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World health

Adeera Levin
BACKGROUND: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a major public health problem and is increasingly being recognized as an important driver of costs in all health care systems. The diversity of outcomes for people living with CKD is in part due to variability in biology, access to care, environmental factors, and health care system differences. The International Society of Nephrology (ISN), working in collaboration with its partners, has evolved into a philanthropic organization, from a traditional medical society, committed to a vision that sees "a future where all people have access to sustainable kidney health"...
2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Huai-Hsuan Huang, Fei-Yuan Hsiao, Li-Ju Chen, Ho-Min Chen, Bor-Sheng Ko
BACKGROUND: Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The treatment response and overall survival (OS) improved after incorporating rituximab with chemotherapies. Yet, available evidence as to whether women and men may benefit similarly from rituximab have not been adequately addressed, particularly in the real-world setting. The objective of this study was to examine sex differences in the clinical outcomes of rituximab in DLBCL patients using the Taiwan Cancer Registry Database and National Health Insurance Research Database...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
Raúl Gomero-Cuadra, José Francia-Romero
Regulations regarding health at the workplace have generated expectations in the role played by sanitary authorities in Peru. Healthcare based on the treatment with biological agents may be a result of the lack of understanding of workplace health promotion (WHP). WHP is still a new concept that requires deepening; nevertheless, it is expected to give way to properly managed health and safety programs, reduced absenteeism, increased productivity, reduced healthcare costs, reduced legal problems, and safe and healthy work environments...
January 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
María de Los Angeles Gatica Eguiguren, Hernán Rojas
The important benefits of antimicrobial agents in disease control have turned them into a fundamental tool in animal production. Nevertheless, its elevated use and, often, misuse, has contributed to one of the main public health problems in the world: resistance to antimicrobial agents. At the animal production level, the applications in terms of health management allow decreasing the need to use antimicrobial agents and, in the cases where they are needed, the good practices reduce their potential to cause resistance to a minimum...
January 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Pilar Ramon Pardo, Hatim Sati, Marcelo Galas
Antimicrobial resistance is a complex epidemiology problem worldwide which calls for a wide and integrated approach such as "One Health." Resistant organisms are present in humans, animals, food, and the environment, and the main impeller of this resistance is the use of antimicrobial agents. The occurrence and propagation of antimicrobial resistance continue incessantly in the world, leaving devastating economic and health consequences behind. In 2015, the WHO, in collaboration with key partners such as the FAO and the OIE, developed the World Action Plan in Antimicrobial Resistance, under the perspective of "One Health...
January 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Jeffrey J Walline, Marc W Robboy, Gene Hilmantel, Michelle E Tarver, Natalie A Afshari, Deepinder K Dhaliwal, Christie L Morse, Christopher J Quinn, Michael X Repka, Malvina B Eydelman
The prevalence of myopia is high and increasing. Approximately 5 billion people around the world are expected to be myopic by the year 2050. Methods to slow the progression of myopia and therefore potentially decrease the associated sight-threatening complications have been the subject of a number of investigations. A workshop, sponsored by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health, American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Academy of Optometry, American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, American Optometric Association, American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, and Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists, Inc, convened myopia experts from around the world to discuss principles to consider in the design of clinical trials investigating the effectiveness and safety of myopia control devices...
July 2018: Eye & Contact Lens
Patricia R Blank, Gerrit Adrianus van Essen, Raúl Ortiz de Lejarazu, Jan Kyncl, Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Ernest Piotr Kuchar, Oana Falup-Pecurariu, Helena C Maltezou, Dace Zavadska, Zuzana Kristufkova, George Kassianos
Seasonal influenza can have serious morbid consequences and can even result in death, particularly in at-risk populations, including healthcare professionals (HCPs), elderly and those living with a medical risk condition. Although in Europe recommendations exist for annual influenza vaccination in these populations in most countries, the vaccination coverage rate (VCR) is often well below the World Health Organization target of 75% coverage. In our previous survey in 2009 we showed that some elements of national vaccination policies, e...
June 20, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Junmei Jia, Qiuwen Chen, Min Wang, Jianyun Zhang, Qitao Yi, Liuming Hu
To find the connections between microcystins (MCs) and phytoplankton community coupled with environmental factors, two cyanobacteria blooming lakes, Lake Taihu and Lake Yanghe, were investigated. Two years data, including water quality, phytoplankton, MCs and the congeners in both algal cells and water, were collected from the two lakes during 2013 and 2014. The results showed that the MC quota and MC release percentage were positively correlated with biodiversity of phytoplankton and the ratio of Chlorophyta/phytoplankton, but were negatively correlated with cyanobacteria abundance and the ratio of cyanobacteria/phytoplankton; the MC quota and MC release percentage were closely related to the intensity of competition between cyanobacteria and other phytoplankton; meanwhile, MCs played a role in competition between cyanobacteria and other phytoplankton...
June 20, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Mayris P Webber, Yang Liu, Hillel W Cohen, Theresa Schwartz, Michael D Weiden, Kerry Kelly, Viola Ortiz, Rachel Zeig-Owens, Nadia Jaber, Hilary L Colbeth, David J Prezant
BACKGROUND: The goals of this study were to assess the impact of work at the World Trade Center (WTC) site in relation to new, post-9/11/2001 (9/11) antibody to hepatitis C Virus (anti-HCV); and, evaluate secular trends in WTC-exposed male Fire Department of New York City (FDNY) Firefighters and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) responders. METHODS: FDNY monitors responder health through physical exams and routine blood work. We used descriptive statistics to compare trans-9/11 and post-9/11 incidence and to assess trends in prevalence from 2000 to 2012...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Sartaj Hussain, Suraj Singh Yadav, Kamal Kumar Sawlani, Sanjay Khattri
This cross-sectional study was carried out to assess drug prescribing pattern at a tertiary care teaching medical institute. One thousand prescriptions were randomly collected and analyzed using the world health organization prescribing indicators. The average number of drugs per prescription was 2.91. The percentage of drugs prescribed by generic name, from the essential drug list (National) and as fixed dose combinations (FDCs) was 10.05%, 22.57%, and 49.22%, respectively. The total percentage of encounters with antibiotics, injectables, and FDCs was 19...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Public Health
Rajesh Kunwar, Sukhmeet Minhas, Vipra Mangla
Reduction of premature mortality due to noncommunicable diseases through prevention and control forms the core issue of target 3.4 of sustainable development goals. Childhood obesity is an important public health challenge today. The current study was carried out in a large military station of North East India to find out prevalence of obesity among schoolchildren using World Health Organization body mass index-for-age charts for boys and girls. A total of 793 schoolchildren comprising of 328 girls and 465 boys between the age groups of 6 and 19 years were included...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Public Health
Nabarun Karmakar, Anjan Datta, Kaushik Nag, Kaushik Tripura
Background: Quality of life (QOL) among elderly is an important area of concern which reflects the health status and well-being of this vulnerable population. Objectives: The objective of this study is to find out different domains of QOL and its association with sociodemographic factors among geriatric population. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was done among 76 persons aged 60 years and above from August 2016 to October 2016 in rural areas of Madhupur, Sepahijala district, Tripura...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Public Health
Sreehari Uragayala, Raghavendra Kamaraju, Satyanarayan Tiwari, Susanta Kumar Ghosh, Neena Valecha
Background & objectives: Different formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) have been tested against different mosquito vectors and other insects for their residual activity. In the present study, the efficacy and residual activity of a new formulation of Bti (Bactivec Suspension Concentrate) were evaluated against immature stages of Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae), Aedes aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), in natural habitats in Phase II and Phase III in Bengaluru, India...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
K Kalaivani, Prema Ramachandran
Background & objectives: : The prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy in India is among the highest in the world. In the last two decades, several national surveys have estimated haemoglobin levels in pregnant women. In this study, data from these surveys were analyzed to find out changes, if any, in prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy. Methods: : National and State-level estimates on the prevalence of anaemia were tabulated from the reports of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 2, NFHS 3, Fact Sheets of NFHS 4 and District Level Household Survey (DLHS) 2...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
AmirReza Hesari, Faezeh Ghasemi, Reza Salarinia, Hamed Biglari, Agheel Tabar Molla Hassan, Vali Abdoli, Hamed Mirzaei
Curcumin is a yellow-orange powder derived from the Curcuma longa plant. Curcumin has been used extensively in traditional medicine for centuries. This component is non-toxic and shown different therapeutic properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antiviral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-parasites, and anti-oxidant. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a small DNA member of the genus Orthohepadnavirus (Hepadnaviridae family) which is a highly contagious blood-borne viral pathogen. HBV infection is a major public health problem with 2 billion people infected throughout the world and 350 million suffering from chronic HBV infection...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Rose M Collard, Sanne Wassink-Vossen, Aart H Schene, Paul Naarding, Peter Verhaak, Richard C Oude Voshaar, Hannie C Comijs
OBJECTIVES: Functional limitations give an indication of the total impact of diseases, such as depression, on individuals health and recovery. This study examines the change in several domains of functioning over 2 years in older persons depressed at baseline (non-remitted group and remitted group after 2 years) and in a non-depressed comparison group. METHODS: Data were used from a cohort study (Netherlands Study of Depression in Older persons [NESDO]) consisting of depressed older persons ≥ 60 years (N = 378) and a non-depressed comparison group (N = 132) with 2 years of follow-up (attrition rate 24%)...
June 19, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Mansour R Azari, Asghar Sadighzadeh, Majid Bayatian
Accidents have happened in the chemical industries all over the world with serious consequences for the adjacent heavily populated areas. In this study, the impact of the probable hypothetical event, releasing considerable amounts of hydrogen fluoride (HF) as a strong irritant into the atmosphere over the city of Isfahan from a strategic chemical plant, was simulated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this model, the meteorological parameters were integrated into time and space, and dispersion of the pollutants was estimated based on a probable accidental release of HF...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Francesca Floris, Federica Comitini, GiovanBattista Leoni, Paolo Moi, Maddalena Morittu, Valeria Orecchia, Maria Perra, Maria Paola Pilia, Antonietta Zappu, Maria Rosaria Casini, Raffaella Origa
PURPOSE: The aim of this study has been to evaluate the physical, psychological, and social well-being in a large group of Sardinian adult patients with transfusion-dependent beta-Thalassemia when compared with a group of healthy subjects of the same age and geographical extraction. METHODS: Male or female patients ≥ 18 years of age with Thalassemia major on regular transfusion at Thalassemia Center in Cagliari (Italy) were requested to complete the World Health Organization Quality of life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire...
June 19, 2018: Quality of Life Research
Gallwitz Baptist
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with numerous comorbidities that significantly reduce quality of life, increase mortality and complicate treatment decisions. In a recent cardiovascular outcomes trial, Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients (EMPA-REG OUTCOME), the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin was shown to reduce cardiovascular (CV) mortality and heart failure in high-risk patients with T2D with a previous CV event or with established CV disease (CVD)...
April 2018: European Endocrinology
Donna M Klingspohn
Indigenous women in Canada face a range of health and social issues including domestic violence. Indigenous women (First Nations, Inuit and Métis) are six times more likely to be killed than non-Aboriginal women (Homicide in Canada, 2014; Miladinovic and Mulligan, 2015). Aboriginal women are 2.5 times more likely to be victims of violence than non-Aboriginal women (Robertson, 2010). These and other statistics highlight a significant difference in the level of violence experienced by Indigenous women to that experienced by women in the mainstream population in Canada...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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