospective study compared pediatric (<18 years) HTx recipients, with and without BKV infection, who received an allograft between September 2013 and December 2014. Screening of urine for BKV was performed prior to transplant, and at week 1, and at months 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months post-transplantation...
October 20, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Ashraf Kariminik, Ramin Yaghobi, Shahriar Dabiri
OBJECTIVES: It has been hypothesized that BK polyomavirus infection leads to nephropathy in kidney transplant patients via various plausible mechanisms, such as stimulation of chemokines. The CXCL11 gene may also play a role in BK polyomavirus-associated nephropathy. Our aim was to compare expression levels of CXCL11 in BK polyomavirus-infected versus noninfected kidney transplant patients with nephropathy and healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 58 kidney transplant patients with the risk of BK polyomavirus infection; these patients were subgrouped as BK polyomavirus-infected (23 patients) and noninfected (35 patients)...
October 14, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Hanneke de Kort, Kirstin M Heutinck, Jurjen M Ruben, Alessa E Valverde da Silva, Katja C Wolthers, Jörg Hamann, Ineke J M Ten Berge
BACKGROUND: BK polyomavirus (BKV)-associated nephropathy is a threat to kidney allograft survival affecting up to 15% of renal transplant patients. Previous studies revealed that tubular epithelial cells (TEC) show a limited response towards BKV infection. Here we investigated the interplay between BKV and TEC in more detail. In particular, we questioned whether BKV suppresses and/or evades antiviral responses. METHODS: Human primary tubular epithelial cells (TEC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were infected with BKV Dunlop strain or other viruses...
October 17, 2016: Transplantation
A L F Gouvêa, R I J Cosendey, F R Carvalho, R B Varella, C F de Souza, P F Lopes, A A Silva, M C Rochael, H P de Moraes, J R Lugon, J R Almeida
BACKGROUND: Urine monitoring programs represent an important strategy for early diagnosis of reactivation of BK polyomavirus (BKV) in kidney transplant recipients. This study analyzes a BKV urine screening model in kidney transplant patients. METHODS: Urinary screening for BKV reactivation was performed by urinary decoy cell and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests in samples from 32 consecutive kidney transplant patients, collected in a 6-month follow-up period...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Gabriel Godinho Pinto, Jose Antonio T Poloni, Liane N Rotta, Raymund R Razonable, Alessandro C Pasqualotto
Urine cytology and qPCR in blood and urine are commonly used to screen renal transplant recipients for polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN). Few studies, however, have directly compared these two diagnostic tests, in terms of their performance to predict PVAN. This was a systematic review in which adult (≥ 18 years old) renal transplant recipients were studied. A structured Pubmed search was used to identify studies comparing urine cytology and/or qPCR in urine and plasma samples for detecting PVAN with renal biopsy as the gold standard for diagnosis...
July 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
Camila Hitomi Nihei, Ligia Camera Pierrotti, Elias David-Neto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
Ashraf Kariminik
It has been demonstrated that IL-2 plays a dual role in induction/suppression of immune responses via activation of conventional and regulatory T lymphocytes, respectively. IL-2 contacts complete IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) which contains CD25 (α chain) on the antigen specific activated T helper and cytotoxic lymphocytes and also T regulatory cells. Additionally, previous investigations revealed that polyoma BK virus (PBK) reactivation and induction of PBK associated nephropathy (PBKAN) is a main complication following renal transplantation...
October 5, 2016: Cytokine
Aurore Barthélemy, Nicolas Bouvier, Renaud Verdon, Valérie Chatelet, Bruno Hurault de Ligny
We report the case of a human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patient whose initial kidney transplant failed because of BK polyomavirus-induced nephropathy, and who underwent a second transplantation 3 years later. BK viruria was detected 1 day after transplantation. After 1 month, BK viremia developed along with a donor-specific antibody. After decreasing tacrolimus and mycophenolic acid and 2 courses of intravenous immunoglobulins, BK viremia and donor-specific antibody permanently disappeared, with stable renal function...
September 26, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Darlene Vigil, Nikifor K Konstantinov, Marc Barry, Antonia M Harford, Karen S Servilla, Young Ho Kim, Yijuan Sun, Kavitha Ganta, Antonios H Tzamaloukas
Nephropathy secondary to BK virus, a member of the Papoviridae family of viruses, has been recognized for some time as an important cause of allograft dysfunction in renal transplant recipients. In recent times, BK nephropathy (BKN) of the native kidneys has being increasingly recognized as a cause of chronic kidney disease in patients with solid organ transplants, bone marrow transplants and in patients with other clinical entities associated with immunosuppression. In such patients renal dysfunction is often attributed to other factors including nephrotoxicity of medications used to prevent rejection of the transplanted organs...
September 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
W James Chon, Nidhi Aggarwal, Masha Kocherginsky, Brenna Kane, Jozefa Sutor, Michelle A Josephson
BACKGROUND: Although early monitoring of BK virus infection in renal transplant patients has led to improved outcomes over the past decade, it remains unclear whether monitoring for viremia is the best screening tool for BK virus nephropathy (BKVN). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of the medical records of 368 renal transplant recipients who had a minimum of 18 months of posttransplantation follow-up. The relationship between the presence of BK viruria and a composite end point of BK viremia/BKVN was established, and the predictive value of high-grade BK viruria for development of viremia/BKVN was determined...
September 2016: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
Yon Su Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
S Kuppachi, D Holanda, M Eberlein, B Alexiev, A J Tyler, M C Wissel, S B Kleiboeker, C P Thomas
We report a lung transplant recipient who developed BK polyoma virus (BKPyV) DNAemia and BKPyV nephropathy. With careful management of his immunosuppression he achieved significant reduction in BKPyV DNAemia and stabilization of his kidney function. He later developed a high-grade bladder cancer and shortly thereafter he experienced a major upsurge in the level of BKPyV DNAemia that coincided with the discovery of hepatic metastasis. Retrospectively, the bladder cancer and the hepatic secondary tumor stained uniformly for SV40 large T antigen, and the BKPyV DNA sequences identified in plasma corresponded to BKPyV DNA within hepatic tissue, indicating that the spike in BKPyV load was likely derived from the circulating tumor cells or cell-free tumor DNA following metastases of a BKV-associated cancer...
September 20, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
J Radtke, N Dietze, L Fischer, E-G Achilles, J Li, S Scheidat, F Thaiss, B Nashan, M Koch
BACKGROUND: BK polyomavirus (BKV) infection and BKV nephropathy (BKVN) are risk factors for allograft function and survival. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed BK viremia and BKVN in 348 patients who received a kidney transplantation donated after brain death (n = 232) or living donation (n = 116) between 2008 and 2013. 266 patients were treated with standard immunosuppression consisting of basiliximab induction, calcineurin inhibitor (CNI), and mycophenolate (MPA, n = 219) or everolimus (n = 47)...
September 17, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Asha Rani, Ravi Ranjan, Halvor S McGee, Ahmed Metwally, Zahraa Hajjiri, Daniel C Brennan, Patricia W Finn, David L Perkins
Recent studies have established that the human urine contains a complex microbiome, including a virome about which little is known. Following immunosuppression in kidney transplant patients, BK polyomavirus (BKV) has been shown to induce nephropathy (BKVN), decreasing graft survival. In this study we investigated the urine virome profile of BKV+ and BKV- kidney transplant recipients. Virus-like particles were stained to confirm the presence of VLP in the urine samples. Metagenomic DNA was purified, and the virome profile was analyzed using metagenomic shotgun sequencing...
2016: Scientific Reports
Takeshi Maehana, Toshiaki Tanaka, Hiroshi Kitamura, Nobuyuki Fukuzawa, Hideki Ishida, Hiroshi Harada, Kazunari Tanabe, Naoya Masumori
BACKGROUND: Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), a molecular chaperone associated with the activation of client proteins, was recently reported to play an important role in immunologic reactions. To date, the role of HSP90 in solid organ transplantations has remained unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum HSP90α levels and acute allograft rejection after organ and tissue transplantation using serum samples from kidney allograft recipients, an in vitro antibody-mediated rejection model, and a murine skin transplantation...
2016: PloS One
E N Broeders, A Hamade, F El Mountahi, J Racapé, J-M Hougardy, A Le Moine, P Vereerstraeten
BACKGROUND: Polyomavirus (PV) is a major cause of kidney graft disease. Monitoring by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on blood is currently recommended. In order to avoid irreversible lesions, we investigated the clinical impact of preemptive reduction of immunosuppression (IS) in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) upon detection of high urinary PV (Upv) load, including BK virus and JC virus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 2000 to 2011, in our single center, 789 consecutive KTR were distributed into 4 groups, according to the maximal Upv levels (by PCR) during the first year and the therapeutic option: (A) Upv <10(4) copies (cp)/mL (n = 573), (B) ≥10(4) Upv <10(7) cp/mL (n = 100), and (C) Upv ≥ 10(7) cp/mL (n = 116); in group C, the IS drug doses were reduced in sub-group Ca (n = 102) only, as 14 patients (sub-group Cb) were at risk for graft rejection...
September 12, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Gerold Thölking, Christina Schmidt, Raphael Koch, Katharina Schuette-Nuetgen, Dirk Pabst, Heiner Wolters, Iyad Kabar, Anna Hüsing, Hermann Pavenstädt, Stefan Reuter, Barbara Suwelack
Immunosuppression is the major risk factor for BK virus nephropathy (BKVN) after renal transplantation (RTx). As the individual tacrolimus (Tac) metabolism rate correlates with Tac side effects, we hypothesized that Tac metabolism might also influence the BKV infection risk. In this case-control study RTx patients with BK viremia within 4 years after RTx (BKV group) were compared with a BKV negative control group. The Tac metabolism rate expressed as the blood concentration normalized by the daily dose (C/D ratio) was applied to assess the Tac metabolism rate...
2016: Scientific Reports
Kunio Kawanishi, Kazuho Honda, Junki Koike, Motoshi Hattori, Shouhei Fuchinoue, Kazunari Tanabe, Hideaki Oda, Yoji Nagashima
BACKGROUND: The BK virus typically colonizes the lower urinary tract and is the causative agent in BK virus nephropathy (BKVN), which can progress to allograft dysfunction and graft loss. Urinary reflux in kidney allografts is induced by vesicoureteral reflux or disturbances in intrarenal reflux (IRR), believed to be associated with BKVN. This study was designed to elucidate the relationship between BKVN and IRR. METHODS: We examined 30 renal transplant recipients histologically diagnosed with BKVN using anti-Simian virus 40 immunohistochemistry and 60 clinically matched control recipients...
February 2016: Transplantation Direct
A Perkowska-Ptasińska, D Dęborska-Materkowska, M Serwańska-Świętek, M Wszoła, A Kwiatkowski, M Durlik
BACKGROUND: We report 2 cases of polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PyVAN) emerging within the initial 8 posttransplant weeks. These cases were characterized by intraepithelial BK virus replication without typical nuclear inclusions in epithelial cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 70-year-old male recipient of a cadaveric kidney transplant had experienced unsatisfying graft function since the time of transplantation (Tx). One month after Tx, results of a graft biopsy revealed mild tubulointerstitial inflammation...
June 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
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