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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938211/current-surface-ozone-concentrations-significantly-decrease-wheat-growth-yield-and-quality
#1
Håkan Pleijel, Malin C Broberg, Johan Uddling, Gina Mills
Tropospheric ozone is known to adversely affect crops and other vegetation. Most studies have focussed on the effects of elevated ozone levels vs. present ambient. We investigated the effect of present ambient surface ozone (O3) concentrations vs. preindustrial on a range of agronomically important response variables in field-grown wheat, using results from 33 experiments (representing 9 countries, 3 continents, 17 cultivars plus one set of 4 cultivars) having both charcoal filtered (CF) and non-filtered (NF) air treatments...
September 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938200/atmospheric-deposition-of-mercury-and-cadmium-impacts-on-topsoil-in-a-typical-coal-mine-city-lianyuan-china
#2
Jie Liang, Chunting Feng, Guangming Zeng, Minzhou Zhong, Xiang Gao, Xiaodong Li, Xinyue He, Xin Li, Yilong Fang, Dan Mo
Mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) in the atmosphere from coal combustion emissions play an important role in soil pollution. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to quantitatively evaluate the atmospheric Hg and Cd deposition and to determine the influence of atmospheric deposition on Hg and Cd contents in surface soil in a typical coal mine city. Atmospheric deposition samples were collected from May 2015 to May 2016 at 17 sites located in industrial, agricultural and forest areas in the Lianyuan city. Atmospheric Hg and Cd deposition fluxes in the different land use types showed high variability...
September 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938146/the-uncertainty-of-biodegradation-rate-constants-of-emerging-organic-compounds-in-soil-and-groundwater-a-compilation-of-literature-values-for-82-substances
#3
Janek Greskowiak, Enrico Hamann, Victoria Burke, Gudrun Massmann
The present study reports on biodegradation rate constants of emerging organic compounds (EOCs) in soil and groundwater available in the literature. The major aim of this compilation was to provide an assessment of the uncertainty of hydrological models with respect to the fate of EOCs. The literature search identified a total number of 82 EOCs for which 1st-order rate constants could be derived. It was found that for the majority of compounds degradation rate constants vary over more than three orders of magnitude...
September 8, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938141/amendment-damages-the-function-of-continuous-flooding-in-decreasing-cd-and-pb-uptake-by-rice-in-acid-paddy-soil
#4
Xinxin Ye, Hongying Li, Ligan Zhang, Rushan Chai, Renfeng Tu, Hongjian Gao
Combinations of remediation technologies are needed to solve the problem of soil contamination in paddy rice, due to multiple potential toxic elements (PTEs). Two potential mitigation methods, water management and in-situ remediation by soil amendment, have been widely used in treatment of PTE-polluted paddy soil. However, the interactive relationship between soil amendment and water management, and its influence on the accumulation of PTEs in rice are poorly understood. Greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to examine the effects of phosphate amendment on Cd and Pb availability in soil and their influence on Cd and Pb uptake into rice, on Fe and P availability in soil, and on the alteration of Fe amount and compartment on root surface among different water management strategies...
September 19, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938018/genome-wide-identification-of-bacterial-plant-colonization-genes
#5
Benjamin J Cole, Meghan E Feltcher, Robert J Waters, Kelly M Wetmore, Tatiana S Mucyn, Elizabeth M Ryan, Gaoyan Wang, Sabah Ul-Hasan, Meredith McDonald, Yasuo Yoshikuni, Rex R Malmstrom, Adam M Deutschbauer, Jeffery L Dangl, Axel Visel
Diverse soil-resident bacteria can contribute to plant growth and health, but the molecular mechanisms enabling them to effectively colonize their plant hosts remain poorly understood. We used randomly barcoded transposon mutagenesis sequencing (RB-TnSeq) in Pseudomonas simiae, a model root-colonizing bacterium, to establish a genome-wide map of bacterial genes required for colonization of the Arabidopsis thaliana root system. We identified 115 genes (2% of all P. simiae genes) with functions that are required for maximal competitive colonization of the root system...
September 22, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937929/occurrence-and-distribution-of-trifluralin-ethalfluralin-and-pendimethalin-in-soils-used-for-long-term-intensive-cotton-cultivation-in-central-greece
#6
Helen Karasali, George Pavlidis, Anna Marousopoulou, Arpad Ambrus
In the present study, a soil monitoring program was undertaken in Greek cotton cultivated areas in 2012. Twenty-seven soil samples were collected from the entire Thessaly plain in early summer of 2012, corresponding to approximately three months (current use of pendimethalin), up to one year (for the banned ethalfluralin), and three years (for the also banned trifluralin), after the last dinitroaniline application. Low but not negligible levels of dinitroanilines were detected, ranging from 0.01 to 0.21 μg g(-1) d...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937850/environmental-transport-of-endogenous-dairy-manure-estrogens
#7
Inna E Popova, Matthew J Morra
Although estrogens originating from dairy manure applied to agricultural soils as a fertilizer can potentially contaminate surface water and groundwater, the variables that control transport are poorly understood. Our objective was to assess the potential for off-site movement of endogenous dairy cattle estrogens when manure is applied on fields at agronomically relevant fertilization rates. Estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (α-E2), and 17β-estradiol (β-E2) were used in laboratory sorption, desorption, and transformation incubations with both manure and an agriculturally relevant soil...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937651/perennial-grass-and-native-wildflowers-a-synergistic-approach-to-habitat-management
#8
Shereen S Xavier, Dawn M Olson, Alisa W Coffin, Timothy C Strickland, Jason M Schmidt
Marginal agricultural land provides opportunities to diversify landscapes by producing biomass for biofuel, and through floral provisioning that enhances arthropod-mediated ecosystem service delivery. We examined the effects of local spatial context (adjacent to woodland or agriculture) and irrigation (irrigation or no irrigation) on wildflower bloom and visitation by arthropods in a biofeedstocks-wildflower habitat buffer design. Twenty habitat buffer plots were established containing a subplot of Napier grass (Pennisetum perpureum Schumach) for biofeedstock, three commercial wildflower mix subplots, and a control subplot containing spontaneous weeds...
September 22, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937449/persistent-encopresis-enuresis-and-anxiety-in-a-7-year-old-girl
#9
Theodora Nelson, Heekyung Chae, Ran D Anbar, Martin T Stein
Sonia is a 7-year-old old girl who was referred to the Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics Clinic by the Pediatric Urology Clinic because of persistent wetting and soiling behaviors. Since age 3 years, she has had a history of encopresis (and wetting) for which she has seen gastroenterology and urology specialists. The mother reports that Sonia has accidents almost daily, and she is not upset when sitting in her urine or feces. She dislikes going into the bathroom or sitting on the toilet by herself. She participated in a behavior modification program associated with the pediatric urology clinic, which helps children learn healthy voiding habits and achieve continence...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937162/experimentally-validated-mathematical-model-of-analyte-uptake-by-permeation-passive-samplers
#10
F Salim, M Ioannidis, T Górecki
A mathematical model describing the sampling process in a permeation-based passive sampler was developed and evaluated numerically. The model was applied to the Waterloo Membrane Sampler (WMS), which employs a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane as a permeation barrier, and an adsorbent as a receiving phase. Samplers of this kind are used for sampling volatile organic compounds (VOC) from air and soil gas. The model predicts the spatio-temporal variation of sorbed and free analyte concentrations within the sampler components (membrane, sorbent bed and dead volume), from which the uptake rate throughout the sampling process can be determined...
September 22, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936837/-influence-of-tobacco-chuanminshen-violaceum-rotation-on-microbe-community-in-soil
#11
Dong-Yan Zhang, Jian Zhao, Shui-Ping Yang, Jing-Jing Mo, Da-Min He, Jun Wang, Jian-Yu Gou, Xue Zhang, Wei Jiang, Ming-Xia Wen
Soil microbes are the important indicator of soil quality. For exploring Chuanminshen violaceum planting to microbial effects in tobacco soil, this paper adopted Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing to research the change of bacteria and fungi at the phylum and genus in the soil. The results showed that the Ch. violaceum planting increased the biodiversity of bacteria and fungi. The influence on fungi was greater than that on bacteria. It greatly increased the sequence of fungi, it obtained 32 978 16S rDNA and 32 229 18S rDNA sequence number...
December 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936774/higher-yields-of-hybrid-rice-do-not-depend-on-nitrogen-fertilization-under-moderate-to-high-soil-fertility-conditions
#12
Min Huang, Peng Jiang, Shuanglü Shan, Wei Gao, Guohui Ma, Yingbin Zou, Norman Uphoff, Longping Yuan
BACKGROUND: Increasing rice yield with fewer external inputs is critical to ensuring food security, reducing environmental costs, and improving returns. Use of hybrid rice has expanded greatly in China due to its higher yield potential. Meanwhile, large and increasing amounts of nitrogen (N) fertilizers have been used for expanding rice production in China. It is not clear to what extent the success of hybrid rice in China is associated with N fertilizer inputs. FINDINGS: We observed that the higher grain yield with N fertilizer in hybrid rice was driven more by a higher yield without N fertilizer than by increases in grain yield with N fertilizer under moderate to high soil fertility conditions...
September 21, 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936697/reactive-oxygen-species-and-glutathione-antioxidants-in-the-testis-of-the-soil-biosentinel-podarcis-sicula-rafinesque-1810
#13
Giulia Guerriero, Gerardino D'Errico, Rossella Di Giaimo, Dea Rabbito, Oladokun Sulaiman Olanrewaju, Gaetano Ciarcia
Important toxicological achievements have been made during the last decades using reptiles. We focus our investigation on gonadal reproductive health of the soil biosentinel Podarcis sicula which is very sensitive to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The aim of this study is to quantitatively detect, by sensitive microassays, reactive oxygen species and the glutathione antioxidants in the testis and investigate if they are differentially expressed before and after remediation of a site of the "Land of Fires" (Campania, Italy) subject to illicit dumping of unknown material...
September 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936604/production-partial-optimization-and-characterization-of-keratinase-enzyme-by-arthrobacter-sp-nfh5-isolated-from-soil-samples
#14
Nirmal Chandra Barman, Fatema Tuj Zohora, Keshob Chandra Das, Md Golam Mowla, Nilufa Akhter Banu, Md Salimullah, Abu Hashem
The study was conducted to select the best promising keratinolytic bacterial strain. A good keratinase positive bacterium isolated from the soil samples of Hazaribagh tannery industrial zone, Dhaka was identified as Arthrobacter genus depending on the conventional techniques and confirmed as Arthrobacter sp. by sequencing 16S rRNA gene. The medium components and culture conditions were optimized to enhance keratinase production through shake flask culture. Keratin and feather powder (10 g/l or 1%) were good substrates for the highest keratinase production along with yeast extract (0...
September 21, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936575/coupled-effects-of-mulching-and-nitrogen-fertilization-on-crop-yield-residual-soil-nitrate-and-water-use-efficiency-of-summer-maize-in-the-chinese-loess-plateau
#15
Zhanjun Liu, Yan Meng, Miao Cai, Jianbin Zhou
Appropriate water-saving and nitrogen management strategies are critical for achieving sustainable agricultural development in dry sub-humid areas of the Chinese Loess Plateau. The present study was conducted in 2004, 2005, 2008, and 2012 based on a long-term field experiment and aimed to investigate the coupled impacts of mulching and N fertilization on maize yield, water use efficiency (WUE), and residual soil nitrate (RSN) accumulated in the soil profile (0-200 cm). The results demonstrated that mulch is conducive to increasing summer maize yield...
September 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936541/contrasting-effects-of-organic-and-inorganic-amendments-on-reducing-lead-toxicity-in-wheat
#16
Muhammad Zia Ur Rehman, Muhammad Rizwan, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Sabir, Muhammad I Sohail
Contamination of agricultural soils with lead (Pb) is a widespread problem which is mainly due to anthropogenic activities. The present study investigated the effect of organic and inorganic amendments on wheat growth and reducing Pb concentration in the plant. A greenhouse experiment was conducted on Pb spiked soil (500 mg kg(-1) of soil) with the application of farmyard manure, poultry manure, gypsum and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP). Plants were harvested after 120 days of growth and analyzed for Pb concentration in different plant parts...
September 21, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936377/not-a-common-rectosigmoid-perforation
#17
Rizwan Ishtiaq, Khurram Niaz, Darakshan Masood, Daniyal Ishtiaq, Shafay Yasin, Umer H Chaudhry, Anam Ashraf
Gastrointestinal perforation is a common complication arising due to homicidal injuries, trauma or intake of medications like aspirin. Intestinal perforation caused by chronic intake of mud, clay or soil is a rare phenomenon and very few cases have been reported in the literature. We hereby present the first case of rectosigmoid perforation from Pakistan which was caused by chronic mud intake in a female patient. Diagnosis of this condition in its early stage is important because it can be fatal if not addressed urgently...
July 13, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936223/oomycete-communities-associated-with-reed-die-back-syndrome
#18
Martina Cerri, Rumakanta Sapkota, Andrea Coppi, Valentina Ferri, Bruno Foggi, Daniela Gigante, Lorenzo Lastrucci, Roberta Selvaggi, Roberto Venanzoni, Mogens Nicolaisen, Francesco Ferranti, Lara Reale
Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. die-back is a widely-studied phenomenon that was first discovered in northern Europe and that, until recently, was almost unknown in the Mediterranean basin. It has been described as a complex syndrome affecting reed populations leading to their retreat and decline, with significant impacts on valuable ecosystem services. Among the factors that cause the decline, soil-living microorganisms can be crucial. The aims of this study were to analyze the diversity of oomycetes communities associated with reed stands, and to understand whether they could play a key role in the decline...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936217/evaluation-of-fertilizer-potential-of-different-k-compounds-prepared-utilizing-sea-bittern-as-feed-stock
#19
Khanjan Trivedi, Denish Kubavat, Krishna K Ghara, Ranjeet Kumar, Hardik Trivedi, K G Vijay Anand, Pratyush Maiti, Arup Ghosh
Aim: Many countries import potassic fertilizers due to dearth of K-mineral deposits. Therefore processes to obtain K-nutrient sources from sea bittern were developed by our Institute. The present investigation evaluated the fertilizer potential of three different sea bittern-derived (SBD) potassium forms developed viz., potassium schoenite, potassium nitrate and potassium ammonium sulfate on maize productivity in two cropping seasons. Methods: The pot and field experiments consisted of four treatments, wherein the three K forms were applied at the recommended rate of 40 kg K2O ha(-1) and were compared with commercially used sulfate of potash...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936201/trichoderma-asperelloides-spores-downregulate-dectin1-2-and-tlr2-receptors-of-mice-macrophages-and-decrease-candida-parapsilosis-phagocytosis-independent-of-the-m1-m2-polarization
#20
Andréa G Dos Santos, Érica A Mendes, Rafael P de Oliveira, Ana M C Faria, Aurizangela O de Sousa, Carlos P Pirovani, Fernanda F de Araújo, Andréa T de Carvalho, Marliete Carvalho Costa, Daniel Assis Santos, Quimi V Montoya, Andre Rodrigues, Jane L Dos Santos
The intensive use of pesticides to control pests in agriculture has promoted several issues relating to environment. As chemical pesticides remain controversial, biocontrol agents originating from fungi could be an alternative. Among them, we highlight biocontrol agents derived from the fungi genus Trichoderma, which have been documented in limiting the growth of other phytopathogenic fungus in the roots and leaves of several plant species. An important member of this genus is Trichoderma asperelloides, whose biocontrol agents have been used to promote plant growth while also treating soil diseases caused by microorganisms in both greenhouses and outdoor crops...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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