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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439004/assessing-the-nutrient-intake-of-a-low-carbohydrate-high-fat-lchf-diet-a-hypothetical-case-study-design
#1
Caryn Zinn, Amy Rush, Rebecca Johnson
OBJECTIVE: The low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diet is becoming increasingly employed in clinical dietetic practice as a means to manage many health-related conditions. Yet, it continues to remain contentious in nutrition circles due to a belief that the diet is devoid of nutrients and concern around its saturated fat content. This work aimed to assess the micronutrient intake of the LCHF diet under two conditions of saturated fat thresholds. DESIGN: In this descriptive study, two LCHF meal plans were designed for two hypothetical cases representing the average Australian male and female weight-stable adult...
February 8, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431534/organisation-of-dietary-control-for-nutrition-training-intervention-involving-periodized-carbohydrate-cho-availability-and-ketogenic-low-cho-high-fat-lchf-diet
#2
Joanne G Mirtschin, Sara F Forbes, Louise E Cato, Ida A Heikura, Nicki Strobel, Rebecca Hall, Louise M Burke
We describe the implementation of a 3-week dietary intervention in elite race walkers at the Australian Institute of Sport, with a focus on the resources and strategies needed to accomplish a complex study of this scale. Interventions involved: traditional guidelines of high carbohydrate (CHO) availability for all training sessions (HCHO); a periodized CHO diet which integrated sessions with low CHO and high CHO availability within the same total CHO intake, and a ketogenic low-CHO high-fat diet (LCHF). 7-day menus and recipes were constructed for a communal eating setting to meet nutritional goals as well as individualized food preferences and special needs...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340260/nutritional-status-is-associated-with-the-return-home-in-a-long-term-care-health-facility
#3
Yuri Nishida, Hidetaka Wakabayashi, Keisuke Maeda, Shinta Nishioka
Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the association between nutritional status and the return home of older people living in a long-term care health facility (LCHF). Methods: A nested case control study was performed in 116 people ≥65 years of age in a single LCHF. Nutritional status was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) and activities of daily living by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). The return home, duration of rehabilitation, and the family wanting the patient to return home were obtained from clinical records...
January 2018: Journal of General and Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112626/effects-of-ad-libitum-low-carbohydrate-high-fat-dieting-in-middle-age-male-runners
#4
Alexander J Heatherly, Lauren G Killen, Ashton F Smith, Hunter S Waldman, Angela Hollingsworth, Christie L Seltmann, Eric K O'Neal
PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of a 3-week ad libitum high fat (~70% of calories), low carbohydrate (<50 g/day) diet (LCHF) on markers of endurance performance in middle-aged, recreationally competitive male runners. METHODS: All subjects (n = 8) following their normal HC diet had anthropometric measures assessed and completed 5, 10-min running bouts at multiple individual race paces in the heat while physiological, metabolic variables and perceptual responses were recorded...
November 6, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095990/reducing-cholesterol-and-fat-intake-improves-glucose-tolerance-by-enhancing-beta-cell-function-in-non-diabetic-subjects
#5
Domenico Tricò, Silvia Trifirò, Alessandro Mengozzi, Cecilia Morgantini, Simona Baldi, Andrea Mari, Andrea Natali
Context: A diet low in cholesterol and fat is commonly recommended to prevent metabolic and cardiovascular diseases; however, its effect on glucose tolerance is largely unknown. Objective: We examined whether and through which mechanisms a chronic reduction of cholesterol and fat intake affects glucose tolerance in non-diabetic individuals, independently of weight changes. Design and participants: In this cross-over, randomized clinical trial, thirty healthy subjects, including fifteen individuals with family history of T2D (T2D Offspring), underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after two 14-day isocaloric diets characterized by either high (HChF) or low (LChF) cholesterol and fat content...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076962/effects-of-a-15-day-low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-in-resistance-trained-men
#6
Hunter S Waldman, Ben M Krings, Steven A Basham, JohnEric W Smith, Brent J Fountain, Matthew J McAllister
Waldman, HS, Krings, BM, Basham, SA, Smith, JW, Fountain, BJ, and McAllister, MJ. Effects of a 15-day low carbohydrate, high-fat diet in resistance-trained men. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-This study examined the effects of a 15-day isocaloric low carbohydrate (<25% E), high-fat (>50% E) (LCHF) diet on physiological and metabolic alterations in resistance-trained (RT) men. College-aged RT men (n = 11) completed 4 V[Combining Dot Above]O2max tests using treadmill every 5 days during the 15-day trial...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752053/dietary-sugars-not-lipids-drive-hypothalamic-inflammation
#7
Yuanqing Gao, Maximilian Bielohuby, Thomas Fleming, Gernot F Grabner, Ewout Foppen, Wagner Bernhard, Mara Guzmán-Ruiz, Clarita Layritz, Beata Legutko, Erwin Zinser, Cristina García-Cáceres, Ruud M Buijs, Stephen C Woods, Andries Kalsbeek, Randy J Seeley, Peter P Nawroth, Martin Bidlingmaier, Matthias H Tschöp, Chun-Xia Yi
OBJECTIVE: The hypothalamus of hypercaloric diet-induced obese animals is featured by a significant increase of microglial reactivity and its associated cytokine production. However, the role of dietary components, in particular fat and carbohydrate, with respect to the hypothalamic inflammatory response and the consequent impact on hypothalamic control of energy homeostasis is yet not clear. METHODS: We dissected the different effects of high-carbohydrate high-fat (HCHF) diets and low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diets on hypothalamic inflammatory responses in neurons and non-neuronal cells and tested the hypothesis that HCHF diets induce hypothalamic inflammation via advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) using mice lacking advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) receptor (RAGE) and/or the activated leukocyte cell-adhesion molecule (ALCAM)...
August 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700832/a-12-week-low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-improves-metabolic-health-outcomes-over-a-control-diet-in-a-randomised-controlled-trial-with-overweight-defence-force-personnel
#8
Caryn Zinn, Julia McPhee, Nigel Harris, Micalla Williden, Kate Prendergast, Grant Schofield
Overweight, obesity, and poor health is becoming a global concern for defence force personnel. Conventional nutrition guidelines are being questioned for their efficacy in achieving optimal body composition and long-term health. This study compared the effects of a 12-week low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with a conventional, high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet on weight reduction and metabolic health outcomes in at-risk New Zealand Defence Force personnel. In this randomised controlled trial, 41 overweight personnel were assigned to intervention and control groups...
November 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469746/low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-can-it-help-exercise-performance
#9
Chen-Kang Chang, Katarina Borer, Po-Ju Lin
Low-carbohydrate-high-fat (LCHF) diets have been used as a means of weight loss and control of symptoms in several clinical conditions. There is emerging evidence that the metabolic changes induced by LCHF diets enhance endurance performance. The aims of this review are to examine the evidence of LCHF diets in improving various aspects of athletic performance. Long-term LCHF dietary intake may help control body weight and fat mass while maintaining lean body mass in athletes in weight-sensitive sports. LCHF-adapted endurance athletes can reach the maximal fat oxidation rate of approximately 1...
February 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223292/muscle-pgc-1%C3%AE-is-required-for-long-term-systemic-and-local-adaptations-to-a-ketogenic-diet-in-mice
#10
Svenia Schnyder, Kristoffer Svensson, Bettina Cardel, Christoph Handschin
Low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LCHF) diets are increasingly popular dietary interventions for body weight control and as treatment for different pathological conditions. However, the mechanisms of action are still poorly understood, in particular, in long-term administration. Besides liver, brain, and heart, skeletal muscle is one of the major organs involved in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological ketosis. We assessed the role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in skeletal muscle of male wild-type control and PGC-1α muscle-specific knockout mice upon 12 wk of LCHF diet feeding...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053201/evidence-that-supports-the-prescription-of-low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diets-a-narrative-review
#11
REVIEW
Timothy David Noakes, Johann Windt
Low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diets are a highly contentious current topic in nutrition. This narrative review aims to provide clinicians with a broad overview of the effects of LCHF diets on body weight, glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors while addressing some common concerns and misconceptions. Blood total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations show a variable, highly individual response to LCHF diets, and should be monitored in patients adhering to this diet. In contrast, available evidence from clinical and preclinical studies indicates that LCHF diets consistently improve all other markers of cardiovascular risk-lowering elevated blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, ApoB and saturated fat (especially palmitoleic acid) concentrations, reducing small dense LDL particle numbers, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, blood pressure and body weight while increasing low HDL-cholesterol concentrations and reversing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
January 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012184/low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-impairs-exercise-economy-and-negates-the-performance-benefit-from-intensified-training-in-elite-race-walkers
#12
Louise M Burke, Megan L Ross, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert, Ida A Heikura, Sara G Forbes, Joanne G Mirtschin, Louise E Cato, Nicki Strobel, Avish P Sharma, John A Hawley
KEY POINTS: Three weeks of intensified training and mild energy deficit in elite race walkers increases peak aerobic capacity independent of dietary support. Adaptation to a ketogenic low carbohydrate, high fat (LCHF) diet markedly increases rates of whole-body fat oxidation during exercise in race walkers over a range of exercise intensities. The increased rates of fat oxidation result in reduced economy (increased oxygen demand for a given speed) at velocities that translate to real-life race performance in elite race walkers...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891164/a-low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-decreases-lean-mass-and-impairs-cardiac-function-in-pair-fed-female-c57bl-6j-mice
#13
Jessica Nilsson, Madelene Ericsson, Masoumeh Motamedi Joibari, Fredrick Anderson, Leif Carlsson, Stefan K Nilsson, Anna Sjödin, Jonas Burén
BACKGROUND: Excess body fat is a major health issue and a risk factor for the development of numerous chronic diseases. Low-carbohydrate diets like the Atkins Diet are popular for rapid weight loss, but the long-term consequences remain the subject of debate. The Scandinavian low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diet, which has been popular in Scandinavian countries for about a decade, has very low carbohydrate content (~5 E %) but is rich in fat and includes a high proportion of saturated fatty acids...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454856/short-term-high-fat-diet-alters-postprandial-glucose-metabolism-and-circulating-vascular-cell-adhesion-molecule-1-in-healthy-males
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Shigeharu Numao, Hiroshi Kawano, Naoya Endo, Yuka Yamada, Masaki Takahashi, Masayuki Konishi, Shizuo Sakamoto
Short-term intake of a high-fat diet aggravates postprandial glucose metabolism; however, the dose-response relationship has not been investigated. We hypothesized that short-term intake of a eucaloric low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (LCHF) would aggravate postprandial glucose metabolism and circulating adhesion molecules in healthy males. Seven healthy young males (mean ± SE; age: 26 ± 1 years) consumed either a eucaloric control diet (C, approximately 25% fats), a eucaloric intermediate-carbohydrate/intermediate-fat diet (ICIF, approximately 50% fats), or an LCHF (approximately 70% fats) for 3 days...
August 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26918583/gluconeogenesis-during-endurance-exercise-in-cyclists-habituated-to-a-long-term-low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet
#15
Christopher C Webster, Timothy D Noakes, Shaji K Chacko, Jeroen Swart, Tertius A Kohn, James A H Smith
KEY POINTS: Blood glucose is an important fuel for endurance exercise. It can be derived from ingested carbohydrate, stored liver glycogen and newly synthesized glucose (gluconeogenesis). We hypothesized that athletes habitually following a low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF) diet would have higher rates of gluconeogenesis during exercise compared to those who follow a mixed macronutrient diet. We used stable isotope tracers to study glucose production kinetics during a 2 h ride in cyclists habituated to either a LCHF or mixed macronutrient diet...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26553488/re-examining-high-fat-diets-for-sports-performance-did-we-call-the-nail-in-the-coffin-too-soon
#16
REVIEW
Louise M Burke
During the period 1985-2005, studies examined the proposal that adaptation to a low-carbohydrate (<25 % energy), high-fat (>60 % energy) diet (LCHF) to increase muscle fat utilization during exercise could enhance performance in trained individuals by reducing reliance on muscle glycogen. As little as 5 days of training with LCHF retools the muscle to enhance fat-burning capacity with robust changes that persist despite acute strategies to restore carbohydrate availability (e.g., glycogen supercompensation, carbohydrate intake during exercise)...
November 2015: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25722155/altered-concentrate-to-forage-ratio-in-cows-ration-enhanced-bioproduction-of-specific-size-subpopulation-of-milk-fat-globules
#17
Ronit Mesilati-Stahy, Uzi Moallem, Yogev Magen, Nurit Argov-Argaman
The mechanism underlying the shift in milk-fat-globule (MFG) mean diameter upon changing the concentrate-to-forage ratio in dairy cow rations was investigated. Cows were fed high-concentrate low-forage (HCLF) or high-forage low-concentrate (LCHF) rations for 4 weeks. Mean diameter of MFG, determined in raw whole milk, was 0.4 μm larger in the LCHF-fed vs. HCLF-fed group. The main compositional differences between treatments were found in a specific MFG subgroup with the diameter of 3.3 μm (F1), with higher capric, lauric, myristic and lower oleic acid concentrations in HCLF vs...
July 15, 2015: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25087025/elevated-concentrate-to-forage-ratio-in-dairy-cow-rations-is-associated-with-a-shift-in-the-diameter-of-milk-fat-globules-and-remodeling-of-their-membranes
#18
Nurit Argov-Argaman, Ronit Mesilati-Stahy, Yogev Magen, Uzi Moallem
We examined the effects of concentrate-to-forage ratio in dairy cow rations on milk-fat composition, with a specific focus on the structure of milk fat globules (MFG). Twenty-four Holstein cows, 153 d in milk, were assigned to 2 dietary treatments in a crossover design study. Treatments were (1) high-concentrate (65%), low-forage (35%; HCLF) diet and (2) low-concentrate (35%), high-forage (65%; LCHF) diet. The mean diameter of the MFG; plasma concentrations of insulin, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids (FA); and the composition and concentrations of milk FA and polar lipids were determined...
October 2014: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24985005/effects-of-low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diets-on-apparent-digestibility-of-minerals-and-trace-elements-in-rats
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Lena Frommelt, Maximilian Bielohuby, Barbara J M Stoehr, Dominik Menhofer, Martin Bidlingmaier, Ellen Kienzle
OBJECTIVE: Ketogenic low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diets reduce growth and bone mineral density in children with epilepsy and in rats. Part of this effect might be due to a reduced availability of calcium in high-fat diets. The aim of this study was to determine mineral digestibility by total collection method in LCHF diets compared with a chow diet and a standard high-fat diet (HFD, high in fat and carbohydrates). METHODS: Twelve-wk-old male Wistar rats were pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of either six different LCHF diets based on tallow and casein (crude fat 75%-50%, crude protein 10%-35%), with chow or with a HFD diet...
July 2014: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24148165/low-carbohydrate-and-high-fat-intake-can-manage-obesity-and-associated-conditions-occasional-survey
#20
Timothy David Noakes
This study analyses 127 communications from individuals self-reporting their weight change following adoption of a low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) eating plan. Total combined self-reported weight loss was 1 900 kg (range 5 kg gain to 84 kg loss). The mean ± standard deviation weight loss of 15 (±12) kg is among the largest yet described. Sixteen subjects reported the LCHF 'cured' (i.e. medications no longer required) one or more of their medical conditions, most commonly type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (n=14), hypertension (n=8) and hypercholesterolaemia (n=7)...
September 30, 2013: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
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