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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471341/onchocerciasis-shifting-the-target-from-control-to-elimination-requires-a-new-first-step-elimination-mapping
#1
Maria P Rebollo, Honorat Zoure, Kisito Ogoussan, Yao Sodahlon, Eric A Ottesen, Paul T Cantey
The meaning of 'mapping' in relation to onchocerciasis has changed at least three times over the past 50 years as the programmatic goals and the assessment tools have changed. With the current goal being global elimination of Onchocerca volvulus (OV), all areas where OV might currently be transmitted and where mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin treatment has not been delivered previously must now be identified by careful, detailed 'elimination mapping' as either OV endemic or not, so that appropriate programmatic targets can be established...
March 1, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471337/the-role-of-national-committees-in-eliminating-onchocerciasis
#2
Emily Griswold, Thomas Unnasch, Mark Eberhard, Bertram E B Nwoke, Zoraida Morales, Edridah Muheki Tukahebwa, Biruck Kebede, Ifeoma Anagbogu, Moses Katabarwa, Peace Habomugisha, Zerihun Tadesse, Emmanuel S Miri, Darin Evans, Daniel Cohn, Elizabeth Elhassan, Frank Richards
National onchocerciasis elimination committees (NOECs) serve to help ministries of health complete the pathway to successful verification of elimination of onchocerciasis (river blindness), as outlined in the 2016 World Health Organization guidelines. These guidelines, however, only take effect when the country believes it has reached a point that elimination can be demonstrated, and do not address the preceding milestones. Therefore, NOECs can be of great help with guiding and tailoring earlier planning, programming and assessments to empower national programs to aggressively move toward their countries' elimination goals...
March 1, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471336/diagnostics-for-onchocerciasis-in-the-era-of-elimination
#3
Thomas R Unnasch, Allison Golden, Vitaliano Cama, Paul T Cantey
In the past few years, efforts to eliminate onchocerciasis from Africa have intensified. These efforts are primarily based on the mass distribution of the anti-helminthic drug Mectizan™ (ivermectin). This program has led to the development of new guidelines by the World Health Organization for the verification that transmission has been suppressed and eventually eliminated. The requirements of diagnostic tools for this purpose differ in many ways from tests used to diagnose infection in individuals. In this review, we summarize the progress that has been made to identify diagnostics that meet the specialized requirements needed to verify onchocerciasis elimination, discuss why these tests were selected and summarize the needs that still exist to complete the arsenal of diagnostic tools that will be useful as the goal of elimination is achieved...
March 1, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471335/after-70-years-of-fighting-an-age-old-scourge-onchocerciasis-in-uganda-the-end-is-in-sight
#4
Moses N Katabarwa, Thomson Lakwo, Peace Habomugisha, Thomas R Unnasch, Rolf Garms, Lauri Hudson-Davis, Edson Byamukama, Annet Khainza, Johnson Ngorok, Edridah Tukahebwa, Frank O Richards
Onchocerciasis causes severe itching, serious skin disease and ocular damage leading to visual impairment or permanent blindness. It is associated with hanging groin, epilepsy, Nakalanga dwarfism and, most recently, nodding disease. This disease affected communities in 17 transmission foci in 37 districts of Uganda, where about 6.7 million people are once at risk. The efforts against onchocerciasis in Uganda commenced in the late 1940s, when vector control was launched using dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane; by 1973, Simulium damnosum had been eliminated in the Victoria focus...
March 1, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471164/nanoparticles-of-volcanic-ash-as-a-carrier-for-toxic-elements-on-the-global-scale
#5
Mikhail S Ermolin, Petr S Fedotov, Natalia A Malik, Vasily K Karandashev
At present, there is concern about engineered nanoparticles in the environment, whereas natural nanoparticles (NPs) and their impact are often neglected. In our paper, we demonstrate the important role of nanoparticles of volcanic ash in transport of toxic elements on a global scale. A single volcanic eruption can eject millions of tons of ash. NPs of volcanic ash reach the upper troposphere and the stratosphere and may "travel" around the world for years affecting human health, environment, and even climate...
February 16, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471143/transdermal-delivery-of-vitamin-k-using-dissolving-microneedles-for-the-prevention-of-vitamin-k-deficiency-bleeding
#6
Aaron R J Hutton, Helen L Quinn, Paul J McCague, Courtney Jarrahian, Annie Rein-Weston, Patricia S Coffey, Emily Gerth-Guyette, Darin Zehrung, Eneko Larrañeta, Ryan F Donnelly
Vitamin K deficiency within neonates can result in vitamin K deficiency bleeding. Ensuring that newborns receive vitamin K is particularly critical in places where access to health care and blood products and transfusions is limited. The World Health Organization recommends that newborns receive a 1 mg intramuscular injection of vitamin K at birth. Evidence from multiple surveillance studies shows that the introduction of vitamin K prophylaxis reduces the incidence of vitamin K deficiency bleeding. Despite these recommendations, coverage of vitamin K prophylactic treatment in low-resource settings is limited...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471007/risk-assessment-of-benzene-in-food-samples-of-iran-s-market
#7
Ali Heshmati, Sabah Ghadimi, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah, Francisco J Barba, Jose M Lorenzo, Fatemeh Nazemi, Yadolah Fakhri
The concentration of benzene in ninety-eight collected food and drink samples (carbonated beverage, fruit juice, pickle, lime juice, mayonnaise and salad dressing, 16 samples from each) from Iran local markets were investigated using gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Moreover, the correlation of benzene concentration with sodium benzoate and ascorbic acid concentrations was assessed. Benzene concentration in carbonated beverages, fruit juices, pickle, lime juices, mayonnaise and salad dressing were 3...
February 19, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470689/the-nutritional-and-health-attributes-of-kiwifruit-a-review
#8
REVIEW
David P Richardson, Juliet Ansell, Lynley N Drummond
PURPOSE: To describe the nutritional and health attributes of kiwifruit and the benefits relating to improved nutritional status, digestive, immune and metabolic health. The review includes a brief history of green and gold varieties of kiwifruit from an ornamental curiosity from China in the 19th century to a crop of international economic importance in the 21st century; comparative data on their nutritional composition, particularly the high and distinctive amount of vitamin C; and an update on the latest available scientific evidence from well-designed and executed human studies on the multiple beneficial physiological effects...
February 22, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470449/determinants-of-quality-of-life-and-satisfaction-with-life-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#9
Ewa Rzońca, Agnieszka Bień, Artur Wdowiak, Ryszard Szymański, Grażyna Iwanowicz-Palus
The purpose of the study was to assess the quality of life (QoL) and satisfaction with life (SwL) of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in comparison with those of healthy controls, and to identify and analyze factors determining QoL and SwL in women with PCOS. The cross-sectional study was performed between January and November 2016 in 504 women using health care services in Poland. The study group comprised women with PCOS, the control group women without PCOS. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470435/creative-arts-interventions-for-stress-management-and-prevention-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Lily Martin, Renate Oepen, Katharina Bauer, Alina Nottensteiner, Katja Mergheim, Harald Gruber, Sabine C Koch
Stress is one of the world's largest health problems, leading to exhaustion, burnout, anxiety, a weak immune system, or even organ damage. In Germany, stress-induced work absenteeism costs about 20 billion Euros per year. Therefore, it is not surprising that the Central Federal Association of the public Health Insurance Funds in Germany ascribes particular importance to stress prevention and stress management as well as health enhancing measures. Building on current integrative and embodied stress theories, Creative Arts Therapies (CATs) or arts interventions are an innovative way to prevent stress and improve stress management...
February 22, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470415/exclusive-breastfeeding-rate-and-complementary-feeding-indicators-in-china-a-national-representative-survey-in-2013
#11
Yifan Duan, Zhenyu Yang, Jianqiang Lai, Dongmei Yu, Suying Chang, Xuehong Pang, Shan Jiang, Huanmei Zhang, Ye Bi, Jie Wang, Robert W Scherpbier, Liyun Zhao, Shian Yin
Appropriate infant and young child feeding could reduce morbidity and mortality and could improve cognitive development of children. However, nationwide data on exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding status in China are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess current exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding status in China. A national representative survey (Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey) of children aged under 6 years was done in 2013. Stratified multistage cluster sampling was used to select study participants...
February 22, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470388/adolescents-sexual-wellbeing-in-southwestern-uganda-a-cross-sectional-assessment-of-body-image-self-esteem-and-gender-equitable-norms
#12
Elizabeth Kemigisha, Viola N Nyakato, Katharine Bruce, Gad Ndaruhutse Ruzaaza, Wendo Mlahagwa, Anna B Ninsiima, Gily Coene, Els Leye, Kristien Michielsen
Measures of sexual wellbeing and positive aspects of sexuality in the World Health Organization definition for sexual health are rarely studied and remain poorly understood, especially among adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to assess sexual wellbeing in its broad sense-i.e., body image, self-esteem, and gender equitable norms-and associated factors in young adolescents in Uganda. A cross-sectional survey of adolescents ages 10-14 years in schools was carried out between June and July 2016...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470007/women-and-kidney-disease-reflections-on-world-kidney-day-2018
#13
Giorgina B Piccoli, Mona Alrukhaimi, Zhi-Hong Liu, Elena Zakharova, Adeera Levin
World Kidney Day and International Women's Day 2018 are commemorated on the same day (March 8), an opportunity to highlight the importance of women's health, and particularly, their kidney health. On its 13th anniversary, World Kidney Day promotes affordable and equitable access to health education, health care, and prevention for all women and girls in the world. In this article, we focus on what we do and do not know about women, kidney health, and kidney disease, and what we might learn in the future to improve outcomes worldwide...
January 2018: Nephrology Nursing Journal: Journal of the American Nephrology Nurses' Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469986/prevalence-and-duration-of-breast-milk-feeding-in-very-preterm-infants-a-3-year-follow-up-study-and-a-systematic-literature-review
#14
Carina Rodrigues, Raquel Teixeira, Maria João Fonseca, Jennifer Zeitlin, Henrique Barros
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breast milk feeding until 6 months and continuing up to 2 years of age; little is known about whether very preterm infants are fed in accordance with these recommendations. We aimed to describe the prevalence and duration of breast milk feeding in very preterm children and to systematically review internationally published data. METHODS: We evaluated breast milk feeding initiation and duration in very preterm children born in 2 Portuguese regions (2011-2012) enrolled in the EPICE cohort and followed-up to the age of 3 (n = 466)...
February 22, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469737/telangiectasia-macularis-eruptiva-perstans-an-old-terminology-still-frequently-used
#15
Kelly Wilmas, Iris Wohlmuth-Wieser, Madeleine Duvic
The term telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans (TMEP) was originally used to describe a rare form of cutaneous mastocytosis (CM) that was limited to the skin with lesions consisting of irregular, telangiectatic macules ranging in color from red to brown. Recent guidelines, however, recommended that the sole presence of telangiectasias should not form the basis of a distinct variant of CM. We conducted a review of the literature from 1930 to 2017 and found 76 cases that were reported as TMEP. Owing to a general misconception about diagnosis of CM and SM, there is a need for further discussion and awareness of the newly proposed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines...
August 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469693/dermatology-on-reddit-elucidating-trends-in-dermatologic-communications-on-the-world-wide-web
#16
Talayesa Buntinx-Krieg, Joseph Caravaglio, Renee Domozych, Robert P Dellavalle
Platforms of social media, including the website Reddit, have become increasingly popular sites for users to communicate medical information. A study investigating dermatology content on Reddit has not been performed in the current literature. The purpose of this study is to enumerate the dermatology subreddits, quantify subscribers, and characterize posts to estimate the presence of dermatology-related content on Reddit. A Reddit search of the fourteen most common skin diseases globally was performed. Additionally, the terms "dermatology", and "skin" were searched in order to identify more subreddits relevant to the field...
July 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469675/lessons-from-the-past-some-histories-of-alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency-before-its-discovery
#17
A Perciaccante, P Charlier, C Negri, A Coralli, O Appenzeller, R Bianucci
A1AT deficiency- a genetically inherited autosomal codominant disease with more than 120 identified alleles- was first identified by Laurell and Eriksson in 1963. The most common hereditary disorder in adults, A1AT causes an increased risk of developing pulmonary emphysema and liver disease. In A1AT patients, lung disease generally presents at a younger age than "usual" chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and it may be misdiagnosed as asthma. Because A1AT deficiency patients can show the same clinical features as non-deficient COPD (including increased evidence of bronchiectasis, frequent exacerbations, impaired health status and a degree of reversibility of airflow obstruction), the World Health Organization recommend to test every patient with a diagnosis of COPD or adult-onset asthma for A1AT deficiency...
February 2018: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469659/grading-of-oligodendroglial-tumors-of-the-brain-with-apparent-diffusion-coefficient-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-and-dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-imaging
#18
Muhammad Atif Naveed, Pradeep Goyal, Ajay Malhotra, Xiang Liu, Sonali Gupta, Manisha Mangla, Rajiv Mangla
Purpose We explored whether advanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques could grade oligodendrogliomas. Methods Forty patients (age 9-61 years) with oligodendroglial tumors were selected. There were 23 patients with World Health Organization grade II (group 1) and 17 patients with grade III (group 2) tumors. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were calculated by b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm2 . Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) images were obtained during the first pass of a bolus of gadolinium-based contrast...
January 1, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469596/genome-scale-metabolic-models-as-platforms-for-identification-of-novel-genes-as-antimicrobial-drug-targets
#19
Bashir Sajo Mienda, Rabiu Salihu, Aliyu Adamu, Shehu Idris
The growing number of multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria is becoming a world leading challenge for the scientific community and for public health. However, advances in high-throughput technologies and whole-genome sequencing of bacterial pathogens make the construction of bacterial genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) increasingly realistic. The use of GEMs as an alternative platforms will expedite identification of novel unconditionally essential genes and enzymes of target organisms with existing and forthcoming GEMs...
February 22, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469588/robust-replicable-and-theoretically-grounded-a-response-to-brown-and-coyne-s-2017-commentary-on-the-relationship-between-emodiversity-and-health
#20
Jordi Quoidbach, Moïra Mikolajczak, June Gruber, Ilios Kotsou, Aleksandr Kogan, Michael I Norton
In 2014 in the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General , we reported 2 studies demonstrating that the diversity of emotions that people experience-as measured by the Shannon-Wiener entropy index-was an independent predictor of mental and physical health, over and above the effect of mean levels of emotion. Brown and Coyne (2017) questioned both our use of Shannon's entropy and our analytic approach. We thank Brown and Coyne for their interest in our research; however, both their theoretical and empirical critiques do not undermine the central theoretical tenets and empirical findings of our research...
March 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
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