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1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144803/endocrine-manifestations-of-primary-hyperoxaluria
#1
Shatha Murad, Yuval Eisenberg
OBJECTIVE: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is a rare metabolic disorder of oxalate overproduction. It is associated with urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis which progress to ESRD and systemic oxalosis. As oxalate deposits in tissues, non-parathyroid hormone (nonPTH) mediated hypercalcemia, oxalate osteopathy, primary hypothyroidism and primary hypogonadism develop. In this review, we will present a case of PH1 and provide an overview of this clinical entity and its endocrine manifestations...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137892/role-of-pyrophosphate-in-vascular-calcification-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#2
Daniel Azpiazu, Sergio Gonzalo, Emilio González-Parra, Jesús Egido, Ricardo Villa-Bellosta
Vascular calcification is a pathology characterized by the deposition of calcium-phosphate in cardiovascular structures, mainly in the form of hydroxyapatite crystals, resulting in ectopic calcification. It is correlated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and myocardial infarction in diabetic patients and in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Vascular smooth muscle cells are sensitive to changes in inorganic phosphate (Pi) levels. They are able to adapt and modify some of their functions and promote changes which trigger calcification...
November 11, 2017: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116467/vitamin-d-supplementation-decreases-serum-27-hydroxycholesterol-in-a-pilot-breast-cancer-trial
#3
Catherine C Going, Ludmila Alexandrova, Kenneth Lau, Christine Y Yeh, David Feldman, Sharon J Pitteri
PURPOSE: 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC), an endogenous selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), drives the growth of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), the active metabolite of vitamin D, is known to inhibit expression of CYP27B1, which is very similar in structure and function to CYP27A1, the synthesizing enzyme of 27HC. Therefore, we hypothesized that 1,25(OH)2D may also inhibit expression of CYP27A1, thereby reducing 27HC concentrations in the blood and tissues that express CYP27A1, including breast cancer tissue...
November 7, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112142/igfbp-3-interacts-with-the-vitamin-d-receptor-in-insulin-signaling-associated-with-obesity-in-visceral-adipose-tissue
#4
Inmaculada Moreno-Santos, Daniel Castellano-Castillo, María Fernanda Lara, Jose Carlos Fernandez-Garcia, Francisco Jose Tinahones, Manuel Macias-Gonzalez
Adipose tissue has traditionally only been considered as an energy storage organ. Nevertheless, the importance of this tissue in systemic physiology and, especially, in systemic inflammation has been highlighted in recent years. Adipose tissue expresses proteins related to vitamin D (VD) metabolism, and it has been proposed that it can act as a VD storage tissue. The active form of VD, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)₂D₃), is able to modify adipocyte and adipose tissue physiology via the VD receptor (VDR), decreasing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109081/vitamin-d-the-placenta-and-early-pregnancy-effects-on-trophoblast-function
#5
Ankana Ganguly, Jennifer Ann Tamblyn, Sarah Finn-Sell, Shiao-Yng Chan, Melissa Westwood, Janesh Gupta, Mark Kilby, Stephane R Gross, Martin Hewison
Pregnancy is associated with significant changes in vitamin D metabolism, notably increased maternal serum levels of active vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin (1,25(OH)2D). This appears to be due primarily to increased renal activity of the enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) that catalyzes synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D, but CYP27B1 expression is also prominent in both the maternal decidua and fetal trophoblast components of the placenta. The precise function of placental synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D remains unclear, but is likely to involve localised tissue-specific responses with both decidua and trophoblast also expressing the vitamin D receptor (VDR) for 1,25(OH)2D...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104478/extracorporeal-shockwave-therapy-enhances-expression-of-pdia-3-which-is-a-key-factor-of-the-1%C3%AE-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d-3-rapid-membrane-signaling-pathway-in-treatment-of-early-osteoarthritis-of-the-knee
#6
Shan-Ling Hsu, Jai-Hong Cheng, Ching-Jen Wang, Jih-Yang Ko, Chih-Hsiang Hsu
The goal of our research was demonstrated that multiple molecules in microenvironments of the early osteoarthritis (OA) joint tissue may be actively responded to extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) treatment, which potentially regulated biological function of chondrocytes and synovial cells in early OA knee. We demonstrated that shockwave treatment induced the expression of protein-disulfide isomerase-associated 3 (Pdia-3) which was a significant mediator of the 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1α,25(OH)2D3) rapid signaling pathway, using two-dimensional electrophoresis, histological analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104461/serum-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d-better-reflects-renal-parameters-than-25-hydoxyvitamin-d-in-patients-with-glomerular-diseases
#7
Sungjin Chung, Minyoung Kim, Eun Sil Koh, Hyeon Seok Hwang, Yoon Kyung Chang, Cheol Whee Park, Suk Young Kim, Yoon Sik Chang, Yu Ah Hong
Background: Impaired vitamin D metabolism may contribute to the development and progression of chronic kidney disease. The purpose of this study was to determine associations of circulating vitamin D with the degree of proteinuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with biopsy-proven glomerular diseases. Methods: Clinical and biochemical data including blood samples for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) levels were collected from patients at the time of kidney biopsy...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099543/vitamin-d-supplementation-for-chronic-liver-diseases-in-adults
#8
REVIEW
Goran Bjelakovic, Dimitrinka Nikolova, Marko Bjelakovic, Christian Gluud
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is often reported in people with chronic liver diseases. Therefore, improving vitamin D status could have a beneficial effect on people with chronic liver diseases. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of vitamin D supplementation in people with chronic liver diseases. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, and Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science...
November 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093562/glucocorticoid-exposure-induces-preeclampsia-via-dampening-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3
#9
Dongxin Zhang, Ji Zeng, Xili Miao, Haojing Liu, Liangfang Ge, Wei Huang, Jinyu Jiao, Duyun Ye
The pathogenesis of preeclampsia (PE) involves a number of biological processes that may be directly or indirectly affected by glucocorticoid (GC) and vitamin D. GC exposure increases the risk of PE, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) deficiency may result in PE. The purpose of the present study was to confirm the involvement of GC/1,25-(OH)2D3 axis in the pathogenesis of PE. In the study, cortisol levels of PE patients were found to be higher than that of non-complicated pregnancies, while 1,25-(OH)2D3 were decreased in both PE women and GC-induced PE rats...
November 2, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083055/hormonal-regulation-of-osteocyte-perilacunar-and-canalicular-remodeling-in-the-hyp-mouse-model-of-x-linked-hypophosphatemia
#10
Danielle Tokarz, Janaina S Martins, Elizabeth T Petit, Charles P Lin, Marie B Demay, Eva S Liu
Osteocytes remodel their surrounding perilacunar matrix and canalicular network to maintain skeletal homeostasis. Perilacunar/canalicular remodeling is also thought to play a role in determining bone quality. X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is characterized by elevated serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels, resulting in hypophosphatemia and decreased production of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D). In addition to rickets and osteomalacia, long bones from mice with XLH (Hyp) have impaired whole-bone biomechanical integrity accompanied by increased osteocyte apoptosis...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080646/the-use-of-vitamin-d-metabolites-and-analogues-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
REVIEW
Ladan Zand, Rajiv Kumar
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are associated with abnormalities in bone and mineral metabolism, known as CKD-bone mineral disorder. CKD and ESRD cause skeletal abnormalities characterized by hyperparathyroidism, mixed uremic osteodystrophy, osteomalacia, adynamic bone disease, and frequently enhanced vascular and ectopic calcification. Hyperparathyroidism and mixed uremic osteodystrophy are the most common manifestations due to phosphate retention, reduced concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, intestinal calcium absorption, and negative calcium balance...
December 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080638/biology-and-mechanisms-of-action-of-the-vitamin-d-hormone
#12
REVIEW
J Wesley Pike, Sylvia Christakos
The central role of hormonal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] is to regulate calcium and phosphorus homeostasis via actions in intestine, kidney, and bone. These and other actions in many cell types not involved in mineral metabolism are mediated by the vitamin D receptor. Recent studies using genome-wide scale techniques have extended fundamental ideas regarding vitamin D-mediated control of gene expression while simultaneously revealing a series of new concepts. This article summarizes the current view of the biological actions of the vitamin D hormone and focuses on new concepts that drive the understanding of the mechanisms through which vitamin D operates...
December 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074827/-update-on-recent-progress-in-vitamin-d-research-the-effects-of-vitamin-d-in-autoinflammatory-diseases
#13
Tomoka Ao, Junichi Kikuta, Masaru Ishii
Various kinds of immune cells -including dendritic cells, macrophages, T cells and B cells- express the vitamin D receptor and 1α-hydroxylase(CYP27B1). In vitro studies have shown the anti-inflammatory effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D:the active form of vitamin D. As vitamin D deficiency spread in our society, epidemiological studies have established the association between vitamin D deficiency and incidence or progression of several inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis(RA), systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE), and multiple sclerosis(MS)...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074825/-update-on-recent-progress-in-vitamin-d-research-vitamin-d-receptor-and-the-nuclear-receptor-superfamily
#14
Makoto Makishima
The vitamin D receptor(VDR)is a ligand-dependent transcription factor of the nuclear receptor superfamily. VDR belongs to the NR1I subfamily along with other nuclear receptors involved in xenobiotic metabolism, such as pregnane X receptor. The oxysterol receptors liver X receptors α/β and the bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor belong to the NR1H subfamily, which are closely related to the NR1I subfamily. NR1I and NR1H nuclear receptors form heterodimers with retinoid X receptor. The active form of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3[1,25(OH)2D3], acts as a physiological VDR ligand, and regulates various physiological processes, including calcium and bone metabolism, cellular growth and differentiation, immunity, and cardiovascular function...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074823/-update-on-recent-progress-in-vitamin-d-research-vitamin-d-metabolism-and-its-regulation
#15
Toshimi Michigami
Vitamin D is taken up from food as D2 and D3. Vitamin D3 is also synthesized from 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin by the exposure of ultraviolet B. The D2 and D3, which are called native vitamin D, are hydroxylated at C25 in the liver by CYP2R1 and then at C1 in the kidney by CYP27B1, to be converted to an active vitamin D metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D[1,25(OH)2D]. CYP24A1 converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D(25OHD)and 1,25(OH)2D to 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D[24,25(OH)2D]and 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D[1,24,25(OH)3D], respectively, to decrease the level of 1,25(OH)2D...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066221/decreased-sensitivity-to-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-in-t-cells-from-the-rheumatoid-joint
#16
Louisa E Jeffery, Peter Henley, Nefisa Marium, Andrew Filer, David M Sansom, Martin Hewison, Karim Raza
1,25-dihydroxyvitaminD3 (1,25(OH)2D3), has potent anti-inflammatory effects, including suppression of IL-17 + and IFNγ+ T cells implicated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but efficacy at the site of active disease is unclear. To investigate this, T cells from synovial fluid (SF) and paired blood of patients with active RA were studied. 1,25(OH)2D3 had significantly less suppressive effect on Th17 cells (IL-17+IFNγ-) and Th17.1 cells (IL-17+IFNγ+) from SF compared to those from blood, and had no effect on SF CD4(+) or CD8(+) IFNγ+ T cell frequencies...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064205/the-association-between-serum-vitamin-d-levels-and-urticaria-a-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#17
Xiaoyan Wang, Xiaorong Li, Yiwei Shen, Xueyan Wang
BACKGROUND: Despite the recent studies revealed Vitamin D may play a role in urticaria, no meta-analysis providing definite conclusions in this field has been reported. METHODS: A systematic search up to 30thJune 2017 was conducted in MEDLINE (via PubMed) and Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE) to identify relevant articles. Search terms included ''vitamin D'' or "25-hydroxyvitamin D" or ''25hydroxy-vitaminD" or "25(OH)D" or "1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D" combined with ''urticaria"...
October 23, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061851/hormonal-vitamin-d-upregulates-tissue-specific-pd-l1-and-pd-l2-surface-glycoprotein-expression-in-human-but-not-mouse
#18
Vassil Dimitrov, Manuella Bouttier, Giselle Boukhaled, Reyhaneh Salehi-Tabar, Radu Avramescu, Babak Memari, Benedeta Hasaj, Gergely L Lukacs, Connie Michele Krawczyk, John Howard White
PD-L1 (programmed death ligand 1) and PD-L2 are cell surface glycoproteins that interact with programmed death 1 (PD-1) on T cells to attenuate inflammation. PD-1 signaling has attracted intense interest for its role in a pathophysiological context: suppression of anti-tumor immunity. Similarly, vitamin D signaling has been increasingly investigated for its non-classical actions in stimulation of innate immunity and suppression of inflammatory responses. Here, we show that hormonal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) is a direct transcriptional inducer of the human genes encoding PD-L1 and PD-L2 through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a ligand-regulated transcription factor...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057134/spiral-fracture-in-young-infant-causing-a-diagnostic-dilemma-nutritional-rickets-versus-child-abuse
#19
Sonia Kaushal, Manish Raisingani, Raphael David, Bina Shah
Fractures are uncommon in young, nonambulatory infants. The differential diagnosis includes nonaccidental injury (NAI) and metabolic bone disease, including rickets. While rickets typically present after six months of age, multiple cases have been reported in younger infants. We report a case of an 11-week-old male infant who presented with a spiral fracture of the humerus and no radiologic evidence of rickets. A detailed psychosocial assessment failed to reveal any risk factors for NAI. The patient had elevated alkaline phosphatase and PTH with low 25 hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D levels...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048387/vitamin-d-as-a-novel-regulator-of-tumor-metabolism-insights-on-potential-mechanisms-and-implications-for-anti-cancer-therapy
#20
REVIEW
Mohamed A Abu El Maaty, Stefan Wölfl
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ [1,25(OH)₂D₃], the bioactive form of vitamin D, has been shown to possess significant anti-tumor potential. While most studies so far have focused on the ability of this molecule to influence the proliferation and apoptosis of cancer cells, more recent data indicate that 1,25(OH)₂D₃ also impacts energy utilization in tumor cells. In this article, we summarize and review the evidence that demonstrates the targeting of metabolic aberrations in cancers by 1,25(OH)₂D₃, and highlight potential mechanisms through which these effects may be executed...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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