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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545216/multi-proxy-evidence-for-decreased-terrestrial-contribution-to-sedimentary-organic-matter-in-coastal-areas-of-the-east-china-sea-during-the-past-100years
#1
Yunyun Cao, Lei Xing, Ting Zhang, Wen-Hsuan Liao
Little is known about temporal changes in sedimentary organic matter (OM) in the East China Sea (ECS) due to the lack of continuous high-resolution records. In this study, we used a multi-proxy approach to reconstruct sedimentary OM variations over the past 100years from three sediment cores collected from the coastal areas of the ECS. For the three cores, total organic carbon (TOC) normalized concentrations of phytoplankton biomarkers (brassicasterol+dinosterol+alkenones) and a marine archaea biomarker (crenarchaeol) showed gradual increases over the past 100years with a greater increase after the 1980s...
May 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545215/fertilizer-performance-of-liquid-fraction-of-digestate-as-synthetic-nitrogen-substitute-in-silage-maize-cultivation-for-three-consecutive-years
#2
I Sigurnjak, C Vaneeckhaute, E Michels, B Ryckaert, G Ghekiere, F M G Tack, E Meers
Following changes over recent years in fertilizer legislative framework throughout Europe, phosphorus (P) is taking over the role of being the limiting factor in fertilizer application rate of animal manure. This results in less placement area for spreading animal manure. As a consequence, more expensive and energy demanding synthetic fertilizers are required to meet crop nutrient requirements despite existing manure surpluses. Anaerobic digestion followed by mechanical separation of raw digestate, results in liquid fraction (LF) of digestate, a product poor in P but rich in nitrogen (N) and potassium (K)...
May 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545213/safe-utilization-of-heavy-metal-contaminated-farmland-by-mulberry-tree-cultivation-and-silk-production
#3
Xiaoming Wan, Mei Lei, Tongbin Chen, Yongbi Tan, Junxing Yang
Heavy-metal-contaminated soil threatens human health and environmental safety. Complete remediation of contaminated soil is expensive; therefore, phytomanagement has emerged as a cost-effective alternative. The current study investigated mulberry tree (Morus alba) plantation, silkworm cultivation, and silk production as phytomanagement options. Results defined the safety of planting mulberry trees in soils with lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) concentrations lower than 369 and 180mgkg(-1), respectively. Silkworms fed with mulberry leaves collected from slightly contaminated soil exhibited productive growth and normal silk production...
May 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545209/the-footprint-of-marginal-agriculture-in-the-mediterranean-mountain-landscape-an-analysis-of-the-central-spanish-pyrenees
#4
T Lasanta, E Nadal-Romero, M P Errea
Agriculture forms an essential part of the mountains of the Mediterranean. For centuries, large areas were cultivated to feed the local population, with highly marginal slopes being tilled at times of heavy demographic pressure, using the shifting agriculture system. A great deal of agricultural land was abandoned during the 20th century, giving rise to secondary succession processes that tend to eliminate the agricultural footprint. However, revegetation is a highly complex process leading to areas with dense, well-structured plant cover, and other open areas of scrubland...
May 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545205/organic-composition-and-multiphase-stable-isotope-analysis-of-active-degrading-and-restored-blanket-bog
#5
Laura McAnallen, Rory Doherty, Neil Ogle
Here we used organic composition and stable isotopic analysis to evaluate the effects of drainage and restoration at an ombrotrophic peatland, to assess whether rewetting of blanket bogs will reverse degradation. The organic composition of the peat and the isotopic fractionation between the solid (peat), liquid (pore water) and gas (soil gas) phases on actively accumulating, degrading and restored locations are compared. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the organic material has shown a high level of humification (low decomposition) in the active peat...
May 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545130/responses-of-absolute-and-specific-enzyme-activity-to-consecutive-application-of-composted-sewage-sludge-in-a-fluventic-ustochrept
#6
Xiao Liu, Kangli Guo, Lin Huang, Zhengyu Ji, Huimin Jiang, Hu Li, Jianfeng Zhang
Composted sewage sludge (CS) is considered a rich source of soil nutrients and significantly affects the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of soil, but its effect on specific enzyme activity in soil is disregarded. The present experiment examined the absolute and specific enzyme activity of the enzymes involved in carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles, the diversity of soil microbial functions, and soil community composition in a Fluventic Ustochrept under a maize-wheat rotation system in North China during 2012-2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544806/can-soil-microbial-diversity-influence-plant-metabolites-and-life-history-traits-of-a-rhizophagous-insect-a-demonstration-in-oilseed-rape
#7
Tom Lachaise, Morgane Ourry, Lionel Lebreton, Anne-Yvonne Guillerm-Erckelboudt, Juliette Linglin, Chrystelle Paty, Valérie Chaminade, Nathalie Marnet, Julie Aubert, Denis Poinsot, Anne-Marie Cortesero, Christophe Mougel
Interactions between plants and phytophagous insects play an important part in shaping the biochemical composition of plants. Reciprocally plant metabolites can influence major life history traits in these insects and largely contribute to their fitness. Plant rhizospheric microorganisms are an important biotic factor modulating plant metabolites and adaptation to stress. While plant-insects or plant-microorganisms interactions and their consequences on the plant metabolite signature are well-documented, the impact of soil microbial communities on plant defenses against phytophagous insects remains poorly known...
May 23, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544800/reinforced-microextraction-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-from-polluted-soil-samples-using-an-in-needle-coated-fiber-with-polypyrrole-graphene-oxide-nanocomposite
#8
Mina Behfar, Ali Reza Ghiasvand, Fatemeh Yazdankhah
The surface of a stainless-steel wire was platinized using electrophoretic deposition method to create a high-surface-area, porous and cohesive substrate. The platinized fiber was coated by the polypyrrole/graphene oxide nanocomposite by electropolymerization and accommodated into a stainless-steel needle to fabricate an in-needle coated fiber. The developed setup was coupled to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and applied to extract and determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene) in complicated solid matrices, along with reinforcement of the extraction by cooling the sorbent, using liquid carbon dioxide...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544449/metagenomic-based-impact-study-of-transgenic-grapevine-rootstock-on-its-associated-virome-and-soil-bacteriome
#9
Jean-Michel Hily, Sandrine Demanèche, Nils Poulicard, Mélanie Tannières, Samia Djennane, Monique Beuve, Emmanuelle Vigne, Gérard Demangeat, Véronique Komar, Claude Gertz, Aurélie Marmonier, Caroline Hemmer, Sophie Vigneron, Armelle Marais, Thierry Candresse, Pascal Simonet, Olivier Lemaire
For some crops, the only possible approach to gain a specific trait requires genome modification. The development of virus-resistant transgenic plants based on the pathogen-derived resistance strategy has been a success story for over three decades. However, potential risks associated with the technology, such as horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of any part of the transgene to an existing gene pool, have been raised. Here, we report no evidence of any undesirable impacts of genetically modified (GM) grapevine rootstock on its biotic environment...
May 25, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544395/morphology-and-molecular-phylogeny-of-a-new-hypotrich-ciliate-pseudourostyla-guizhouensis-sp-nov-from-southern-china-with-notes-on-a-chinese-population-of-hemicycliostyla-franzi-foissner-1987-paiva-et%C3%A2-al-2012-ciliophora-hypotricha
#10
REVIEW
Yanbo Li, Zhao Lyu, Alan Warren, Kexin Zhou, Fengchao Li, Xumiao Chen
The morphology and molecular phylogeny of a soil hypotrich ciliate, Pseudourostyla guizhouensis sp. nov., collected from southern China, were investigated. Pseudourostyla guizhouensis sp. nov. has an elongate elliptical body measuring 180-310 × 65-85 μm in vivo; invariably two right and three or four left marginal rows; six or seven dorsal kineties; adoral zone consisting of 57-70 membranelles; 12-16 frontal cirri, one buccal cirrus, 13-20 midventral pairs, two frontoterminal cirri, two pre-transverse ventral cirri, and five to seven transverse cirri...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544252/soil-organic-carbon-dynamics-jointly-controlled-by-climate-carbon-inputs-soil-properties-and-soil-carbon-fractions
#11
Zhongkui Luo, Wenting Feng, Yiqi Luo, Jeff Baldock, Enli Wang
Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics are regulated by the complex interplay of climatic, edaphic and biotic conditions. However, the interrelation of SOC and these drivers and their potential connection networks are rarely assessed quantitatively. Using observations of SOC dynamics with detailed soil properties from 90 field trials at 28 sites under different agroecosystems across the Australian cropping regions, we investigated the direct and indirect effects of climate, soil properties, carbon (C) inputs and soil C pools (a total of 17 variables) on SOC change rate (rC , Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) )...
May 19, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544077/identification-and-analysis-of-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate-synthase-epsps-gene-from-glyphosate-resistant-ochrobactrum-intermedium-sq20
#12
Sadiqa Firdous, Samina Iqbal, Samina Anwar, Hina Jabeen
BACKGROUND: Glyphosate is a herbicide that acts by inhibition of the enzyme, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), entailed in catalysis of an essential step in the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. The objective of the current study was to isolate glyphosate resistant bacterial strains and subsequent characterization of the gene(s) encoding glyphosate resistance in these isolates. By enrichment culture technique, a glyphosate resistant bacterium, Ochrobactrum intermedium Sq20 was isolated from glyphosate contaminated indigenous soil and characterized...
May 25, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543616/experimental-soil-warming-shifts-the-fungal-community-composition-at-the-alpine-treeline
#13
Emily F Solly, Björn D Lindahl, Melissa A Dawes, Martina Peter, Rômulo C Souza, Christian Rixen, Frank Hagedorn
Increased CO2 emissions and global warming may alter the composition of fungal communities through the removal of temperature limitation in the plant-soil system, faster nitrogen (N) cycling and changes in the carbon (C) allocation of host plants to the rhizosphere. At a Swiss treeline featuring Larix decidua and Pinus uncinata, the effects of multiple years of CO2 enrichment and experimental soil warming on the fungal community composition in the organic horizons were analysed using 454-pyrosequencing of ITS2 amplicons...
May 22, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543177/fingerprints-of-resistant-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-from-vegetables-and-environmental-samples
#14
G O Abakpa, V J Umoh, S Kamaruzaman, A M Ibekwe
BACKGROUND: Some routes of transmission of E. coli O157:H7 to fresh produce include contaminated irrigation water and manure polluted soils. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic relationships of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from some produce growing region in Nigeria using Enterorepititive Intergenic Consensus Deoxyribonucleic Acid Fingerprinting (ERIC-PCR) analysis. A total of four hundred and forty samples comprising leafy greens, irrigation water, manure, and soil were obtained from vegetable producing regions in Kano and Plateau States, Nigeria...
May 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542984/applying-quantitative-molecular-tools-for-virus-transport-studies-opportunities-and-challenges
#15
Kelvin Wong, Marirosa Molina
Bacteriophages have been used in soil column studies for the last several decades as surrogates to study the fate and transport behavior of enteric viruses in groundwater. However, recent studies have shown that the transport behavior of bacteriophages and enteric viruses in porous media can be very different. The next generation of virus transport science must therefore provide more data on mobility of enteric viruses and the relationship between transport behaviors of enteric viruses and bacteriophages. To achieve this new paradigm, labor intensity devoted to enteric virus quantification method must be reduced...
May 23, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542845/soil-fungal-diversity-in-natural-grasslands-of-the-tibetan-plateau-associations-with-plant-diversity-and-productivity
#16
Teng Yang, Jonathan M Adams, Yu Shi, Jin-Sheng He, Xin Jing, Litong Chen, Leho Tedersoo, Haiyan Chu
Previous studies have revealed inconsistent correlations between fungal diversity and plant diversity from local to global scales, and there is a lack of information about the diversity-diversity and productivity-diversity relationships for fungi in alpine regions. Here we investigated the internal relationships between soil fungal diversity, plant diversity and productivity across 60 grassland sites on the Tibetan Plateau, using Illumina sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region for fungal identification...
May 22, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542547/determination-of-diagnostic-standards-on-saturated-soil-extracts-for-cut-roses-grown-in-greenhouses
#17
John Jairo Franco-Hermida, María Fernanda Quintero, Raúl Iskander Cabrera, José Miguel Guzman
This work comprises the theoretical determination and validation of diagnostic standards for the analysis of saturated soil extracts for cut rose flower crops (Rosa spp.) growing in the Bogota Plateau, Colombia. The data included 684 plant tissue analyses and 684 corresponding analyses of saturated soil extracts, all collected between January 2009 and June 2013. The tissue and soil samples were selected from 13 rose farms, and from cultivars grafted on the 'Natal Briar' rootstock. These concurrent samples of soil and plant tissues represented 251 production units (locations) of approximately 10,000 m2 distributed across the study area...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542542/comparative-analysis-of-bacterial-community-structure-in-the-rhizosphere-of-maize-by-high-throughput-pyrosequencing
#18
Yi Yang, Na Wang, Xinyan Guo, Yi Zhang, Boping Ye
In this study, we designed a microcosm experiment to explore the composition of the bacterial community in the rhizosphere of maize and bulk soil by sequencing the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina system. 978-1239 OTUs (cut off level of 3%) were found in rhizosphere and bulk soil samples. Rhizosphere shared features with the bulk soil, such as predominance of Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes and TM7. At genus level, many of the dominant rhizosphere genera (Chitinophaga, Nitrospira, Flavobacterium, etc...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542442/pedogenetic-processes-in-anthrosols-with-pretic-horizon-amazonian-dark-earth-in-central-amazon-brazil
#19
Rodrigo S Macedo, Wenceslau G Teixeira, Marcelo M Corrêa, Gilvan C Martins, Pablo Vidal-Torrado
Anthrosols known as Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE) have borne witness to the intensification of sedentary patterns and the demographic increase in Central Amazon. As a result, a recurring pattern has been observed of mounds with ADE arising from domestic activities and the disposal of waste. The objective of this research was to demonstrate the relationship of these anthropic activities with pedogenetic formation processes of ADE in the municipality of Iranduba, Brazil. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were taken from two areas of ADE (pretic horizon) and from a non-anthropic pedon...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542416/soil-texture-analysis-revisited-removal-of-organic-matter-matters-more-than-ever
#20
Johannes Lund Jensen, Per Schjønning, Christopher W Watts, Bent T Christensen, Lars J Munkholm
Exact estimates of soil clay (<2 μm) and silt (2-20 μm) contents are crucial as these size fractions impact key soil functions, and as pedotransfer concepts based on clay and silt contents are becoming increasingly abundant. We examined the effect of removing soil organic matter (SOM) by H2O2 before soil dispersion and determination of clay and silt. Soil samples with gradients in SOM were retrieved from three long-term field experiments each with uniform soil mineralogy and texture. For soils with less than 2 g C 100 g-1 minerals, clay estimates were little affected by SOM...
2017: PloS One
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