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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333382/regulation-and-function-of-extracellular-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-visfatin
#1
Federico Carbone, Luca Liberale, Aldo Bonaventura, Alessandra Vecchiè, Matteo Casula, Michele Cea, Fiammetta Monacelli, Irene Caffa, Santina Bruzzone, Fabrizio Montecucco, Alessio Nencioni
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is an adipokine-enzyme, which was described as to play bioactivities both in the intracellular and in the extracellular environment. However, while the functions of intracellular NAMPT (iNAMPT) are well known, much less is known on extracellular NAMPT (eNAMPT), also called visfatin or pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor. iNAMPT catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the NAD+ biosynthesis pathway from nicotinamide. Its inhibition severely reduces intracellular NAD+ levels, achieving anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333072/detection-of-circulating-tumor-cells-using-negative-enrichment-immunofluorescence-and-an-in-situ-hybridization-system-in-pancreatic-cancer
#2
Yu Xu, Tai Qin, Jing Li, Xiuchao Wang, Chuntao Gao, Chao Xu, Jihui Hao, Jingcheng Liu, Song Gao, He Ren
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the most lethal type of gastrointestinal cancer, and early detection and monitoring is an urgent problem. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are emerging as a non-invasive biomarker for tumor detection. However, the low sensitivity is a main problem in the traditional CellSearch System for detecting CTCs, especially in patients with PC. In this study, we used negative enrichment (NE), immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization (FISH) of chromosome 8 (NE-iFISH) to capture and identify CTCs in PC patients...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331829/the-pulmonary-nodule-discovered-by-pneumonia-a-case-report
#3
Dong-Mei Yuan, Jian-Ya Zhang, Yan-Wen Yao, Hui-Ming Sun, Guan-Nan Wu, E-Hong Cao, Luca Bertolaccini, Tang-Feng Lv, Yong Song
The number of patients diagnosed with pulmonary nodules increased as more patients with high risk of lung cancer choose low-dose computed tomography (CT) scans for the screening of cancer. Clinicians might get two questions from the patients: what is the definite diagnosis of the nodule? What should we do? We have already got many guidelines trying to solve these problems. There are also several prediction models for pulmonary nodules. However, guidelines are not suitable for all types of patients, and the reality of patients is more complicated...
February 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331435/methylated-dna-rna-in-body-fluids-as-biomarkers-for-lung-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Yan Lu, Shulin/Sl Li, Shiguo/Sg Zhu, Yabin/Yb Gong, Jun/J Shi, Ling/L Xu
DNA/RNA methylation plays an important role in lung cancer initiation and progression. Liquid biopsy makes use of cells, nucleotides and proteins released from tumor cells into body fluids to help with cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Methylation of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has gained increasing attention as biomarkers for lung cancer. Here we briefly introduce the biological basis and detection method of ctDNA methylation, and review various applications of methylated DNA in body fluids in lung cancer screening, diagnosis, prognosis, monitoring and treatment prediction...
2017: Biological Procedures Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331319/humanized-cd7-nanobody-based-immunotoxins-exhibit-promising-anti-t-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-potential
#5
Yuan Yu, Jialu Li, Xuejun Zhu, Xiaowen Tang, Yangyi Bao, Xiang Sun, Yuhui Huang, Fang Tian, Xiaomei Liu, Lin Yang
BACKGROUND: Nanobodies, named as VHHs (variable domain of heavy chain of HCAb [heavy-chain antibodies]), are derived from heavy-chain-only antibodies that circulate in sera of camelids. Their exceptional physicochemical properties, possibility of humanization, and unique antigen recognition properties make them excellent candidates for targeted delivery of biologically active components, including immunotoxins. In our previous efforts, we have successfully generated the monovalent and bivalent CD7 nanobody-based immunotoxins, which can effectively trigger the apoptosis of CD7-positive malignant cells...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330928/surgery-for-cancer-a-trigger-for-metastases
#6
REVIEW
Samer Tohme, Richard L Simmons, Allan Tsung
Surgery is a crucial intervention and provides a chance of cure for patients with cancer. The perioperative period is characterized by an increased risk for accelerated growth of micrometastatic disease and increased formation of new metastatic foci. The true impact for cancer patients remains unclear. This review summarizes the often fragmentary clinical and experimental evidence supporting the role of surgery and inflammation as potential triggers for disease recurrence. Surgery induces increased shedding of cancer cells into the circulation, suppresses antitumor immunity allowing circulating cells to survive, upregulates adhesion molecules in target organs, recruits immune cells capable of entrapping tumor cells, and induces changes in the target tissue and in the cancer cells themselves to enhance migration and invasion to establish at the target site...
March 22, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330904/autonomous-tnf-is-critical-for-in-vivo-monocyte-survival-in-steady-state-and-inflammation
#7
Yochai Wolf, Anat Shemer, Michal Polonsky, Mor Gross, Alexander Mildner, Simon Yona, Eyal David, Ki-Wook Kim, Tobias Goldmann, Ido Amit, Mathias Heikenwalder, Sergei Nedospasov, Marco Prinz, Nir Friedman, Steffen Jung
Monocytes are circulating mononuclear phagocytes, poised to extravasate to sites of inflammation and differentiate into monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and its receptors are up-regulated during monopoiesis and expressed by circulating monocytes, as well as effector monocytes infiltrating certain sites of inflammation, such as the spinal cord, during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In this study, using competitive in vitro and in vivo assays, we show that monocytes deficient for TNF or TNF receptors are outcompeted by their wild-type counterpart...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330468/tumor-burden-monitoring-using-cell-free-tumor-dna-could-be-limited-by-tumor-heterogeneity-in-advanced-breast-cancer-and-should-be-evaluated-together-with-radiographic-imaging
#8
José Angel García-Saenz, Patricia Ayllón, Marion Laig, Daniel Acosta-Eyzaguirre, Marta García-Esquinas, Myriam Montes, Julián Sanz, Miguel Barquín, Fernando Moreno, Vanesa Garcia-Barberan, Eduardo Díaz-Rubio, Trinidad Caldes, Atocha Romero
BACKGROUND: Accurate measurement of tumor burden in breast cancer disease is essential to improve the clinical management of patients. In this study, we evaluate whether the fluctuations in the fraction of PIK3CA mutant allele correlates with tumor response according to RECIST criteria and tumor markers quantification. METHODS: Eighty six plasma samples were analyzed by digital PCR using Rare Mutation Assays for E542K, E545K and H1047R. Mutant cfDNA and tumor markers CA15-3 and CEA were compared with radiographic imaging...
March 22, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328955/treatment-monitoring-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-patients-by-quantification-and-kras-genotyping-of-circulating-cell-free-dna
#9
Andreas W Berger, Daniel Schwerdel, Hanna Welz, Ralf Marienfeld, Stefan A Schmidt, Alexander Kleger, Thomas J Ettrich, Thomas Seufferlein
Treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) has continuously improved over the last decade. However, disease monitoring remains underdeveloped and mostly dependent on imaging e.g. RECIST 1.1 criteria. The genetic landscape of individual cancers and subsequently occurring treatment-induced evolution remain neglected in current surveillance strategies. Novel biomarkers demand minimally invasive and repetitive tracking of the cancer mutagenome for therapy stratification and to make prognostic predictions. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a routinely used tumor marker for CRC, does not meet these goals and thus prevents its use as a reliable monitoring tool...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325259/vitamin-d-analogues-potential-use-in-cancer-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Michael J Duffy, Alyson Murray, Naoise C Synnott, Norma O'Donovan, John Crown
The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the thyroid-steroid family of nuclear transcription factors. Following binding of the active form of vitamin D, i.e., 1,25(OH)2D3 (also known as calcitriol) and interaction with co-activators and co-repressors, VDR regulates the expression of several different genes. Although relatively little work has been carried out on VDR in human cancers, several epidemiological studies suggest that low circulating levels of vitamin D are associated with both an increased risk of developing specific cancer types and poor outcome in patients with specific diagnosed cancers...
April 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323123/circumventing-intratumoral-heterogeneity-to-identify-potential-therapeutic-targets-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
Ao Huang, Xin Zhao, Xin-Rong Yang, Fu-Qiang Li, Xin-Lan Zhou, Kui Wu, Xin Zhang, Qi-Man Sun, Ya Cao, Hong-Mei Zhu, Xiang-Dong Wang, Huan-Ming Yang, Jian Wang, Zhao-You Tang, Yong Hou, Jia Fan, Jian Zhou
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) challenges identifying mutations with target therapy potential whereas circulating cell-free DNAs (cfDNAs) in blood could possibly reflect the entire mutation spectrum in certain tumors. We investigated how to minimize the limit of ITH for profiling hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Thirty-two multi-regional tumor samples from five patients were subjected to whole exome sequencing (WES) and targeted deep sequencing (TDS); matched preoperative cfDNAs were sequenced accordingly...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322970/gold-nanoparticles-radiations-and-the-immune-system-current-insights-into-the-physical-mechanisms-and-the-biological-interactions-of-this-new-alliance-towards-cancer-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Nikolaos M Dimitriou, George Tsekenis, Evangelos C Balanikas, Athanasia Pavlopoulou, Melina Mitsiogianni, Theodora Mantso, George Pashos, Andreas G Boudouvis, Ioannis N Lykakis, Georgios Tsigaridas, Mihalis I Panayiotidis, Vassilios Yannopapas, Alexandros G Georgakilas
Considering both cancer's serious impact on public health and the side effects of cancer treatments, strategies towards targeted cancer therapy have lately gained considerable interest. Employment of gold nanoparticles (GNPs), in combination with ionizing and non-ionizing radiations, has been shown to improve the effect of radiation treatment significantly. GNPs, as high-Z particles, possess the ability to absorb ionizing radiation and enhance the deposited dose within the targeted tumors. Furthermore, they can convert non-ionizing radiation into heat, due to plasmon resonance, leading to hyperthermic damage to cancer cells...
March 16, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322108/polymeric-glabrescione-b-nanocapsules-for-passive-targeting-of-hedgehog-dependent-tumor-therapy-in-vitro
#13
Cinzia Ingallina, Pedro M Costa, Francesca Ghirga, Rebecca Klippstein, Julie T Wang, Simone Berardozzi, Naomi Hodgins, Paola Infante, Steven M Pollard, Bruno Botta, Khuloud T Al-Jamal
AIM: With the purpose of delivering high doses of glabrescione B (GlaB) to solid tumors after systemic administration, long-circulating GlaB-loaded oil-cored polymeric nanocapsules (NC-GlaB) were formulated. MATERIALS & METHODS: Synthesis of GlaB and its encapsulation in nanocapsules (NCs) was performed. Empty and GlaB-loaded NCs were assessed for their physico-chemical properties, in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo biodistribution. RESULTS: GlaB was efficiently loaded into NCs (∽90%), which were small (∽160 nm), homogeneous and stable upon storage...
March 21, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316123/the-msc-adhesion-cascade-insights-into-homing-and-transendothelial-migration
#14
Franziska Nitzsche, Claudia Müller, Barbara Lukomska, Jukka Jolkkonen, Alexander Deten, Johannes Boltze
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are promising candidates for adult cell therapies in regenerative medicine. To fully exert their potential, efficient homing and migration towards lesion sites plays an important role. Local transplantation deposits MSC in spatial proximity to the lesion, but often requires invasive procedures. Systemic administration routes are favored, but require the targeted extravasation of the circulating MSC at the site of injury. Transplanted MSC can indeed leave the blood flow and transmigrate through the endothelial barrier, and reach the lesion site...
March 18, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315180/inflammation-based-indexes-and-clinicopathologic-features-are-strong-predictive-values-of-preoperative-circulating-tumor-cell-detection-in-gastric-cancer-patients
#15
L Zheng, K Zou, C Yang, F Chen, T Guo, B Xiong
PURPOSE: Circulating tumor cell (CTC) count and the host inflammatory response are two independent predictors for patients with various malignant disease. Several inflammation-based indicators have been demonstrated to have prognostic value in many malignant solid tumors, including systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and prognostic nutrition index (PNI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of the inflammation-based indexes including SII, NLR PLR, and PNI for CTC detection of gastric cancer patients before surgery...
March 17, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314271/identification-of-methylation-profiles-of-cancer-related-genes-in-circulating-tumor-cells-population
#16
Anna Lyberopoulou, Michail Galanopoulos, Gerasimos Aravantinos, George E Theodoropoulos, Evangelos Marinos, Efstathios P Efstathopoulos, Maria Gazouli
BACKGROUND: We performed an epigenetic analysis of the first exon of the hVIM gene and the SFRP2 in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and correlation with the corresponding primary colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue. PATIENTS AND METHODS: CTCs detection in 52 colorectal cancer patients was managed by a multi-marker immunomagnetic method with the use of quantum dots (QDs). To determine methylation levels we used high-resolution melting (HRM) technology. RESULTS: In the case of VIM we found 76...
March 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306236/hydrophobic-ir-780-dye-encapsulated-in-crgd-conjugated-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-for-nir-imaging-guided-photothermal-therapy
#17
Ye Kuang, Kunchi Zhang, Yi Cao, Xing Chen, Kewei Wang, Min Liu, Renjun Pei
It is highly demanded to improve the accumulation of NIR theranostic agents in tumor region, which is favorable to the effective phototherapy. IR-780 iodide, a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence dye, possesses higher and more stable fluorescence intensity than clinically applied dye indocyanine green (ICG), and can be utilized in imaging-guided photothermal therapy with laser irradiation. However, lipophilicity, short circulation time and lack of targeting specificity limit its applications in cancer imaging and therapy...
March 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302677/the-integrin-binding-defective-fgf2-mutants-potently-suppress-fgf2-signaling-and-angiogenesis
#18
Seiji Mori, Nobuaki Hatori, Naomasa Kawaguchi, Yoshinosuke Hamada, Tsung-Chieh Shih, Chun-Yi Wu, Kit S Lam, Nariaki Matsuura, Hirofumi Yamamoto, Yoko K Takada, Yoshikazu Takada
We recently found that integrin αvβ3 binds to FGF1, and that the integrin-binding defective FGF1 mutant (Arg-50 to Glu, R50E) is defective in signaling and antagonistic to FGF1 signaling. R50E suppressed angiogenesis and tumor growth, suggesting that R50E has potential as a therapeutic. However, FGF1 is unstable, and we had to express R50E in cancer cells for xenograft study, since injected R50E may rapidly disappear from circulation. We studied if we can develop antagonist of more stable FGF2. FGF2 is widely involved in important biological processes such as stem cell proliferation and angiogenesis...
March 16, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302670/modelling-pulmonary-microthrombosis-coupled-to-metastasis-distinct-effects-of-thrombogenesis-on-tumorigenesis
#19
Colin E Evans, Asis Palazon, Jingwei Sim, Petros A Tyrakis, Alice Prodger, Xiao Lu, Saria Chan, Pär-Ola Bendahl, Mattias Belting, Love Von Euler, Helene Rundqvist, Randall S Johnson, Cristina Branco
Thrombosis can cause localized ischemia and tissue hypoxia, and both of these are linked to cancer metastasis. Vascular micro-occlusion can occur as a result of arrest of circulating tumor cells in small capillaries, giving rise to microthrombotic events that affect flow, creating localized hypoxic regions. To better understand the association between metastasis and thrombotic events, we generated an experimental strategy whereby we model the effect of microvascular occlusion in metastatic efficiency, by using inert microbeads to obstruct lung microvasculature before, during and after intravenous tumor cell injection...
March 16, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302582/characterization-of-pegylated-and-non-pegylated-liposomal-formulation-for-the-delivery-of-hypoxia-activated-vinblastine-n-oxide-for-the-treatment-of-solid-tumors
#20
Vidhi M Shah, Duc X Nguyen, Adel Alfatease, Shay Bracha, Adam Wg Alani
Solid tumors often contain hypoxic regions which are resistant to standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We have developed a liposomal delivery system for a prodrug of vinblastine (CPD100) which converts to the parent compound only in the presence of lower oxygen levels. As a part of this work we have developed and optimized two formulations of CPD100: one composed of sphingomyelin/cholesterol (55/45; mol/mol) (CPD100Li) and the other composed of sphingomyelin/cholesterol/PEG (55/40/5; mol/mol) (CPD100 PEGLi)...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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