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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821163/metformin-maintains-mucosal-integrity-in-experimental-model-of-colitis-by-inhibiting-oxidative-stress-and-pro-inflammatory-signaling
#1
Abhimanu Pandey, Sneh Verma, Vijay L Kumar
Metformin, an antidiabetic drug, is well known for its multifarious properties and its ability to modulate inflammatory cascade. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory condition of the colon where drugs exhibiting anti-inflammatory property have been shown to induce and maintain remission. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of metformin against acetic-acid induced colitis in rat. The study included five groups of rats namely normal control, experimental control, drug treated groups (50 and 500mg/kg of metformin, MET50, MET500 and 300mg/kg of mesalazine, MSZ300)...
August 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821016/expression-of-interferon-inducible-chemokines-and-sleep-wake-changes-during-early-encephalitis-in-experimental-african-trypanosomiasis
#2
Claudia Laperchia, Chiara Tesoriero, Paul F Seke-Etet, Valentina La Verde, Valeria Colavito, Gigliola Grassi-Zucconi, Jean Rodgers, Paul Montague, Peter G E Kennedy, Marina Bentivoglio
BACKGROUND: Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei, leads to neuroinflammation and characteristic sleep/wake alterations. The relationship between the onset of these alterations and the development of neuroinflammation is of high translational relevance, but remains unclear. This study investigates the expression of interferon (IFN)-γ and IFN-inducible chemokine genes in the brain, and the levels of CXCL10 in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid prior to and during the encephalitic stage of trypanosome infection, and correlates these with sleep/wake changes in a rat model of the disease...
August 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821014/efficient-and-accurate-causal-inference-with-hidden-confounders-from-genome-transcriptome-variation-data
#3
Lingfei Wang, Tom Michoel
Mapping gene expression as a quantitative trait using whole genome-sequencing and transcriptome analysis allows to discover the functional consequences of genetic variation. We developed a novel method and ultra-fast software Findr for higly accurate causal inference between gene expression traits using cis-regulatory DNA variations as causal anchors, which improves current methods by taking into consideration hidden confounders and weak regulations. Findr outperformed existing methods on the DREAM5 Systems Genetics challenge and on the prediction of microRNA and transcription factor targets in human lymphoblastoid cells, while being nearly a million times faster...
August 18, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821008/trans-caryophyllene-inhibits-amyloid-%C3%AE-a%C3%AE-oligomer-induced-neuroinflammation-in-bv-2-microglial-cells
#4
Yawei Hu, Ziling Zeng, Baojie Wang, Shougang Guo
Amyloid β (Aβ) is the major component of senile plaques (SP) in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and serves as an inflammatory stimulus for microglia. Trans-caryophyllene (TC), a major component in the essential oils derived from various species of medicinal plants, has displayed its neuro-protective effects in previous studies. However, whether TC has a protective role in AD remains unknown. In this study, the effects of TC on Aβ1-42-induced neuro-inflammation were investigated. We found that TC reduced the release of LDH in BV-2 microglial cells treated with Aβ1-42...
August 15, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820948/prevalence-and-expression-of-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-genes-in-i-staphylococcus-aureus-i-isolated-from-food-poisoning-outbreaks
#5
Caroline Peixoto Bastos, Milena Tomasi Bassani, Marcia Magalhães Mata, Graciela Volz Lopes, Wladimir Padilha Silva
<i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> is an important pathogen of foodborne origin. The pathogen produces a variety of toxins that includes the staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE). The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and expression of five SE genes (<i>sea</i>, <i>seb</i>, <i>sec</i>, <i>sed</i>, and <i>see</i>) in <i>S. aureus</i> isolated from outbreaks occurred in the Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. All isolates, with the exception of two, presented the same or higher transcriptional expression than the reference strains for at least one of these genes...
August 18, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820917/whole-exome-sequencing-of-lacrimal-gland-adenoid-cystic-carcinoma
#6
David W Sant, Wensi Tao, Matthew G Field, Daniel Pelaez, Ke Jin, Anthony Capobianco, Sander R Dubovy, David T Tse, Gaofeng Wang
Purpose: To identify genomic mutations in lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (LGACC) samples from patients. Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted from LGACC specimens. Whole exome sequencing (exome-seq) was conducted to screen for mutations. Capillary sequencing was performed to verify mutations in genes shared by multiple samples. Luciferase assays were used to evaluate functional consequences of NOTCH1 mutations. Results: The mutation profile of LGACC was complicated...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820910/impaired-dendritic-growth-and-positioning-of-cortical-pyramidal-neurons-by-activation-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-signaling-in-the-developing-mouse
#7
Eiki Kimura, Ken-Ichiro Kubo, Toshihiro Endo, Wenting Ling, Kazunori Nakajima, Masaki Kakeyama, Chiharu Tohyama
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors exert multiple functions in mammalian cerebral cortex development. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a member of the bHLH-Per-Arnt-Sim subfamily, is a ligand-activated transcription factor reported to regulate nervous system development in both invertebrates and vertebrates, but the functions that AhR signaling pathway may have for mammalian cerebral cortex development remains elusive. Although the endogenous ligand involved in brain developmental process has not been identified, the environmental pollutant dioxin potently binds AhR and induces abnormalities in higher brain function of laboratory animals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820908/ribosomopathy-like-properties-of-murine-and-human-cancers
#8
Sucheta Kulkarni, James M Dolezal, Huabo Wang, Laura Jackson, Jie Lu, Brian P Frodey, Atinuke Dosunmu-Ogunbi, Youjun Li, Marc Fromherz, Audry Kang, Lucas Santana-Santos, Panayiotis V Benos, Edward V Prochownik
Ribosomopathies comprise a heterogeneous group of hematologic and developmental disorders, often characterized by bone marrow failure, skeletal and other developmental abnormalities and cancer predisposition. They are associated with mutations and/or haplo-insufficiencies of ribosomal proteins (RPs) and inefficient ribosomal RNA (rRNA) processing. The resulting ribosomal stress induces the canonical p19ARF/Mdm2/p53 tumor suppressor pathway leading to proliferative arrest and/or apoptosis. It has been proposed that this pathway is then inactivated during subsequent neoplastic evolution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820887/identification-of-putative-qtls-for-seedling-stage-phosphorus-starvation-response-in-finger-millet-eleusine-coracana-l-gaertn-by-association-mapping-and-cross-species-synteny-analysis
#9
M Ramakrishnan, S Antony Ceasar, K K Vinod, V Duraipandiyan, T P Ajeesh Krishna, Hari D Upadhyaya, N A Al-Dhabi, S Ignacimuthu
A germplasm assembly of 128 finger millet genotypes from 18 countries was evaluated for seedling-stage phosphorus (P) responses by growing them in P sufficient (Psuf) and P deficient (Pdef) treatments. Majority of the genotypes showed adaptive responses to low P condition. Based on phenotype behaviour using the best linear unbiased predictors for each trait, genotypes were classified into, P responsive, low P tolerant and P non-responsive types. Based on the overall phenotype performance under Pdef, 10 genotypes were identified as low P tolerants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820880/knock-out-of-a-mitochondrial-sirtuin-protects-neurons-from-degeneration-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#10
Rachele Sangaletti, Massimo D'Amico, Jeff Grant, David Della-Morte, Laura Bianchi
Sirtuins are NAD⁺-dependent deacetylases, lipoamidases, and ADP-ribosyltransferases that link cellular metabolism to multiple intracellular pathways that influence processes as diverse as cell survival, longevity, and cancer growth. Sirtuins influence the extent of neuronal death in stroke. However, different sirtuins appear to have opposite roles in neuronal protection. In Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that knock-out of mitochondrial sirtuin sir-2.3, homologous to mammalian SIRT4, is protective in both chemical ischemia and hyperactive channel induced necrosis...
August 18, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820735/the-use-of-sirna-as-a-pharmacological-tool-to-assess-a-role-for-the-transcription-factor-nf-il6-in-the-brain-under-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-conditions-during-lps-induced-inflammatory-stimulation
#11
Jelena Damm, Joachim Roth, Rüdiger Gerstberger, Christoph Rummel
BACKGROUND: Studies with NF-IL6-deficient mice indicate that this transcription factor plays a dual role during systemic inflammation with pro- and anti-inflammatory capacities. Here, we aimed to characterize the role of NF-IL6 specifically within the brain. METHODS: In this study, we tested the capacity of short interfering (si) RNA to silence the inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor-interleukin 6 (NF-IL6) in brain cells under in vitro and in vivo conditions...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820720/dengue-virus-serotypes-1-and-2-responsible-for-major-dengue-outbreaks-in-nepal-clinical-laboratory-and-epidemiological-features
#12
Shyam Prakash Dumre, Renu Bhandari, Geeta Shakya, Sanjay Kumar Shrestha, Mahamoud Sama Cherif, Prakash Ghimire, Chonticha Klungthong, In-Kyu Yoon, Kenji Hirayama, Kesara Na-Bangchang, Stefan Fernandez
Dengue virus (DENV) is expanding toward previously nonendemic areas. DENV has recently been introduced in Nepal with limited information. We report the clinical features and serotype distribution of DENV in Nepal during the major outbreaks. A total of 1,215 clinical dengue cases at two major hospitals of central and western Nepal were investigated. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters were recorded. Serum specimens were tested for DENV by IgM/IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820711/molecular-epidemiology-of-cholera-outbreaks-during-the-rainy-season-in-mandalay-myanmar
#13
Amonrattana Roobthaisong, Kazuhisa Okada, Nilar Htun, Wah Wah Aung, Warawan Wongboot, Watcharaporn Kamjumphol, Aye Aye Han, Yi Yi, Shigeyuki Hamada
Cholera, caused by Vibrio cholerae, remains a global threat to public health. In Myanmar, the availability of published information on the occurrence of the disease is scarce. We report here that cholera incidence in Mandalay generally exhibited a single annual peak, with an annual average of 312 patients with severe dehydration over the past 5 years (since 2011) and was closely associated with the rainy season. We analyzed cholera outbreaks, characterized 67 isolates of V. cholerae serogroup O1 in 2015 from patients from Mandalay, and compared them with 22 V...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820709/performance-of-a-high-sensitivity-rapid-diagnostic-test-for-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-asymptomatic-individuals-from-uganda-and-myanmar-and-naive-human-challenge-infections
#14
Smita Das, Ihn Kyung Jang, Becky Barney, Roger Peck, John C Rek, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Harriet Adrama, Maxwell Murphy, Mallika Imwong, Clare L Ling, Stephane Proux, Warat Haohankhunnatham, Melissa Rist, Annette M Seilie, Amelia Hanron, Glenda Daza, Ming Chang, Tomoka Nakamura, Michael Kalnoky, Paul Labarre, Sean C Murphy, James S McCarthy, Francois Nosten, Bryan Greenhouse, Sophie Allauzen, Gonzalo J Domingo
Sensitive field-deployable diagnostic tests can assist malaria programs in achieving elimination. The performance of a new Alere™ Malaria Ag P.f Ultra Sensitive rapid diagnostic test (uRDT) was compared with the currently available SD Bioline Malaria Ag P.f RDT in blood specimens from asymptomatic individuals in Nagongera, Uganda, and in a Karen Village, Myanmar, representative of high- and low-transmission areas, respectively, as well as in pretreatment specimens from study participants from four Plasmodium falciparum-induced blood-stage malaria (IBSM) studies...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820688/the-phenotype-of-circulating-neutrophils-during-visceral-leishmaniasis
#15
Smriti Sharma, Shweta Srivastva, Richard E Davis, Siddharth Sankar Singh, Rajiv Kumar, Susanne Nylén, Mary E Wilson, Shyam Sundar
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic parasitic disease associated with suppressed T cell responses. Although parasites reside intracellularly in macrophages during chronic VL, neutrophils are the first host cell to infiltrate the infection site and phagocytose the parasite. Subsets of neutrophils with unusual characteristics have been documented in human VL, but whether the total neutrophil population is aberrant during disease is not known. Therefore, we examined phenotypic characteristics of unfractionated polymorphonuclear leukocyte (neutrophils) from subjects with active VL, and compared these with neutrophils from healthy controls or subjects who have been treated for VL...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820536/atp7a-and-atp7b-regulate-copper-homeostasis-in-developing-male-germ-cells-in-mice
#16
Mateusz Ogórek, Małgorzata Lenartowicz, Rafał Starzyński, Aneta Jończy, Robert Staroń, Andrzej Doniec, Wojciech Krzeptowski, Aleksandra Bednarz, Olga Pierzchała, Paweł Lipiński, Zenon Rajfur, Zbigniew Baster, Patrycja Gibas-Tybur, Paweł Grzmil
The maintenance of copper homeostasis is critical for all cells. As learned from mice with disturbed copper metabolism, this trace element is also important for spermatogenesis. The experiments conducted in yeasts have demonstrated that appropriate copper level must be preserved to enable meiosis progression; however, increased copper level is toxic for cells. This study aims to analyze the expression profile of Atp7a and Atp7b and other genes encoding copper-related proteins during spermatogenesis in mice...
August 18, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820499/choline-supplementation-normalizes-fetal-adiposity-and-reduces-lipogenic-gene-expression-in-a-mouse-model-of-maternal-obesity
#17
Chauntelle Jack-Roberts, Yaelle Joselit, Khatia Nanobashvili, Rachel Bretter, Olga V Malysheva, Marie A Caudill, Anjana Saxena, Kathleen Axen, Ahmed Gomaa, Xinyin Jiang
Maternal obesity increases fetal adiposity which may adversely affect metabolic health of the offspring. Choline regulates lipid metabolism and thus may influence adiposity. This study investigates the effect of maternal choline supplementation on fetal adiposity in a mouse model of maternal obesity. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat (HF) diet or a control (NF) diet and received either 25 mM choline supplemented (CS) or control untreated (CO) drinking water for 6 weeks before timed-mating and throughout gestation...
August 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820437/are-astrocytes-the-predominant-cell-type-for-activation-of-nrf2-in-aging-and-neurodegeneration
#18
REVIEW
Jeffrey R Liddell
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that regulates hundreds of antioxidant genes, and is activated in response to oxidative stress. Given that many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease and multiple sclerosis are characterised by oxidative stress, Nrf2 is commonly activated in these diseases. Evidence demonstrates that Nrf2 activity is repressed in neurons in vitro, and only cultured astrocytes respond strongly to Nrf2 inducers, leading to the interpretation that Nrf2 signalling is largely restricted to astrocytes...
August 18, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820425/bioinformatics-analysis-of-phylogeny-and-transcription-of-taa-yuc-auxin-biosynthetic-genes
#19
Axel Poulet, Verena Kriechbaumer
Auxin is a main plant growth hormone crucial in a multitude of developmental processes in plants. Auxin biosynthesis via the tryptophan aminotransferase of arabidopsis (TAA)/YUCCA (YUC) route involving tryptophan aminotransferases and YUC flavin-dependent monooxygenases that produce the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) from tryptophan is currently the most researched auxin biosynthetic pathway. Previous data showed that, in maize and arabidopsis, TAA/YUC-dependent auxin biosynthesis can be detected in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) microsomal fractions, and a subset of auxin biosynthetic proteins are localized to the ER, mainly due to transmembrane domains (TMD)...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820405/antiphospholipid-syndrome-and-monocytes-new-aspects
#20
A Blbulyan, A Martirosyan, M Petrek, Z Navratilova, G Manukyan
After discovery of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) our understanding of molecular mechanisms of living matter has become more sophisticated and on this way monocytes has become crucial player, particularly in pathogenesis of APS. Thrombotic and non-thrombotic complications of APS could be explained by monocytes' activation too. But mechanisms underlying their activation are poorly investigated. So we aimed to determine transcriptional activity of monocytes after exposing them to low concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS+ATP using comparative of RT-PCR...
July 2017: Georgian Medical News
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