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Uzochukwu C Ugochukwu, Alfred Ochonogor, Chika M Jidere, Chizoba Agu, Frida Nkoloagu, John Ewoh, Virginia U Okwu-Delunzu
In this study, the human and livestock (cattle) health risks of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a wetland of Obuaku, Abia State Nigeria contaminated by hydrocarbon spill due to incidents of hydrocarbon theft and pipeline vandalization were assessed. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were employed in analyzing the TPH and PAHs respectively. The contaminated soil was delineated into sub-locations AOC-1, AOC-2, AOC-3, AOC-4, AOC-5 and AOC-6 to reflect the discrete patches (areas) of the contaminated site and for effective planning of remedial actions...
March 13, 2018: Environment International
Zhen-Zhen Cao, Mei-Ling Qin, Xiao-Yan Lin, Zhi-Wei Zhu, Ming-Xue Chen
Sulfur (S) fertilizer application in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is crucial in determining rice grain productivity and quality. However, little information is available concerning the effect of S supply on cadmium (Cd) uptake and translocation in rice. In this study, both hydroponic and soil experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of S supply on Cd accumulation in rice under two Cd levels (0 and 50 μM), combined with three S concentrations (0, 2.64 and 5.28 mM). The moderate and excessive S supply (2...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Chengjiao Duan, Linchuan Fang, Congli Yang, Weibin Chen, Yongxing Cui, Shiqing Li
Enzymes in the soil are vital for assessing heavy metal soil pollution. Although the presence of heavy metals is thought to change the soil enzyme system, the distribution of enzyme activities in heavy metal polluted-soil is still unknown. For the first time, using soil zymography, we analyzed the distribution of enzyme activities of alfalfa rhizosphere and soil surface in the metal-contaminated soil. The results showed that the growth of alfalfa was significantly inhibited, and an impact that was most pronounced in seedling biomass and chlorophyll content...
March 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Guillaume Dubeaux, Julie Neveu, Enric Zelazny, Grégory Vert
Plant roots forage the soil for iron, the concentration of which can be dramatically lower than those needed for growth. Soil iron uptake uses the broad metal spectrum IRT1 transporter that also transports zinc, manganese, cobalt, and cadmium. Sophisticated iron-dependent transcriptional regulatory mechanisms allow plants to tightly control the abundance of IRT1, ensuring optimal absorption of iron. Here, we uncover that IRT1 acts as a transporter and receptor (transceptor), directly sensing excess of its non-iron metal substrates in the cytoplasm, to regulate its own degradation...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Cell
Muhammad Shafique, Reeho Kim, Kwon Kyung-Ho
This field study elaborates the role of grass swale in the management of stormwater in an urban parking lot. Grass swale was constructed by using different vegetations and local soil media in the parking lot of Mapu-gu Seoul, Korea. In this study, rainfall runoff was first retained in soil and the vegetation layers of the grass swale, and then infiltrated rainwater was collected with the help of underground perforated pipe, and passed to an underground storage trench. In this way, grass swale detained a large amount of rainwater for a longer period of time and delayed peak discharge...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Amjad M Husaini, Aafreen Sakina, Souliha R Cambay
Fusarium oxysporum, a ubiquitous soil-borne pathogen causes devastating vascular wilt in more than 100 plant species and ranks fifth among top ten fungal plant pathogens. It has emerged as a human pathogen too, causing infections in immune-compromised patients. It is, therefore, important to gain insight into the molecular processes involved in the pathogenesis of this trans-kingdom pathogen. A complex network comprising of interconnected and over lapping signal pathways; mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, Ras proteins, G-protein signaling components and their downstream pathways, components of the velvet (LaeA/VeA/VelB) complex and cAMP pathways, is involved in perceiving the host...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Nadia Lombardi, Stefania Vitale, David Turrà, Massimo Reverberi, Corrado Fanelli, Francesco Vinale, Roberta Marra, Michelina Ruocco, Alberto Pascale, Giada d'Errico, Sheridan Lois Woo, Matteo Lorito
Plant roots release complex mixtures of bioactive molecules including compounds that affect the activity and modify the composition of the rhizosphere microbiome. In this work, we investigated the initial phase of the interaction between tomato and an effective biocontrol strain of Trichoderma harzianum (T22). We found that root exudates (RE), obtained from plants grown in a split root system and exposed to a choice of biotic and abiotic stress factors (wounding, salt, pathogen attack), stimulate the growth and act as chemoattractants of the biocontrol fungus...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Rosa Margesin, De-Chao Zhang, Luciana Albuquerque, Hugo J C Froufe, Conceição Egas, Milton S da Costa
A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, motile, catalase-positive and cytochrome c oxidase-positive bacterial strain, designated AM20-91T , was isolated from alpine forest soil. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that strain AM20-91T was related to the genus Lysobacter and had highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to the type strains of Lysobacter novalis THG-PC7T (97.8 %), Luteimonas tolerans UM1T (97.7 %) and Lysobacter ximonensis XM415T (97.0 %). The strain contained ubiquinone 8 as the predominant respiratory quinone; its polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and two unidentified aminophospholipids...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Silvina M Y López, Ma Dolores Molina Sánchez, Graciela N Pastorino, Mario E E Franco, Nicolás Toro García, Pedro A Balatti
The purpose of this work was to study further two Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains with high nitrogen-fixing capacity that were identified within a collection of approximately 200 isolates from the soils of Argentina. Nodulation and nitrogen-fixing capacity and the level of expression of regulatory as well as structural genes of nitrogen fixation and the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase gene of the isolates were compared with that of E109-inoculated plants. Both isolates of B. japonicum, 163 and 366, were highly efficient to fix nitrogen compared to commercial strain E109...
March 15, 2018: Current Microbiology
Fabien Bernard, Sylvain Dumez, Sébastien Lemière, Anne Platel, Fabrice Nesslany, Annabelle Deram, Franck Vandenbulcke, Damien Cuny
Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic element for living organisms and is widespread in metal-contaminated soils. As organisms which can grow up on these polluted areas, plants have some protection mechanisms against Cd issues. Among the plant kingdom, the Brassicaceae family includes species which are known to be able to tolerate and accumulate Cd in their tissues. In this study, Brassica oleracea var. viridis cv "Prover" was exposed to a range of artificially Cd-contaminated soils (from 2.5 up to 20 mg kg-1 ) during 3, 10, and 56 days and the effects on life traits, photosynthesis activity, antioxidant enzymatic activities were studied...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sylvain Bart, Sacha Roudine, Joël Amossé, Christian Mougin, Alexandre R R Péry, Céline Pelosi
The risk assessment of pesticides on soil fauna is an issue to protect agroecosystem sustainability. Enchytraeids are recognized as relevant soil bioindicators of chemical stress in agroecosystems. In laboratory, the reproduction test was found to be sensitive to reveal chemical impacts on enchytraeids. However, it does not allow to assess the impacts on ecological functions in which enchytraeids are involved. The objectives of this study were (i) to explore the feasibility of the bait-lamina test with enchytraeids under laboratory conditions and (ii) to compare its sensitivity with the Enchytraeid Reproduction Test...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Qian Zhang, Shengli Wang, Zhongren Nan, Yepu Li, Fei Zang
Wastewater irrigation can increase metal concentrations in soil and wheat, thereby posing metal-associated health risk via food ingestion. We investigated levels of mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) in roots, husks, stems, leaves, and grains of wheat and their fractionations in farmland soil from Baiyin City, an industrial and mining city, northwest China. Results show that the mean concentrations of Hg in soils from Dongdagou and Xidagou stream in Baiyin were 8.5 times and three times higher than local soil background values, respectively...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Maolan Wang, Ronghao Liu, Xiuying Lu, Ziyi Zhu, Hailin Wang, Lei Jiang, Jingjing Liu, Zhihua Wu
Heavy metal are often added to animal fodder and accumulate in the soils with swine manure. In this study, heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, As and Cr) concentrations were determined in agricultural soils irrigated with swine manure in Jiangxi Province, China. Results showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Zn, As and Cr (32.8, 93.7, 21.3 and 75.8 mg/kg, respectively) were higher than the background values, while Pb and Cd (15.2 and 0.090 mg/kg, respectively) were lower than the background values. Contamination factors [Formula: see text] indicated that they were generally moderate for Cu, Zn, As and Cr and generally low for Pb and Cd...
March 15, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Sarah Freitas Magalhães, Sofia Calvo-Rodriguez, Mário Marcos do Espírito Santo, Gerardo Arturo Sánchez Azofeifa
Vegetation indices are useful tools to remotely estimate several important parameters related to ecosystem functioning. However, improving and validating estimations for a wide range of vegetation types are necessary. In this study, we provide a methodology for the estimation of the leaf area index (LAI) in a tropical dry forest (TDF) using the light diffusion through the canopy as a function of the successional stage. For this purpose, we estimated the K coefficient, a parameter that relates the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to LAI, based on photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and solar radiation...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Xiaohui Zhao, Fuqiang Fan, Huaidong Zhou, Panwei Zhang, Gaofeng Zhao
In-depth understanding of indigenous microbial assemblages resulted from aged contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is of vital importance in successful in situ bioremediation treatments. Soil samples of three boreholes were collected at 12 different vertical depths. Overall, the dominating three-ring PAHs (76.2%) were closely related to distribution patterns of soil dehydrogenase activity, microbial cell numbers, and Shannon biodiversity index (H') of indigenous microorganisms. High-molecular-weight PAHs tend to yield more diverse communities...
March 15, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, David J Eldridge, Fernando T Maestre, Senani B Karunaratne, Pankaj Trivedi, Peter B Reich, Brajesh K Singh
The technical comment from Sanderman provides a unique opportunity to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms explaining the role of paleoclimate in the contemporary distribution of global soil C content, as reported in our article. Sanderman argues that the role of paleoclimate in predicting soil C content might be accounted for by using slowly changing soil properties as predictors. This is a key point that we highlighted in the supplementary materials of our article, which demonstrated, to the degree possible given available data, that soil properties alone cannot account for the unique portion of the variation in soil C explained by paleoclimate...
March 2018: Science Advances
Jonathan Sanderman
Delgado-Baquerizo et al . ( Science Advances , 12 April 2017, e1602008) use statistical correlations to infer that paleoclimate (6000 to 22,000 years ago) is a more important driver of current soil organic carbon stocks than the current-day climate. On the other hand, a wealth of radiocarbon measurements indicates that the organic carbon in most topsoils is only a few decades to perhaps a few centuries old. These seemingly incongruous results can perhaps be reconciled by considering that the long-term pedogenic development of a soil strongly influences the physiochemical properties, which lead to stabilization of new carbon entering that soil regardless of current climate...
March 2018: Science Advances
Shumeng Kou, Gilles Vincent, Emmanuel Gonzalez, Frederic E Pitre, Michel Labrecque, Nicholas J B Brereton
Industrial and agricultural activities have caused extensive metal contamination of land throughout China and across the globe. The pervasive nature of metal pollution can be harmful to human health and can potentially cause substantial negative impact to the biosphere. To investigate the impact of anthropogenic metal pollution found in high concentrations in industrial, agricultural, and urban environments, 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to track change in the amplified microbial community after metal contamination in a large-scale field experiment in Shanghai...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yinhong Hu, Xiaolin Dou, Juanyong Li, Feng Li
The rapid expansion of urbanization has caused land cover change, especially the increasing area of impervious surfaces. Such alterations have significant effects on the soil ecosystem by impeding the exchange of gasses, water, and materials between soil and the atmosphere. It is unclear whether impervious surfaces have any effects on soil bacterial diversity and community composition. In the present study, we conducted an investigation of bacterial communities across five typical land cover types, including impervious surfaces (concrete), permeable pavement (bricks with round holes), shrub coverage ( Buxus megistophylla Levl...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Christopher B Skinner, Christopher J Poulsen, Justin S Mankin
Plants influence extreme heat events by regulating land-atmosphere water and energy exchanges. The contribution of plants to changes in future heat extremes will depend on the responses of vegetation growth and physiology to the direct and indirect effects of elevated CO2 . Here we use a suite of earth system models to disentangle the radiative versus vegetation effects of elevated CO2 on heat wave characteristics. Vegetation responses to a quadrupling of CO2 increase summer heat wave occurrence by 20 days or more-30-50% of the radiative response alone-across tropical and mid-to-high latitude forests...
March 15, 2018: Nature Communications
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