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Human infertility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213128/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-human-testis-reveals-system-wide-molecular-and-cellular-pathways-associated-with-non-obstructive-azoospermia
#1
Mehdi Alikhani, Mehdi Mirzaei, Marjan Sabbaghian, Pouria Parsamatin, Razieh Karamzadeh, Samane Adib, Niloofar Sodeifi, Mohammad Ali Sadighi Gilani, Masoud Zabet-Moghaddam, Lindsay Parker, Yunqi Wo, Vivek Gupta, Paul A Haynes, Hamid Gourabi, Hossein Baharvand, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh
: Male infertility accounts for half of the infertility problems experienced by couples. Azoospermia, having no measurable level of sperm in seminal fluid, is one of the known conditions resulting in male infertility. In order to elucidate the complex molecular mechanisms causing male azoospermia, label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics was carried out on testicular tissue specimens from patients with obstructive azoospermia and non-obstructive azoospermia, including maturation arrest (MA) and Sertoli cell only syndrome (SCOS)...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208955/high-serum-estradiol-and-heavy-metals-responsible-for-human-spermiation-defect-a-pilot-study
#2
Manish Jain, Amanpreet Kaur Kalsi, Amita Srivastava, Yogendra Kumar Gupta, Ashutosh Halder
INTRODUCTION: Spermiation is a process of releasing sperm into the lumen of seminiferous tubules. Failure in releasing sperm into the lumen is designated as spermiation defect. Spermiation defect cases present as oligo-azoospermia or azoospermia despite normal gonadotropins and testicular histology/cytology. Human spermiation defect never got attention to investigate infertility practice. Most of the information on spermiation defect, so far is from animal experiments. We assume some cases of non-obstructive azoospermia with normal gonadotropins and testicular histology/cytology could be due to spermiation defect...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208750/the-consequences-of-chromosome-segregation-errors-in-mitosis-and-meiosis
#3
REVIEW
Tamara Potapova, Gary J Gorbsky
Mistakes during cell division frequently generate changes in chromosome content, producing aneuploid or polyploid progeny cells. Polyploid cells may then undergo abnormal division to generate aneuploid cells. Chromosome segregation errors may also involve fragments of whole chromosomes. A major consequence of segregation defects is change in the relative dosage of products from genes located on the missegregated chromosomes. Abnormal expression of transcriptional regulators can also impact genes on the properly segregated chromosomes...
February 8, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206990/a-familial-study-of-azoospermic-men-identifies-three-novel-causative-mutations-in-three-new-human-azoospermia-genes
#4
Moran Gershoni, Ron Hauser, Leah Yogev, Ofer Lehavi, Foad Azem, Haim Yavetz, Shmuel Pietrokovski, Sandra E Kleiman
PURPOSE: Up to 1% of all men experience azoospermia, a condition of complete absence of sperm in the semen. The mechanisms and genes involved in spermatogenesis are mainly studied in model organisms, and their relevance to humans is unclear because human genetic studies are very scarce. Our objective was to uncover novel human mutations and genes causing azoospermia due to testicular meiotic maturation arrest. METHODS: Affected and unaffected siblings from three families were subjected to whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing, followed by comprehensive bioinformatics analyses to identify mutations suspected to cause azoospermia...
February 16, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205525/testicular-activin-and-follistatin-levels-are-elevated-during-the-course-of-experimental-autoimmune-epididymo-orchitis-in-mice
#5
Nour Nicolas, Vera Michel, Sudhanshu Bhushan, Eva Wahle, Susan Hayward, Helen Ludlow, David M de Kretser, Kate L Loveland, Hans-Christian Schuppe, Andreas Meinhardt, Mark P Hedger, Monika Fijak
Experimental autoimmune epididymo-orchitis (EAEO) is a model of chronic inflammation, induced by immunisation with testicular antigens, which reproduces the pathology of some types of human infertility. Activins A and B regulate spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis, but are also pro-inflammatory, pro-fibrotic cytokines. Expression of the activins and their endogenous antagonists, inhibin and follistatin, was examined in murine EAEO. Adult untreated and adjuvant-treated control mice showed no pathology. All mice immunised with testis antigens developed EAEO by 50 days, characterised by loss of germ cells, immune cell infiltration and fibrosis in the testis, similar to biopsies from human inflamed testis...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202061/in-vitro-generation-of-sertoli-like-and-haploid-spermatid-like-cells-from-human-umbilical-cord-perivascular-cells
#6
Ekaterina Shlush, Leila Maghen, Sonja Swanson, Shlomit Kenigsberg, Sergey Moskovtsev, Tanya Barretto, Andrée Gauthier-Fisher, Clifford L Librach
BACKGROUND: First trimester (FTM) and term human umbilical cord-derived perivascular cells (HUCPVCs), which are rich sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), can give rise to Sertoli cell (SC)-like as well as haploid germ cell (GC)-like cells in vitro using culture conditions that recapitulate the testicular niche. Gamete-like cells have been produced ex vivo using pluripotent stem cells as well as MSCs. However, the production of functional gametes from human stem cells has yet to be achieved...
February 15, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195249/building-blocks-of-the-gipu-italian-group-of-ultrastructural-pathology
#7
V Papa, R Costa, G Cenacchi
The Italian Group of Ultrastructural Pathology, GIPU, is a scientific organization committed to promote the art and science of Electron Microscopy (EM) in the pathology field in Italy, sharing its professional work with a public audience. The history of the GIPU goes back to 1990s when a founder group set up the Italian Group of Ultrastructural Diagnostic (GIDU) in Milan. The central focus of annual meetings was on EM, transmission and scanning one, about interesting cases in which it was instrumental in diagnosis...
June 2016: Pathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190421/sperm-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-type-a-receptor-delta-subunit-gabrd-and-its-interaction-with-purinergic-p2x2-receptors-in-progesterone-induced-acrosome-reaction-and-male-fertility
#8
Wenming Xu, Ke Wang, Yan Chen, Xiao Tong Liang, Mei Kuen Yu, Huanxun Yue, M Louise Tierney
The mechanism underlying the non-genomic action of progesterone in sperm functions and related Ca2+ mobilisation remains elusive. Herein we report the expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor delta subunit (GABRD) in human and rodent sperm and its involvement in mediating the progesterone-induced acrosome reaction. GABRD was localised in the sperm head/neck region. A δ(392-422)-specific inhibitory peptide against GABRD blocked the progesterone-induced acrosome reaction and the associated increase in intracellular Ca2+...
February 13, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188844/infertility-and-ovarian-follicle-reserve-depletion-are-associated-with-dysregulation-of-the-fsh-and-lh-receptor-density-in-human-antral-follicles
#9
Sheena L P Regan, Phil G Knight, John L Yovich, James D Stanger, Yee Leung, Frank Arfuso, Arun Dharmarajan, Ghanim Almahbobi
The low take-home baby rate in older women in Australia (5.8%) undergoing IVF is linked to the depletion of the ovarian reserve of primordial follicles. Oocyte depletion causes an irreversible change to ovarian function. We found that the young patient FSH receptor and LH receptor expression profile on the granulosa cells collected from different size follicles were similar to the expression profile reported in natural cycles in women and sheep. This was reversed in the older patients with poor ovarian reserve...
February 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186187/factors-associated-with-aberrant-imprint-methylation-and-oligozoospermia
#10
Norio Kobayashi, Naoko Miyauchi, Nozomi Tatsuta, Akane Kitamura, Hiroaki Okae, Hitoshi Hiura, Akiko Sato, Takafumi Utsunomiya, Nobuo Yaegashi, Kunihiko Nakai, Takahiro Arima
Disturbingly, the number of patients with oligozoospermia (low sperm count) has been gradually increasing in industrialized countries. Epigenetic alterations are believed to be involved in this condition. Recent studies have clarified that intrinsic and extrinsic factors can induce epigenetic transgenerational phenotypes through apparent reprogramming of the male germ line. Here we examined DNA methylation levels of 22 human imprinted loci in a total of 221 purified sperm samples from infertile couples and found methylation alterations in 24...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185602/impaired-hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular-axis-activity-spermatogenesis-and-sperm-function-promote-infertility-in-males-with-lead-poisoning
#11
Jason Gandhi, Rafael J Hernandez, Andrew Chen, Noel L Smith, Yefim R Sheynkin, Gargi Joshi, Sardar Ali Khan
Lead poisoning is a stealthy threat to human physiological systems as chronic exposure can remain asymptomatic for long periods of time before symptoms manifest. We presently review the biophysical mechanisms of lead poisoning that contribute to male infertility. Environmental and occupational exposure of lead may adversely affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, impairing the induction of spermatogenesis. Dysfunction at the reproductive axis, namely testosterone suppression, is most susceptible and irreversible during pubertal development...
February 10, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183999/gain-of-function-%C3%AE-catenin-in-uterine-mesenchyme-leads-to-impaired-implantation-and-decidualization
#12
Amanda Lynn Patterson, Jamieson Pirochta, Stephanie Tufano, Jose Teixeira
Embryo implantation and endometrial decidualization are critical events that occur during early pregnancy in humans and mice, and perturbation in either can result in infertility. WNT signaling through the canonical β-catenin pathway plays a pivotal role in embryonic Müllerian duct development, postnatal uterine maturation, and establishment of pregnancy. Loss of β-catenin in the Müllerian duct mesenchyme (MDM)-derived stroma and myometrium results in impaired decidualization and infertility; whereas gain of function (GOF) results in formation of mesenchymal tumors and sub-fertility attributed to malformed oviducts...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178639/urinary-metabolites-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-sperm-dna-damage-and-spermatozoa-apoptosis
#13
Pan Yang, Yi-Xin Wang, Li Sun, Ying-Jun Chen, Chong Liu, Li-Li Huang, Wen-Qing Lu, Qiang Zeng
Inconsistent results between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and adverse male reproductive health have been reported in humans. To assess whether PAH exposure is associated with declined sperm function. Ten monohydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs) metabolites were analyzed in repeated urine samples from an infertility clinic. We used multivariable linear models to estimate the associations of urinary OH-PAH metabolites with sperm DNA damage (n=405) and spermatozoa apoptosis (n=366). The shapes of dose-dependent associations of exposure measurements with outcomes were further evaluated by restricted cubic splines...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173793/the-landscape-of-sex-differential-transcriptome-and-its-consequent-selection-in-human-adults
#14
Moran Gershoni, Shmuel Pietrokovski
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of several human morbid phenotypes is sometimes much higher than intuitively expected. This can directly arise from the presence of two sexes, male and female, in one species. Men and women have almost identical genomes but are distinctly dimorphic, with dissimilar disease susceptibilities. Sexually dimorphic traits mainly result from differential expression of genes present in both sexes. Such genes can be subject to different, and even opposing, selection constraints in the two sexes...
February 7, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171660/the-human-rhox-gene-cluster-target-genes-and-functional-analysis-of-gene-variants-in-infertile-men
#15
Jennifer Borgmann, Frank Tüttelmann, Bernd Dworniczak, Albrecht Röpke, Hye-Won Song, Sabine Kliesch, Miles F Wilkinson, Sandra Laurentino, Jörg Gromoll
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161857/on-developing-a-thesis-for-reproductive-endocrinology-and-infertility-fellowship-a-case-study-of-ultra-low-2-oxygen-tension-for-extended-culture-of-human-embryos
#16
REVIEW
Daniel J Kaser
Fellows in Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility training are expected to complete 18 months of clinical, basic, or epidemiological research. The goal of this research is not only to provide the basis for the thesis section of the oral board exam but also to spark interest in reproductive medicine research and to provide the next generation of physician-scientists with a foundational experience in research design and implementation. Incoming fellows often have varying degrees of training in research methodology and, likewise, different career goals...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160506/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-indomethacin-and-piroxicam-administration-before-embryo-transfer-on-pregnancy-rate
#17
Serkan Kumbasar, Özer Gül, Aytek Şık
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) administration before embryo transfer (ET) on pregnancy rates in women undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection ET. METHODS: Our study included 255 patients diagnosed with primary or secondary infertility caused by a male or tubal-related factor, endometriosis or unexplained factors. The patients were divided randomly into three groups...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157160/embryological-results-of-couples-undergoing-icsi-et-treatments-with-males-carrying-the-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-rs175080-of-the-mlh3-gene
#18
George Anifandis, Ourania Markandona, Konstantinos Dafopoulos, Christina Messini, Aspasia Tsezou, Marina Dimitraki, Panagiotis Georgoulias, Alexandros Daponte, Ioannis Messinis
Human MLH3 (hMLH3) gene has been suggested to play a role in the DNA mismatch repair mechanism, while it may also be associated with abnormal spermatogenesis and subsequently male infertility. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible relationships between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs175080 in the MLH3 gene of males and the embryological results in couples undergoing intracytoplasmatic sperm injection-embryo transfer (ICSI-ET) treatments. A total of 132 men volunteered for the study and gave written informed consent...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139950/can-early-%C3%AE-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-predict-birth-of-singletons-and-twins-after-in-vitro-fertilization
#19
Ana Póvoa, Milton Severo, Pedro Xavier, Alexandra Matias, Isaac Blickstein
OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictive value for clinical pregnancy outcome of β-hCG level at 13 days after embryo transfer. METHODS: Retrospective study of IVF clinical pregnancies diagnosed at 6 weeks. We calculated the value of β-hCG level at 13 days after embryo transfer to predict live births. RESULTS: We analyzed 177 IVF cycles between 2009 and 2014 (50 singleton births, 50 twin births, 27 sets with a vanishing twin, 43 first trimester singleton pregnancy loss and 7 first trimester total twin pregnancy loss)...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138870/the-impact-of-rabl2b-gene-rs144944885-on-human-male-infertility-in-patients-with-oligoasthenoteratozoospermia-and-immotile-short-tail-sperm-defects
#20
Seyedeh Hanieh Hosseini, Mohammad Ali Sadighi Gilani, Anahita Mohseni Meybodi, Marjan Sabbaghian
PURPOSE: Male infertility is a multifactorial disorder with impressively genetic basis; besides, sperm abnormalities are the cause of numerous cases of male infertility. In this study, we evaluated the genetic variants in exons 4 and 5 and their intron-exon boundaries in RABL2B gene in infertile men with oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) and immotile short tail sperm (ISTS) defects to define if there is any association between these variants and human male infertility. METHODS: To this purpose, DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and after PCR reaction and sequencing, the results of sequenced segments were analyzed...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
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