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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783189/sall2-knockdown-exacerbates-palmitic-acid-induced-dysfunction-and-apoptosis-of-pancreatic-nit-1-beta-cells
#1
Ye Wang, Jie Liu, Zheng Liu, Jing Chen, Xuemei Hu, Yimeng Hu, Yin Yuan, Guijun Wu, Zhe Dai, Yancheng Xu
Spalt-like (Sall) proteins are a class of transcription factors. The role of Sall2 in beta cells remain poorly understood. Here, we aimed to explore whether Sall2 involved in lipotoxicity-mediated dysfunction and apoptosis in pancreatic NIT-1 beta cells. Our results showed that high concentrations of palmitic acid (PA) led to impaired cell viability and decreased Sall2 expression in NIT-1 cells. Knocking down of Sall2 in NIT-1 cells resulted in increased sensitivity to lipotoxicity and caused higher rates of cell apoptosis following PA treatment...
May 18, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783187/impact-of-drought-and-salt-stress-on-the-biosynthesis-of-alkaloids-in-chelidonium-majus-l
#2
Mahdi Yahyazadeh, Rieke Meinen, Robert Hänsch, Sara Abouzeid, Dirk Selmar
When plants are exposed to various stress situations, their alkaloid concentration frequently is enhanced. This well-known phenomenon is presumably due to a passively enhanced rate of biosynthesis, caused by greatly elevated concentrations of NADPH in stressed plants. Here, we used Chelidonium majus L. plants, which accumulate high concentrations of dihydrocoptisine in their leaves, to study the impact of drought and salt stress on the biosynthesis and accumulation of alkaloids. In comparison to well-watered controls, in the transcriptome of the gene encoding the key enzyme in alkaloid biosynthesis, stylopine synthase, is enhanced in stressed C...
May 18, 2018: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783182/effects-of-overproduced-ethylene-on-the-contents-of-other-phytohormones-and-expression-of-their-key-biosynthetic-genes
#3
Weiqiang Li, Rie Nishiyama, Yasuko Watanabe, Chien Van Ha, Mikiko Kojima, Ping An, Lei Tian, Chunjie Tian, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Ethylene is involved in regulation of various aspects of plant growth and development. Physiological and genetic analyses have indicated the existence of crosstalk between ethylene and other phytohormones, including auxin, cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), brassinosteroid (BR) and strigolactone (SL) in regulation of different developmental processes. However, the effects of ethylene on the biosynthesis and contents of these hormones are not fully understood...
May 10, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783122/bix-01294-promotes-the-differentiation-of-adipose-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-adipocytes-and-neural-cells-in-arbas-cashmere-goats
#4
Qing Wang, Xiao Wang, Defang Lai, Jin Deng, Zhuang Hou, Hao Liang, Dongjun Liu
Chromatin remodeling plays an essential role in regulating gene transcription. BIX-01294 is a specific inhibitor of histone methyltransferase G9a, which is responsible for methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) that can also regulate DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of BIX-01294 on the potential of goat adipose derived stem cells (gADSCs) to differentiate into adipocytes and neural cells. To accomplish this, BIX-01294 was used to treat gADSCs for 24 h, and the global level of DNA methylation as well as the expression of genes related to cell proliferation, apoptosis and pluripotency were detected...
May 14, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783120/canine-mesenchymal-stem-cells-treated-with-tnf-%C3%AE-and-ifn-%C3%AE-enhance-anti-inflammatory-effects-through-the-cox-2-pge-2-pathway
#5
Hye-Mi Yang, Woo-Jin Song, Qiang Li, Su-Yeon Kim, Hyeon-Jin Kim, Min-Ok Ryu, Jin-Ok Ahn, Hwa-Young Youn
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used in studies on treatment of various diseases, and their application to immune-mediated diseases has garnered interest. Various methods for enhancing the immunomodulation effect of human MSCs have been used; however, similar approaches for canine MSCs are relatively unexplored. Accordingly, we evaluated immunomodulatory effects and mechanisms in canine MSCs treated with TNF-α and IFN-γ. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were incubated with the conditioned media (CM) from canine MSCs for 48 h...
May 14, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783106/prediction-of-the-combined-effects-of-multiple-estrogenic-chemicals-on-mcf-7-human-breast-cancer-cells-and-a-preliminary-molecular-exploration-of-the-estrogenic-proliferative-effects-and-related-gene-expression
#6
Shengwu Yuan, Chao Huang, Xiaoya Ji, Mei Ma, Kaifeng Rao, Zijian Wang
The environmental risks of environmental estrogens (EEs) are often assessed via the same mode of action in the concentration addition (CA) model, neglecting the complex combined mechanisms at the genetic level. In this study, the cell proliferation effects of estrone, 17α-ethinylestradiol, 17β-estradiol, estriol, diethylstilbestrol, estradiol valerate, bisphenol A, 4-tert-octylphenol and 4-nonylphenol were determined individually using the CCK-8 method, and the proliferation effects of a multicomponent mixture of estrogenic chemicals mixed at equipotent concentrations using a fixed-ratio design were studied using estrogen-sensitive MCF-7 cells...
May 18, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783093/a-direct-plasma-mirna-assay-for-early-detection-and-histological-classification-of-lung-cancer
#7
Qixin Leng, Yue Wang, Feng Jiang
Cell-free microRNAs in plasma provide circulating biomarkers for lung cancer. Most techniques for analysis of miRNAs require a large plasma volume to purify a sufficient RNA yield followed by complicated downstream processing. Small differences in the multiple procedures often cause large analytical variations and poor diagnostic values of the plasma biomarkers. Here we investigate whether directly quantifying plasma miRNAs without RNA purification could diagnose lung cancer. FirePlex assay was directly applied to 20 μl plasma of 56 lung cancer patients and 28 cancer free controls for quantifying 11 lung tumor-associated miRNAs...
May 17, 2018: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783071/mef2a-regulates-calpain-3-expression-in-l6-myoblasts
#8
Ronghua Wu, Jun Wang, Jian Yao, Zhangji Dong, Yan Liu, Mei Liu
Calpain 3 (Capn3), a skeletal muscle-specific member of the calpain family, executes some non-proteolytic functions besides its role as a Ca2+ -regulated proteolytic enzyme. Previously, we found that changes in Capn3 expression were linearly correlated with the degree of muscular atrophy following reversible sciatic nerve injury and that knockdown of Capn3 gene expression promoted myoblast differentiation. While the regulation of capn3 gene expression is interesting, transcriptional regulation of Capn3 is still unclear...
May 18, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783038/assessing-data-quality-and-the-variability-of-source-data-verification-auditing-methods-in-clinical-research-settings
#9
Lauren Houston, Yasmine Probst, Allison Martin
INTRODUCTION: Data audits within clinical settings are extensively used as a major strategy to identify errors, monitor study operations and ensure high-quality data. However, clinical trial guidelines are non-specific in regards to recommended frequency, timing and nature of data audits. The absence of a well-defined data quality definition and method to measure error undermines the reliability of data quality assessment. This review aimed to assess the variability of source data verification (SDV) auditing methods to monitor data quality in a clinical research setting...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783020/immune-modulation-of-a-novel-lipid-soluble-extract-of-pinellia-pedatisecta-schott-in-the-tumor-microenvironment-of-an-hpv-tumor-burdened-mouse-model
#10
Haixia Huang, Mingxing Zhang, Meng Zhang, Jing Peng, Guiling Li, Congjian Xu, Suiqi Gui
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pinellia pedatisecta Schott extract (PE), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used to reduce swelling, dry dampness and suppress cervical tumors. AIMS: To evaluate the roles of PE in the regulation of anti-tumor effects and the cellular immune response in the tumor microenvironment. METHODS: The immune microenvironment of HPV+ TC-1 tumors was examined by immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and flow cytometry...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782984/design-and-development-of-novel-hyaluronate-modified-nanoparticles-for-combo-delivery-of-curcumin-and-alendronate-fabrication-characterization-and-cellular-and-molecular-evidence-of-enhanced-bone-regeneration
#11
Jinlei Dong, Hnin Ei Thu, Mohammed A S Abourehab, Zahid Hussain
Osteoporosis is a medical condition of fragile bones with an increased susceptibility to bone fracture. Despite having availability of a wide range of pharmacological agents, prevalence of this metabolic disorder is continuously escalating. Owing to excellent biomedical achievements of nanomedicines in the last few decades, we aimed combo delivery of bone anti-resorptive agent, alendronate (ALN), and bone density enhancing drug, curcumin (CUR), in the form of polymeric nanoparticles. To further optimize the therapeutic efficacy, the prepared ALN/CUR nanoparticles were decorated with hyaluronic acid which is a well-documented biomacromolecule having exceptional bone regenerating potential...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782972/stat3-and-apoptosis-challenges-in-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Nazanin Fathi, Golnaz Rashdi, Simin Sharifi
Several studies have processed conceivable evidence for the vital role of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) in cancer transformation and carcinogenesis. Therefore, one of the important factors in formation of cancer is STAT3 and for design of novel anticancer drugs is a suitable target. On the other hand, apoptosis pathway has a critical role in the cancers pathogenesis. Generally, increasing developments have been existed to expression, production, phosphorylation or activation of STAT3 in the effective or responsible cells of most of the cancers...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782940/defining-osteoblast-and-adipocyte-lineages-in-the-bone-marrow
#13
J L Pierce, D L Begun, J J Westendorf, M E McGee-Lawrence
Bone is a complex endocrine organ that facilitates structural support, protection to vital organs, sites for hematopoiesis, and calcium homeostasis. The bone marrow microenvironment is a heterogeneous niche consisting of multipotent musculoskeletal and hematopoietic progenitors and their derivative terminal cell types. Amongst these progenitors, bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BMSCs) may differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic, myogenic, and chondrogenic lineages to support musculoskeletal development as well as tissue homeostasis, regeneration and repair during adulthood...
May 18, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782926/decoding-cell-signalling-and-regulation-of-oligodendrocyte-differentiation
#14
REVIEW
A K Santos, M S Vieira, R Vasconcellos, V A M Goulart, A H Kihara, R R Resende
Oligodendrocytes are fundamental for the functioning of the nervous system; they participate in several cellular processes, including axonal myelination and metabolic maintenance for astrocytes and neurons. In the mammalian nervous system, they are produced through waves of proliferation and differentiation, which occur during embryogenesis. However, oligodendrocytes and their precursors continue to be generated during adulthood from specific niches of stem cells that were not recruited during development. Deficiencies in the formation and maturation of these cells can generate pathologies mainly related to myelination...
May 18, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782861/foenumoside-b-isolated-from-lysimachia-foenum-graecum-extract-suppresses-lps-induced-inflammatory-response-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-ap-1-inactivation-in-murine-macrophages-and-in-endotoxin-induced-shock-model
#15
Hye-Eun Choi, Hyun Jeong Kwak, Seul Ki Kim, Hyae Gyeong Cheon
Foenumoside B (FSB), a bioactive component isolated from the Lysimachia foenum-graecum extract (LFE), has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory effects, but the underlying molecular mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. Accordingly, the authors investigated the mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of FSB in murine macrophages activated by LPS. FSB suppressed the LPS-induced expressions of iNOS and COX-2 at protein and mRNA levels and consequently decreased NO and PGE2 production in RAW264...
May 18, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782854/combined-treatment-with-sorafenib-and-silibinin-synergistically-targets-both-hcc-cells-and-cancer-stem-cells-by-enhanced-inhibition-of-the-phosphorylation-of-stat3-erk-akt
#16
Jie Mao, Hongbao Yang, Tingting Cui, Pan Pan, Nadia Kabir, Duo Chen, Jinyan Ma, Xingyi Chen, Yijun Chen, Yong Yang
Silibinin, a nontoxic bioactive component in milk thistle, is used as a liver-protective drug in the clinic mainly because of its antioxidant and anti-inflammation activities. In this study, we studied the cytotoxic effects of silibinin combined with sorafenib on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The results indicated that silibinin combined with sorafenib potently inhibited the proliferation of various HCC cells and induced significant apoptosis. In an HCC subcutaneous transplantation tumor model, the combination of silibinin and sorafenib significantly suppressed tumor growth compared with monotherapy...
May 18, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782853/cholesterol-promotes-the-migration-and-invasion-of-renal-carcinoma-cells-by-regulating-the-klf5-mir-27a-fbxw7-pathway
#17
Zheng Liu, Xiaowen Liu, Shuai Liu, Qingwei Cao
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common and lethal subtype of renal cell carcinoma. Accumulation of cholesterol and cholesterol ester is a remarkable feature of ccRCC. However, the effect of cholesterol on ccRCC remains unknown. Out results showed that cholesterol treatment significantly promoted cells migration and invasion in ccRCC. Mechanism analysis indicated that cholesterol induced KLF5 expression. KLF5 positively regulated the transcription of miR-27a, increasing miR-27a expression...
May 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782848/impaired-tfeb-mediated-lysosome-biogenesis-and-autophagy-promote-chronic-ethanol-induced-liver-injury-and-steatosis-in-mice
#18
Xiaojuan Chao, Shaogui Wang, Katrina Zhao, Yuan Li, Jessica A Williams, Tiangang Li, Hemantkumar Chavan, Partha Krishnamurthy, Xi C He, Linheng Li, Andrea Ballabio, Hong-Min Ni, Wen-Xing Ding
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Defects in lysosome function and autophagy contribute to pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. We investigated the mechanisms by which alcohol consumption affects these processes, evaluating the functions transcription factor EB (TFEB), which regulates lysosomal biogenesis. METHODS: We performed studies with GFP-LC3 mice, mice with liver-specific deletion of transcription factor EB (TFEB), mice with disruption of the transcription factor E3 gene (TFE3-knockout mice), mice with disruption of the Tefb and Tfe3 genes (TFEB, TFE3 double-knockout mice), and Tfebflox/flox albumin cre-negative mice (controls)...
May 18, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782846/abnormal-small-intestinal-epithelial-microvilli-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease
#19
Kelli L VanDussen, Aleksandar Stojmirović, Katherine Li, Ta-Chiang Liu, Patrick K Kimes, Brian D Muegge, Katherine F Simpson, Matthew A Ciorba, Jacqueline G Perrigoue, Joshua R Friedman, Jennifer E Towne, Richard D Head, Thaddeus S Stappenbeck
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Crohn's disease (CD) presents as chronic and often progressive intestinal inflammation, but the contributing pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. We aimed to identify alterations in intestinal cells that could contribute to the chronic and progressive course of CD. METHODS: We took an unbiased, system-wide approach, performing sequence analysis of RNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ileal tissue sections from patients with CD (n=36) and without CD (controls, n=32)...
May 18, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782841/alternative-splicing-of-gnrh2-and-gnrh2-associated-peptide-plays-roles-in-gonadal-differentiation-of-the-rice-field-eel-monopterus-albus
#20
Ke Feng, Hongrui Luo, Mingxi Hou, Yongming Li, Ji Chen, Zuoyan Zhu, Wei Hu
The rice field eel, Monopterus albus, is a protogynous hermaphrodite fish, in which the gonads are initially female ovaries which then transform into male testes. The exact mechanisms governing sex reversal in the rice field eel are unknown. In this study, a novel alternative splicing variant of GnRH2 (GnRH2-SV), retaining the second intron, was discovered in the gonad of the rice field eel. Compared to GnRH2, GnRH2-SV may give rise to a novel truncated GnRH2-associated peptide (New GAP2). The normal transcript of GnRH2 was primarily expressed in the brain, and could also be detected in the liver, spleen, ovary, and testis...
May 18, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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