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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351606/analysis-of-metal-tolerance-in-rhizobium-leguminosarum-strains-isolated-from-an-ultramafic-soil
#1
Laura Rubio-Sanz, Belén Brito, Jose Palacios
Natural habitats containing high amounts of heavy metals provide a valuable source of bacteria adapted to deal with metal toxicity. A functional analysis of the population of legume endosymbiotic bacteria in an ultramafic soil was undertaken by studying a collection of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae (Rlv) isolates obtained using pea as trap plant. One of the isolates, Rlv UPM1137, was selected on the basis of its higher tolerance to nickel and cobalt and presence of inducible mechanisms for such tolerance...
January 17, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351588/sorghum-root-system-classification-in-contrasting-p-environments-reveals-three-main-rooting-types-and-root-architecture-related-marker-trait-associations
#2
Sebastian Parra-Londono, Mareike Kavka, Birgit Samans, Rod Snowdon, Silke Wieckhorst, Ralf Uptmoor
Background and Aims: Roots facilitate acquisition of macro- and micronutrients, which are crucial for plant productivity and anchorage in the soil. Phosphorus (P) is rapidly immobilized in the soil and hardly available for plants. Adaptation to P scarcity relies on changes in root morphology towards rooting systems well suited for topsoil foraging. Root-system architecture (RSA) defines the spatial organization of the network comprising primary, lateral and stem-derived roots and is important for adaptation to stress conditions...
January 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351575/waterlogging-tolerance-tissue-nitrogen-and-oxygen-transport-in-the-forage-legume-melilotus-siculus-a-comparison-of-nodulated-and-nitrate-fed-plants
#3
Dennis Konnerup, Guillermo Toro, Ole Pedersen, Timothy David Colmer
Background and Aims: Soil waterlogging adversely impacts most plants. Melilotus siculus is a waterlogging-tolerant annual forage legume, but data were lacking for the effects of root-zone hypoxia on nodulated plants reliant on N2 fixation. The aim was to compare the waterlogging tolerance and physiology of M. siculus reliant on N2 fixation or with access to NO3-. Methods: A factorial experiment imposed treatments of water level (drained or waterlogged), rhizobia (nil or inoculated) and mineral N supply (nil or 11 mm NO3-) for 21 d on plants in pots of vermiculite in a glasshouse...
January 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351361/pathways-of-nitric-oxide-metabolism-and-operation-of-phytoglobins-in-legume-nodules-missing-links-and-future-directions
#4
Antoine Berger, Renaud Brouquisse, Pradeep Kumar Pathak, Imène Hichri, Inderjit Singh, Sabhyata Bhatia, Alexandre Boscari, Abir U Igamberdiev, Kapuganti Jagadis Gupta
The interaction between legumes and rhizobia leads to the establishment of a beneficial symbiotic relationship. Recent advances in legume - rhizobium symbiosis revealed that various reactive oxygen and nitrogen species including nitric oxide (NO) play important roles during this process. Nodule development occurs with a transition from a normoxic environment during the establishment of symbiosis to a microoxic environment in functional nodules. Such oxygen dynamics are required for activation and repression of various NO production and scavenging pathways...
January 19, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351192/seed-endophyte-microbiome-of-crotalaria-pumila-unpeeled-identification-of-plant-beneficial-methylobacteria
#5
Ariadna S Sánchez-López, Isabel Pintelon, Vincent Stevens, Valeria Imperato, Jean-Pierre Timmermans, Carmen González-Chávez, Rogelio Carrillo-González, Jonathan Van Hamme, Jaco Vangronsveld, Sofie Thijs
Metal contaminated soils are increasing worldwide. Metal-tolerant plants growing on metalliferous soils are fascinating genetic and microbial resources. Seeds can vertically transmit endophytic microorganisms that can assist next generations to cope with environmental stresses, through yet poorly understood mechanisms. The aims of this study were to identify the core seed endophyte microbiome of the pioneer metallophyte Crotalaria pumila throughout three generations, and to better understand the plant colonisation of the seed endophyte Methylobacterium sp...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350759/extreme-rainfall-affects-assembly-of-the-root-associated-fungal-community
#6
Christopher J Barnes, Christopher J van der Gast, Niall P McNamara, Rebecca Rowe, Gary D Bending
Global warming is resulting in increased frequency of weather extremes. Root-associated fungi play important roles in terrestrial biogeochemical cycling processes, but the way in which they are affected by extreme weather is unclear. Here, we performed long-term field monitoring of the root-associated fungus community of a short rotation coppice willow plantation, and compared community dynamics before and after a once in 100 yr rainfall event that occurred in the UK in 2012. Monitoring of the root-associated fungi was performed over a 3-yr period by metabarcoding the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region...
January 19, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350478/enzymatic-scarification-of-anacamptis-morio-orchidaceae-seed-facilitates-lignin-degradation-water-uptake-and-germination
#7
Simon Pierce, Alberto Spada, Elisabetta Caporali, Roberta M Ceriani, Gabriella Buffa
The seed coat of many species contains hydrophobic lignins, and in soil the action of microbial ligninases may contribute to release from dormancy. Laboratory use of ligninases to stimulate germination is promising because of the specific action on the seed coat, whereas chemical scarification agents may also corrode the embryo. We hypothesized that exposure of Anacamptis morio (Orchidaceae) seeds to fungal laccase stimulates germination, and that the mechanism involves lignin degradation and increased imbibition...
January 19, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350358/streptomyces-ach-505-triggers-production-of-a-salicylic-acid-analogue-in-the-fungal-pathogen-heterobasidion-abietinum-that-enhances-infection-of-norway-spruce-seedlings
#8
Nadine Keilhofer, Jonny Nachtigall, Andreas Kulik, Margret Ecke, Rüdiger Hampp, Roderich D Süssmuth, Hans-Peter Fiedler, Silvia D Schrey
The necrotrophic fungus Heterobasidion spp. is the causal agent of 'annosum root rot' of Norway spruce. In the presence of the rhizosphere bacterium Streptomyces AcH 505, enhanced colonization of Norway spruce roots with Heterobasidion abietinum 331 has previously been observed. By analyzing dual cultures of H. abietinum 331 and Streptomyces AcH 505 with HPLC, a fungal metabolite was identified that was increased in the presence of Streptomyces AcH 505. Likewise, challenge of H. abietum 331 with common antifungals produced by soil streptomycetes rendered the same effect...
January 19, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350285/gut-shuttle-service-endozoochory-of-dispersal-limited-soil-fauna-by-gastropods
#9
Manfred Türke, Markus Lange, Nico Eisenhauer
Numerous important ecosystem functions and services depend on soil biodiversity. However, little is known about the mechanisms which maintain the vast belowground biodiversity and about the filters shaping soil community composition. Yet, biotic interactions like facilitation and dispersal by animals are assumed to play a crucial role, particularly as most soil animal taxa are strongly limited in their active dispersal abilities. Here, we report on a newfound interaction of potentially high ubiquity and importance in soil communities: the endozoochorous dispersal of soil fauna by gastropods...
January 19, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350257/a-new-approach-for-the-extraction-of-tetracyclines-from-soil-matrices-application-of-the-microwave-extraction-technique
#10
Paulina Łukaszewicz, Anna Białk-Bielińska, Joanna Dołżonek, Jolanta Kumirska, Magda Caban, Piotr Stepnowski
The widespread use of tetracyclines (TCs) in animal husbandry is associated with their constant penetration into the environment and the threat they might pose to living organisms. While the literature data on the analysis of these substances in such matrices as food, tissues, or wastewater are quite extensive, there are still only a few methods presented for the determination of these compounds in soil samples. Moreover, among the literature methods for the extraction of TCs from soil samples, microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MAE) was used only once and in combination with liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric detection (LC-UV)...
January 19, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350245/chitinophaga-caseinilytica-sp-nov-a-casein-hydrolysing-bacterium-isolated-from-forest-soil
#11
Ram Hari Dahal, Jaisoo Kim
A novel casein hydrolysing bacterium designated strain S-52T was isolated from Kyonggi University forest soil. Cells were strictly aerobic, Gram stain-negative, oxidase- and catalase- positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, and golden-yellow-pigmented. Strain S-52T hydrolysed casein. It was able to grow at 20-37 °C (optimum 25-32 °C), pH 6.5-11.0 (optimum 7-9.5), and at 3% (w/v) NaCl concentration. Strain exhibits flexirubin-type pigments. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain S-52T formed a lineage within the genus Chitinophaga that was distinct from other species of the genus...
January 19, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350144/emergomyces-africanus-in-soil-south-africa
#12
Ilan S Schwartz, Barbra Lerm, J Claire Hoving, Chris Kenyon, William G Horsnell, W Joan Basson, Patricia Otieno-Odhiambo, Nelesh P Govender, Robert Colebunders, Alfred Botha
We detected Emergomyces africanus, a thermally dimorphic fungus that causes an HIV-associated systemic mycosis, by PCR in 18 (30%) of 60 soil samples from a wide range of habitats in South Africa. Direct and indirect culture techniques were unsuccessful. Experimental intraperitoneal inoculation of conidia induced murine disease.
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350131/antimicrobial-resistance-in-stenotrophomonas-spp
#13
Yang Wang, Tao He, Zhangqi Shen, Congming Wu
Bacteria of the genus Stenotrophomonas are found throughout the environment, in close association with soil, sewage, and plants. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, the first member of this genus, is the predominant species, observed in soil, water, plants, animals, and humans. It is also an opportunistic pathogen associated with the increased number of infections in both humans and animals in recent years. In this article, we summarize all Stenotrophomonas species (mainly S. maltophilia) isolated from animals and food products of animal origin and further distinguish all isolates based on antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance phenotypes...
January 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349942/ancient-soil-transmitted-parasite-eggs-detected-from-the-sixth-century-three-kingdom-period-silla-tomb
#14
Min Seo, Chang Seok Oh, Jong Ha Hong, Jong Yil Chai, Jin Og Ju, Dong Hoon Shin
The parasitic infection patterns of the Joseon period have begun to be revealed in a series of paleoparasitological studies. However, parasitism prevailing during or before the Three Kingdom period is still relatively unexplored. In the present study, we therefore conducted parasitological examinations of soil and organic-material sediments precipitated upon human hipbone and sacrum discovered inside an ancient Mokgwakmyo tomb dating to the Silla Dynasty (57 BCE-660 CE). Within the samples, we discovered ancient Ascaris lumbricoides (eggs per gram [EPG], 46...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349822/subcritical-water-extraction-of-amino-acids-from-mars-analog-soils
#15
Aaron C Noell, Anita M Fisher, Kisa Fors-Francis, Stewart Sherrit
For decades, the Martian regolith has stymied robotic mission efforts to catalog the organic molecules present. Perchlorate salts, found widely throughout Mars, are the main culprit as they breakdown and react with organics liberated from the regolith during pyrolysis, the primary extraction technique attempted to date on Mars. This work further develops subcritical water extraction (SCWE) as a technique for extraction of amino acids on future missions. The effect of SCWE temperature (185, 200, and 215°C) and duration of extraction (10-120 min) on the total amount and distribution of amino acids recovered was explored for three Mars analog soils (JSC Mars-1A simulant, an Atacama desert soil, and an Antarctic Dry Valleys soil) and bovine serum albumin (as a control solution of known amino acid content)...
January 18, 2018: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349788/roles-of-water-quality-and-disinfectant-application-on-inactivation-of-fish-pathogenic-streptococcus-agalactiae-with-povidone-iodine-quaternary-ammonium-compounds-and-glutaraldehyde
#16
N Mon-On, W Surachetpong, S Mongkolsuk, K Sirikanchana
Streptococcosis is an important bacterial disease in Nile tilapia causing severe economic losses to tilapia aquaculture worldwide. The effects of water quality (low- [LS] and high-level [HS] soiling, to mimic clean or dirty surface conditions and temperatures) and disinfectant application (diluted concentrations and exposure time) were characterized on the inactivation of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from diseased tilapia. Five isolates were tested against three commercial disinfectant products with the main ingredients being povidone iodine (Anidine 100™; AD), benzalkonium chloride (Better BKC 80%™; BKC 80), and a mixture of quaternary ammonium compounds and glutaraldehyde (Chloraldehyde™; CR)...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349621/adsorption-and-leaching-of-novel-fungicide-pyraoxystrobin-on-soils-by-14c-tracing-method
#17
Xunyue Liu, Huiming Wu, Tingting Hu, Xia Chen, Xingcheng Ding
Pyraoxystrobin, (E)-2-(2-((3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-5-yloxy)methyl)phenyl)-3-methoxyacrylate, is a newly developed strobilurin fungicide with high antifungal efficiency. It has high potential to enter soil environments that might subsequently impact surface and groundwater. Therefore, 14C-labeled pyraoxystrobin was used as a tracer to study the adsorption/desorption and migration behavior of this compound under laboratory conditions in three typical agricultural soils. The adsorption isotherms conformed with the Freundlich equation...
January 19, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349491/formulation-and-stabilization-of-an-arthrobacter-strain-with-good-storage-stability-and-4-chlorophenol-degradation-activity-for-bioremediation
#18
Joakim Bjerketorp, Wilfred F M Röling, Xin-Mei Feng, Armando Hernández Garcia, Hermann J Heipieper, Sebastian Håkansson
Chlorophenols are widespread and of environmental concern due to their toxic and carcinogenic properties. Development of less costly and less technically challenging remediation methods are needed; therefore, we developed a formulation based on micronized vermiculite that, when air-dried, resulted in a granular product containing the 4-chlorophenol (4-CP)-degrading Gram-positive bacterium Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6. This formulation and stabilization method yielded survival rates of about 60% that remained stable in storage for at least 3 months at 4 °C...
January 18, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348657/an-ethylene-response-factor-mxerf4-functions-as-a-repressor-of-fe-acquisition-in-malus-xiaojinensis
#19
Wei Liu, Ting Wu, Qiwei Li, Xinzhong Zhang, Xuefeng Xu, Tianhong Li, Zhenhai Han, Yi Wang
Iron (Fe) is an essential element for plants; however, its availability is limited as it forms insoluble complexes in the soil. Consequently, plants have developed mechanisms to adapt to low Fe conditions. We demonstrate that ethylene is involved in Fe deficiency-induced physiological responses in Malus xiaojinensis, and describe the identification of MxERF4 as a protein-protein interaction partner with the MxFIT transcription factor, which is involved in the iron deficiency response. Furthermore, we demonstrate that MxERF4 acts as an MxFIT interaction partner to suppresses the expression of the Fe transporter MxIRT1, by binding directly to its promoter, requiring the EAR motif of the MxERF4 protein...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348647/the-contribution-of-predators-and-scavengers-to-human-well-being
#20
REVIEW
Christopher J O'Bryan, Alexander R Braczkowski, Hawthorne L Beyer, Neil H Carter, James E M Watson, Eve McDonald-Madden
Predators and scavengers are frequently persecuted for their negative effects on property, livestock and human life. Research has shown that these species play important regulatory roles in intact ecosystems including regulating herbivore and mesopredator populations that in turn affect floral, soil and hydrological systems. Yet predators and scavengers receive surprisingly little recognition for their benefits to humans in the landscapes they share. We review these benefits, highlighting the most recent studies that have documented their positive effects across a range of environments...
January 18, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
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