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Rui Yamaguchi, Arisa Sakamoto, Reona Yamaguchi, Misa Haraguchi, Shinji Narahara, Hiroyuki Sugiuchi, Yasuo Yamaguchi
The stimuli inducing expression of single immunoglobulin IL-1-related receptor (SIGIRR) and the relevant regulatory mechanisms are not well defined. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) delays internalization of neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) and subsequently enhances cellular signaling. This study investigated the effect of TGFβ1 on SIGIRR protein production by human M1 macrophages in response to stimulation with substance P (SP). SP caused upregulation of SIGIRR expression in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas aprepitant (an NK1R inhibitor) blunted this response...
March 17, 2018: Cytokine
Yuri Ishiuchi, Hitoshi Sato, Narumi Komatsu, Hideo Kawaguchi, Takashi Matsuwaki, Keitaro Yamanouchi, Masugi Nishihara, Taku Nedachi
Skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ that secretes several proteins, which are collectively termed myokines. Although many studies suggest that exercise regulates myokine secretion, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear and all the exercise-dependent myokines have not yet been identified. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to identify novel exercise-dependent myokines by using our recently developed in vitro contractile model. Differentiated C2C12 myotubes were cultured with or without electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) for 24 h to induce cell contraction, and the myokines secreted in conditioned medium were analyzed using a cytokine array...
March 17, 2018: Cytokine
Karin Kfir-Elirachman, Rona Ortenberg, Bella Vizel, Michal J Besser, Iris Barshack, Jacob Schachter, Yael Nemlich, Gal Markel
BRAF becomes constitutively activated in 50% to 70% of melanoma cases. CEACAM1 has a dual role in melanoma, including facilitation of cell proliferation and suppression of infiltrating lymphocytes, which are consistent with its value as a marker for poor prognosis in melanoma patients. Here we show that BRAFV600E melanoma cells treated with BRAF and MEK inhibitors (MAPKi) downregulate CEACAM1 mRNA and protein expression in a dose- and exposure time-dependent manners. Indeed, there is a significant correlation between the presence of BRAFV600E and CEACAM1 expression in melanoma specimens obtained from 45 patients...
March 17, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Chang Liu, Xueqin Ran, Jiafu Wang, Sheng Li, Jianfeng Liu
Genomic structural variation (SV) is noticed for the contribution to genetic diversity and phenotypic changes. Guizhou indigenous pig (GZP) has been raised for hundreds of years with many special characteristics. The present paper aimed to uncover the influence of SV on gene polymorphism and the genetic mechanisms of phenotypic traits for GZP. Eighteen GZPs were chosen for resequencing by Illumina sequencing platform. The confident SVs of GZP were called out by both programs of pindel and softSV simultaneously and compared with the SVs deduced from the genomic data of European pig (EUP) and the native pig outside of Guizhou, China (NPOG)...
2018: PloS One
Jelena Krstic, Markus Galhuber, Tim J Schulz, Michael Schupp, Andreas Prokesch
Lifestyle-related disorders, such as the metabolic syndrome, have become a primary risk factor for the development of liver pathologies that can progress from hepatic steatosis, hepatic insulin resistance, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis, to the most severe condition of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While the prevalence of liver pathologies is steadily increasing in modern societies, there are currently no approved drugs other than chemotherapeutic intervention in late stage HCC. Hence, there is a pressing need to identify and investigate causative molecular pathways that can yield new therapeutic avenues...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Wilson Huanca-Mamani, Raúl Arias-Carrasco, Steffany Cárdenas-Ninasivincha, Marcelo Rojas-Herrera, Gonzalo Sepúlveda-Hermosilla, José Carlos Caris-Maldonado, Elizabeth Bastías, Vinicius Maracaja-Coutinho
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been defined as transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides, which lack significant protein coding potential and possess critical roles in diverse cellular processes. Long non-coding RNAs have recently been functionally characterized in plant stress-response mechanisms. In the present study, we perform a comprehensive identification of lncRNAs in response to combined stress induced by salinity and excess of boron in the Lluteño maize, a tolerant maize landrace from Atacama Desert, Chile...
March 20, 2018: Genes
Han-Yu Jiang, Jin-Lin Zhang, Jiang-Wei Yang, Hui-Ling Ma
Creeping bentgrass ( Agrostis stolonifera ) is the preferred green lawn grass, with excellent turf characteristics but poor disease resistance. At present, the mechanisms of disease resistance in creeping bentgrass are poorly understood, especially the ethylene signal transduction pathway under the induced systemic resistance (ISR) response. In this study, butanediol (BDO), as a new type of disease-resistance compound, was applied to creeping bentgrass seedlings to induce the ISR response. Then, we measured ethylene production and related enzyme activities...
March 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Kamila Szymanska, Krystyna Makowska, Slawomir Gonkowski
Bisphenol A, used in the production of plastic, is able to leach from containers into food and cause multidirectional adverse effects in living organisms, including neurodegeneration and metabolic disorders. Knowledge of the impact of BPA on enteric neurons is practically non-existent. The destination of this study was to investigate the influence of BPA at a specific dose (0.05 mg/kg body weight/day) and at a dose ten times higher (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day), given for 28 days, on the porcine ileum. The influence of BPA on enteric neuron immunoreactive to selected neuronal active substances, including substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), galanin (GAL), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT-used here as a marker of cholinergic neurons), and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART), was studied by the double immunofluorescence method...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jeffrey K Holden, Christian N Cunningham
The Hippo pathway is a critical transcriptional signaling pathway that regulates cell growth, proliferation and organ development. The transcriptional enhanced associate domain (TEAD) protein family consists of four paralogous transcription factors that function to modulate gene expression in response to the Hippo signaling pathway. Transcriptional activation of these proteins occurs upon binding to the co-activator YAP/TAZ whose entry into the nucleus is regulated by Lats1/2 kinase. In recent years, it has become apparent that the dysregulation and/or overexpression of Hippo pathway effectors is implicated in a wide range of cancers, including prostate, gastric and liver cancer...
March 20, 2018: Cancers
Kasturi Chatterjee, Sayantan Jana, Pramathes DasMahapatra, Snehasikta Swarnakar
Endometriosis, characterized by extrauterine development of endometrial glands and stroma, is associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer development. In the present study, we investigated the role of matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) during ovarian endometriosis ( N = 40) progression. We found that the expressions of EMT markers such as vimentin, slug, and N-cadherin were significantly elevated in late stages of ovarian endometriosis compared with those found in early stages...
March 20, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Junghyun L Suh, Brian Watts, Jacob I Stuckey, Jacqueline L Norris-Drouin, Stephanie H Cholensky, Bradley M Dickson, Yi An, Sebastian Mathea, Eidarus Salah, Stefan Knapp, Abid Khan, Alexander T Adams, Brian D Strahl, Cari A Sagum, Mark T Bedford, Lindsey I James, Dmitri B Kireev, Stephen V Frye
Multivalent binding is an efficient means to enhance the affinity and specificity of chemical probes targeting multi-domain proteins in order to study their function and role in disease. While the theory of multivalent binding is straightforward, physical and structural characterization of bivalent binding encounters multiple technical difficulties. We present a case study where a combination of experimental techniques and computational simulations was used to comprehensively characterize the binding and structure-affinity relationships for a series of Bromosporine-based bivalent bromodomain ligands with a bivalent protein, Transcription Initiation Factor TFIID subunit 1 (TAF1)...
March 20, 2018: Biochemistry
Masoumeh Nemati, Naser Ajami, Mehrdad Asghari Estiar, Saleheh Rezapour, Reyhaneh Ravanbakhsh Gavgani, Shahryar Hashemzadeh, Hossein Samadi Kafil, Ebrahim Sakhinia
BACKGROUND: To date, 4 classes of histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been identified in humans. Class I HDACs are zinc-dependent and NAD+-independent enzymes, and include 4 isoforms closely related to yeast RPD3: HDAC1, 2, 3, and 8. OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to quantitatively evaluate the expression of HDAC3 in colorectal cancer (CRC) and to correlate its expression levels with clinicopathological parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We characterized expression patterns of HDAC3 as class I HDAC isoforms in a cohort of 48 CRC patients by quantitative (real-time) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
March 20, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Zhenjing Jin, Siqi Liu, Qian Zhang, Xue Shao, Jingting Ma, Liulan Pan
BACKGROUND: Hepatic fibrosis is a reversible pathological process. Inflammatory responses are the prevailing reactions during hepatic fibrosis. Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) has been reported to have an anti-inflammatory effect. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the preventive effects of DcR3 on hepatic fibrosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hepatic fibrosis was induced in rats by administering intraperitoneally (ip.) 1% dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)...
March 20, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
George R Wendt, Julie Nr Collins, Jimin Pei, Mark S Pearson, Hayley M Bennett, Alex Loukas, Matthew Berriman, Nick V Grishin, James J Collins
Schistosomes infect more than 200 million people. These parasitic flatworms rely on a syncytial outer-coat called the tegument to survive within the vasculature of their host. Although the tegument is pivotal for their survival, little is known about maintenance of this tissue during the decades schistosomes survive in the bloodstream. Here, we demonstrate that the tegument relies on stem cells (neoblasts) to specify fusogenic progenitors that replace tegumental cells lost to turnover. Molecular characterization of neoblasts and tegumental progenitors led to the discovery of two flatworm-specific zinc finger proteins that are essential for tegumental cell specification...
March 20, 2018: ELife
Mathieu Niquille, Greta Limoni, Foivos Markopoulos, Christelle Cadilhac, Julien Prados, Anthony Holtmaat, Alexandre Dayer
Delineating the basic cellular components of cortical inhibitory circuits remains a fundamental issue in order to understand their specific contributions to microcircuit function. It is still unclear how current classifications of cortical interneuron subtypes relate to biological processes such as their developmental specification. Here we identified the developmental trajectory of neurogliaform cells (NGCs), the main effectors of a powerful inhibitory motif recruited by long-range connections. Using in vivo genetic lineage-tracing in mice, we report that NGCs originate from a specific pool of 5-HT3A R-expressing Hmx3+ cells located in the preoptic area (POA)...
March 20, 2018: ELife
Kerri M Malone, Kévin Rue-Albrecht, David A Magee, Kevin Conlon, Olga T Schubert, Nicolas C Nalpas, John A Browne, Alicia Smyth, Eamonn Gormley, Ruedi Aebersold, David E MacHugh, Stephen V Gordon
Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) are the causative agents of tuberculosis in a range of mammals, including humans. A key feature of MTBC pathogens is their high degree of genetic identity yet distinct host tropism. Notably, while Mycobacterium bovis is highly virulent and pathogenic for cattle, the human pathogen M. tuberculosis is attenuated in cattle. Previous research also suggests that host preference amongst MTBC members has a basis in host innate immune responses. To explore MTBC host tropism, we present in-depth profiling of the MTBC reference strains M...
March 20, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Kenneth Maiese
BACKGROUND: With the global increase in life span expectancy, neurodegenerative disorders continue to affect an ever increasing number of individuals throughout the world. New treatment strategies for neurodegenerative diseases are desperately required given the lack of current treatment modalities. METHODS: Here we examine novel strategies for neurodegenerative disorders that include circadian clock genes, non-coding ribonucleic acids (RNAs), and the mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FoxOs)...
March 19, 2018: Current Neurovascular Research
Udesh Dhawan, Ming-Wen Sue, Kuan Chun Lan, Waradee Buddhakosai, Pao Hui Huang, Yi Cheng Chen, Po-Chun Chen, Wen-Liang Chen
Epithelial to Mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly orchestrated process motivated by the nature of physical, chemical composition of Tumor Microenvironment (TME). The role of physical framework of the tumor microenvironment in guiding cells towards EMT is poorly understood. To investigate this, breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells were cultured on nanochips comprising of Tantalum oxide nanodots ranging in diameter from 10 to 200nm, fabricated through electrochemical approach and collectively referred to as artificial microenvironments...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xiao-Shuai Han, Chen Wang, Fang-Hao Guo, Shuang Huang, Yong-Wen Qin, Xian-Xian Zhao, Qing Jing
Regeneration, relying mainly on resident adult stem cells, is widespread. However, the mechanism by which stem cells initiate proliferation during this process in vivo is unclear. Using planarian as a model, we screened 46 transcripts showing potential function in the regulation of local stem cell proliferation following 48 h regeneration. By analyzing the regeneration defects and the mitotic activity of animals under administration of RNA interference (RNAi), we identified factor for initiating regeneration 1 (Fir1) required for local proliferation...
March 20, 2018: Protein & Cell
Qianjun Li, Gang Ma, Huimin Guo, Suhua Sun, Ying Xu, Bingjian Wang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Down-regulation of the growth arrest specific transcript 5 (GAS5) (long non-coding RNA) is associated with cell proliferation of gastric cancer (GC) and a poor prognosis. We aimed to investigate whether the variant rs145204276 of GAS5 is associated with the prognosis of GC in the Chinese population, and to unveil the regulatory mechanism underlying the GAS5 expression in GC tissues. METHOD: 1,253 GC patients and 1,354 healthy controls were included...
March 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
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