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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087942/the-mutualistic-interaction-between-plants-and-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi
#1
Luisa Lanfranco, Paola Bonfante, Andrea Genre
Mycorrhizal fungi belong to several taxa and develop mutualistic symbiotic associations with over 90% of all plant species, from liverworts to angiosperms. While descriptive approaches have dominated the initial studies of these fascinating symbioses, the advent of molecular biology, live cell imaging, and "omics" techniques have provided new and powerful tools to decipher the cellular and molecular mechanisms that rule mutualistic plant-fungus interactions. In this article we focus on the most common mycorrhizal association, arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), which is formed by a group of soil fungi belonging to Glomeromycota...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087920/spatial-and-temporal-variation-of-water-quality-in-the-bertam-catchment-cameron-highlands-malaysia
#2
G Rasul
The spatio-temporal variability of water quality associated with anthropogenic activities was studied for the Bertam River and its main tributaries within the Bertam Catchment, Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. A number of physico-chemical parameters of collected samples were analyzed to evaluate their spatio-temporal variability. Non-parametric statistical analysis showed significant temporal and spatial differences (p<0.05) in most of the parameters across the Catchment. Parameters except DO and COD displayed higher values in rainy season...
December 16, 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087696/genetic-and-biochemical-characterization-of-a-gene-operon-for-trans-aconitic-acid-a-novel-nematicide-from-bacillus-thuringiensis
#3
Cuiying Du, Shiyun Cao, Xiangyu Shi, Xiangtao Nie, Jinshui Zheng, Yun Deng, Lifang Ruan, Donghai Peng, Ming Sun
Trans-aconitic acid (TAA) is an isomer of cis-aconitic acid (CAA), an intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle that is synthesized by aconitase. Although TAA production has been detected in bacteria and plants for many years and is known to be a potent inhibitor of aconitase, its biosynthetic origins and the physiological relevance of its activity have remained unclear. We have serendipitously uncovered key information relevant to both of these questions. Specifically, in a search for novel nematicidal factors from Bacillus thuringiensis, a significant nematode pathogen harboring many protein virulence factors, we discovered a high-yielding component that showed activity against the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita and surprisingly identified it as TAA...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087536/the-regulator-of-type-iv-pili-synthesis-pilr-from-lysobacter-controls-antifungal-antibiotic-production-via-a-c-di-gmp-pathway
#4
Yuan Chen, Jing Xia, Zhenhe Su, Gaoge Xu, Mark Gomelsky, Guoliang Qian, Fengquan Liu
Lysobacter enzymogenes is a ubiquitous soil gammaproteobacterium that produces a broad-spectrum antifungal antibiotic, known as Heat-Stable Antifungal Factor (HSAF). To increase HSAF production for the use against fungal crop diseases, it is important to understand how HSAF synthesis is regulated. To gain insights into transcriptional regulation of the HSAF synthesis gene cluster, we generated a library of deletion mutants in the genes predicted to encode response regulators of the two-component signaling systems in L...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087533/polysaccharide-degradation-capability-of-actinomycetales-soil-isolates-from-a-semi-arid-grassland-of-the-colorado-plateau
#5
Chris M Yeager, La Verne Gallegos-Graves, John Dunbar, Cedar N Hesse, Hajnalka Daligault, Cheryl R Kuske
: Among the bacteria, members of the Actinomycetales are considered quintessential degraders of complex polysaccharides in soils. However, studies examining complex polysaccharide degradation by Actinomycetales (other than Streptomyces spp.) in soils are limited. Here, we examine the lignocellulolytic and chitinolytic potential of 112 Actinomycetales strains, encompassing 13 families, isolated from a semi-arid grassland of the Colorado Plateau, Utah, USA. Members of the Streptomycetaceae, Pseudonocardiaceae, Micromonosporaceae and Promicromonosporaceae exhibited robust activity against carboxymethylcellulose, xylan, chitin and pectin substrates (except for low/no pectinase activity by the Micromonosporaceae)...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087454/an-observational-study-of-phagocytes-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-relationships-different-behaviors
#6
Elodie Maisonneuve, Estelle Cateau, Marion Delouche, Nathalie Quellard, Marie-Helene Rodier
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a bacterium that can be in relation with free living amoebae like Acanthamoeba castellanii in natural environments such as soil and water. This pathogen, which is responsible for community-acquired pneumonia and for nosocomial infections, also has interactions with host defense mechanisms like macrophages. As it has been shown that A. castellanii shares some traits with macrophages, in particular the ability to phagocyte bacteria, we have studied the uptake and the fate of the bacteria after contact with the two phagocytic cells...
January 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087206/spatial-relationships-between-entomopathogenic-nematodes-and-nematophagous-fungi-in-florida-citrus-orchards
#7
Ekta Pathak, Raquel Campos-Herrera, Fahiem E El-Borai, Larry W Duncan
Relationships between entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), nematophagous fungi (NF) and soil physical and chemical properties were studied in a survey of 53 citrus orchards in central ridge and flatwoods ecoregions of Florida. Seven species of NF associated with nematodes were quantified directly using a real time qPCR assay. All nematophagous fungi studied exceptArthrobotrys musiformis andHirsutella rhossiliensiswere frequently detected (24-56%) in both regions.Paecilomyces lilacinusandGamsylella gephyropagumwere encountered more frequently in the flatwoods (P = 0...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087151/the-key-to-mn-homeostasis-in-plants-regulation-of-mn-transporters
#8
REVIEW
Ji Feng Shao, Naoki Yamaji, Ren Fang Shen, Jian Feng Ma
Plants only require small amounts of manganese (Mn) for healthy growth, but Mn concentrations in soil solution vary from sub-micromolar to hundreds of micromolar across the growth period. Therefore, plants must deal with large Mn concentration fluctuations, but the molecular mechanisms underlying how plants cope with low and high Mn concentrations are poorly understood. In this Opinion we discuss the role of Mn transporters in the uptake, distribution, and detoxification of Mn in response to changes in Mn concentrations through their regulation at the transcriptional and protein levels, mainly focusing on rice, an Mn-tolerant and -accumulating species...
January 10, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087056/extraction-chromatographic-separations-of-tantalum-and-tungsten-from-hafnium-and-complex-matrix-constituents
#9
Mathew S Snow, Martha R Finck, Kevin P Carney, Samuel S Morrison
Tantalum (Ta), hafnium (Hf), and tungsten (W) analyses from complex matrices require high purification of these analytes from each other and major/trace matrix constituents, however, current state-of-the-art Ta/Hf/W separations rely on traditional anion exchange approaches that show relatively similar distribution coefficient (Kd) values for each element. This work reports an assessment of three commercially available extraction chromatographic resins (TEVA, TRU, and UTEVA) for Ta/Hf/W separations. Batch contact studies show differences in Ta/Hf and Ta/W Kd values of up to 10(6) and 10(4) (respectively), representing an improvement of a factor of 100 and 300 in Ta/Hf and Ta/W Kd values (respectively) over AG1×4 resin...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081505/practicability-of-monitoring-soil-cd-hg-and-pb-pollution-based-on-a-geochemical-survey-in-china
#10
Xueqi Xia, Zhongfang Yang, Guocheng Li, Tao Yu, Qingye Hou, Admire Muchimamui Mutelo
Repeated visiting, i.e., sampling and analysis at two or more temporal points, is one of the important ways of monitoring soil heavy metal contamination. However, with the concern about the cost, determination of the number of samples and the temporal interval, and their capability to detect a certain change is a key technical problem to be solved. This depends on the spatial variation of the parameters in the monitoring units. The "National Multi-Purpose Regional Geochemical Survey" (NMPRGS) project in China, acquired the spatial distribution of heavy metals using a high density sampling method in the most arable regions in China...
December 19, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081189/global-gene-expression-analysis-of-cross-protected-phenotype-of-pectobacterium-atrosepticum
#11
Vladimir Gorshkov, Stanford Kwenda, Olga Petrova, Elena Osipova, Yuri Gogolev, Lucy N Moleleki
The ability to adapt to adverse conditions permits many bacterial species to be virtually ubiquitous and survive in a variety of ecological niches. This ability is of particular importance for many plant pathogenic bacteria that should be able to exist, except for their host plants, in different environments e.g. soil, water, insect-vectors etc. Under some of these conditions, bacteria encounter absence of nutrients and persist, acquiring new properties related to resistance to a variety of stress factors (cross-protection)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081179/effect-of-straw-amendment-on-soil-zn-availability-and-ageing-of-exogenous-water-soluble-zn-applied-to-calcareous-soil
#12
Yanlong Chen, Juan Cui, Xiaohong Tian, Aiqing Zhao, Meng Li, Shaoxia Wang, Xiushaung Li, Zhou Jia, Ke Liu
Organic matter plays a key role in availability and transformation of soil Zn (zinc), which greatly controls Zn concentrations in cereal grains and human Zn nutrition level. Accordingly, soils homogenized with the wheat straw (0, 12 g straw kg-1) and Zn fertilizer (0, 7 mg Zn kg-1) were buried and incubated in the field over 210 days to explore the response of soil Zn availability and the ageing of exogenous Zn to straw addition. Results indicated that adding straw alone scarcely affected soil DTPA-Zn concentration and Zn fractions because of the low Zn concentration of wheat straw and the high soil pH, and large clay and calcium carbonate contents...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081161/factors-related-with-ch4-and-n2o-emissions-from-a-paddy-field-clues-for-management-implications
#13
Chun Wang, Derrick Y F Lai, Jordi Sardans, Weiqi Wang, Congsheng Zeng, Josep Peñuelas
Paddy fields are major sources of global atmospheric greenhouse gases, including methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The different phases previous to emission (production, transport, diffusion, dissolution in pore water and ebullition) despite well-established have rarely been measured in field conditions. We examined them and their relationships with temperature, soil traits and plant biomass in a paddy field in Fujian, southeastern China. CH4 emission was positively correlated with CH4 production, plant-mediated transport, ebullition, diffusion, and concentration of dissolved CH4 in porewater and negatively correlated with sulfate concentration, suggesting the potential use of sulfate fertilizers to mitigate CH4 release...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081124/rapid-genotyping-of-%C3%AE-tubulin-polymorphisms-in-trichuris-trichiura-and-ascaris-lumbricoides
#14
Nour Rashwan, Marilyn Scott, Roger Prichard
BACKGROUND: The benzimidazole (BZ) anthelmintics, albendazole (ABZ) and mebendazole (MBZ) are the most common drugs used for treatment of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). Their intensive use increases the possibility that BZ resistance may develop. In veterinary nematodes, BZ resistance is caused by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene at codon position 200, 167 or 198, and these SNPs have also been correlated with poor response of human Trichuris trichiura to BZ treatment...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080215/laparoscopy-assisted-duhamel-z-anastomosis-for-total-colonic-aganglionosis-outcome-assessed-by-fecal-continence-evaluation
#15
Go Miyano, Hiroki Nakamura, Shogo Seo, Ryo Sueyoshi, Manabu Okawada, Takashi Doi, Hiroyuki Koga, Geoffrey J Lane, Tadaharu Okazaki, Atsuyuki Yamataka
BACKGROUND: A Z-shaped colorectal side-to-side anastomosis was introduced to improve the Duhamel procedure by eliminating the rectal blind pouch. We retrospectively reviewed all total colonic aganglionosis patients treated by laparoscopy-assisted Duhamel-Z (LapDZ) between 2009 and 2014 focusing on annual fecal continence evaluation scores (CES) as an indicator of outcome. METHODS: LapDZ was performed conventionally. Postoperatively, defecation was regulated with medications and enemas according to our standard protocol...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080203/alginate-immobilized-enrichment-culture-for-atrazine-degradation-in-soil-and-water-system
#16
Anup Kumar, Lata Nain, Neera Singh
An atrazine degrading enrichment culture, a consortium of bacteria of genus Bacillus along with Pseudomonas and Burkholderia, was immobilized in sodium alginate and was used to study atrazine degradation in mineral salts medium (MSM), soil and wastewater effluent. Sodium alginate immobilized consortium, when stored at room temperature (24 ± 5°C), was effective in degrading atrazine in MSM up to 90 days of storage. The survival of bacteria in alginate beads, based on colony formation unit (CFU) counts, suggested survival up to 90 days and population counts decreased to 1/5(th) on 120 days...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079939/functional-ecology-of-cryptogams-scaling-from-bryophyte-lichen-and-soil-crust-traits-to-ecosystem-processes
#17
Kirsten K Deane-Coe, Daniel Stanton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079684/the-cif-virulence-factor-gene-is-present-in-isolates-from-patients-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-keratitis
#18
Christopher D Bahl, Jessica D St Laurent, R Siva Ganesa Karthikeyan, J Lakshmi Priya, Lalitha Prajna, Michael E Zegans, Dean R Madden
PURPOSE: To determine whether the cif gene is present in pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from patients with bacterial keratitis at Aravind Eye Hospital, a referral eye care center in southern India, and from corresponding environmental isolates. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction amplification was performed on strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from ocular infections and environmental soil samples were collected from the area surrounding Aravind Eye Hospital...
January 11, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079647/using-public-health-data-for-soil-pb-hazard-management-in-ohio
#19
John F Obrycki, Tyler Serafini, Darryl B Hood, Chris Alexander, Pam Blais, Nicholas T Basta
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate how frequently elevated soil lead (Pb) hazards (≥400 ppm Pb) were identified in existing blood Pb site investigations in Ohio. DESIGN: This study evaluated 3050 site investigations from the Ohio Department of Health for children with blood Pb levels at or above 10 μg dL that contained bare soil Pb data. SETTING: Data were collected from existing databases maintained by the Ohio Department of Health. PARTICIPANTS: All data were de-identified prior to analysis...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079271/uptake-and-elimination-kinetics-of-the-biocide-triclosan-and-the-synthetic-musks-galaxolide-and-tonalide-in-the-earthworm-dendrobaena-veneta-when-exposed-to-sewage-sludge
#20
Ivo Havranek, Claire Coutris, Hans Ragnar Norli, Pierre-Adrien Rivier, Erik J Joner
Sewage sludge is an important amendment that enriches soils with organic matter and provides plants with nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. However, knowledge on fate and effects of organic pollutants present in the sludge on soil organisms is limited. In the present study, the uptake of triclosan, galaxolide, and tonalide in the earthworm Dendrobaena veneta was measured one week after amendment of agricultural soil with sewage sludge, while elimination kinetics were assessed over a 21-day period after transferring worms to a clean soil...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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