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Svenia Schnyder, Kristoffer Svensson, Bettina Cardel, Christoph Handschin
Low carbohydrate/high-fat (LCHF) diets are increasingly popular dietary interventions for body weight control and as treatment for different pathological conditions. However, the mechanisms of action are still poorly understood, in particular in long-term administration. Besides liver, brain and heart, skeletal muscle is one of the major organs involved in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological ketosis. We now assessed the role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in skeletal muscle of male wild type control (CTRL) and PGC-1α muscle-specific knockout (PGC-1α mKO) mice upon 12 weeks of LCHF diet feeding...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Timothy David Noakes, Johann Windt
Low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diets are a highly contentious current topic in nutrition. This narrative review aims to provide clinicians with a broad overview of the effects of LCHF diets on body weight, glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors while addressing some common concerns and misconceptions. Blood total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations show a variable, highly individual response to LCHF diets, and should be monitored in patients adhering to this diet. In contrast, available evidence from clinical and preclinical studies indicates that LCHF diets consistently improve all other markers of cardiovascular risk-lowering elevated blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, ApoB and saturated fat (especially palmitoleic acid) concentrations, reducing small dense LDL particle numbers, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, blood pressure and body weight while increasing low HDL-cholesterol concentrations and reversing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
January 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Louise M Burke, Megan L Ross, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert, Ida A Heikura, Sara G Forbes, Joanne G Mirtschin, Louise E Cato, Nicki Strobel, Avish P Sharma, John A Hawley
KEY POINTS: Three weeks of intensified training and mild energy deficit in elite race walkers increases peak aerobic capacity independent of dietary support. Adaptation to a ketogenic low carbohydrate, high fat (LCHF) diet markedly increases rates of whole-body fat oxidation during exercise in race walkers over a range of exercise intensities. The increased rates of fat oxidation result in reduced economy (increased oxygen demand for a given speed) at velocities that translate to real-life race performance in elite race walkers...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Jessica Nilsson, Madelene Ericsson, Masoumeh Motamedi Joibari, Fredrick Anderson, Leif Carlsson, Stefan K Nilsson, Anna Sjödin, Jonas Burén
BACKGROUND: Excess body fat is a major health issue and a risk factor for the development of numerous chronic diseases. Low-carbohydrate diets like the Atkins Diet are popular for rapid weight loss, but the long-term consequences remain the subject of debate. The Scandinavian low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diet, which has been popular in Scandinavian countries for about a decade, has very low carbohydrate content (~5 E %) but is rich in fat and includes a high proportion of saturated fatty acids...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Shigeharu Numao, Hiroshi Kawano, Naoya Endo, Yuka Yamada, Masaki Takahashi, Masayuki Konishi, Shizuo Sakamoto
Short-term intake of a high-fat diet aggravates postprandial glucose metabolism; however, the dose-response relationship has not been investigated. We hypothesized that short-term intake of a eucaloric low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (LCHF) would aggravate postprandial glucose metabolism and circulating adhesion molecules in healthy males. Seven healthy young males (mean ± SE; age: 26 ± 1 years) consumed either a eucaloric control diet (C, approximately 25% fats), a eucaloric intermediate-carbohydrate/intermediate-fat diet (ICIF, approximately 50% fats), or an LCHF (approximately 70% fats) for 3 days...
August 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Christopher C Webster, Timothy D Noakes, Shaji K Chacko, Jeroen Swart, Tertius A Kohn, James A H Smith
KEY POINTS: Blood glucose is an important fuel for endurance exercise. It can be derived from ingested carbohydrate, stored liver glycogen and newly synthesized glucose (gluconeogenesis). We hypothesized that athletes habitually following a low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF) diet would have higher rates of gluconeogenesis during exercise compared to those who follow a mixed macronutrient diet. We used stable isotope tracers to study glucose production kinetics during a 2 h ride in cyclists habituated to either a LCHF or mixed macronutrient diet...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Louise M Burke
During the period 1985-2005, studies examined the proposal that adaptation to a low-carbohydrate (<25 % energy), high-fat (>60 % energy) diet (LCHF) to increase muscle fat utilization during exercise could enhance performance in trained individuals by reducing reliance on muscle glycogen. As little as 5 days of training with LCHF retools the muscle to enhance fat-burning capacity with robust changes that persist despite acute strategies to restore carbohydrate availability (e.g., glycogen supercompensation, carbohydrate intake during exercise)...
November 2015: Sports Medicine
Ronit Mesilati-Stahy, Uzi Moallem, Yogev Magen, Nurit Argov-Argaman
The mechanism underlying the shift in milk-fat-globule (MFG) mean diameter upon changing the concentrate-to-forage ratio in dairy cow rations was investigated. Cows were fed high-concentrate low-forage (HCLF) or high-forage low-concentrate (LCHF) rations for 4 weeks. Mean diameter of MFG, determined in raw whole milk, was 0.4 μm larger in the LCHF-fed vs. HCLF-fed group. The main compositional differences between treatments were found in a specific MFG subgroup with the diameter of 3.3 μm (F1), with higher capric, lauric, myristic and lower oleic acid concentrations in HCLF vs...
July 15, 2015: Food Chemistry
Nurit Argov-Argaman, Ronit Mesilati-Stahy, Yogev Magen, Uzi Moallem
We examined the effects of concentrate-to-forage ratio in dairy cow rations on milk-fat composition, with a specific focus on the structure of milk fat globules (MFG). Twenty-four Holstein cows, 153 d in milk, were assigned to 2 dietary treatments in a crossover design study. Treatments were (1) high-concentrate (65%), low-forage (35%; HCLF) diet and (2) low-concentrate (35%), high-forage (65%; LCHF) diet. The mean diameter of the MFG; plasma concentrations of insulin, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids (FA); and the composition and concentrations of milk FA and polar lipids were determined...
October 2014: Journal of Dairy Science
Lena Frommelt, Maximilian Bielohuby, Barbara J M Stoehr, Dominik Menhofer, Martin Bidlingmaier, Ellen Kienzle
OBJECTIVE: Ketogenic low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diets reduce growth and bone mineral density in children with epilepsy and in rats. Part of this effect might be due to a reduced availability of calcium in high-fat diets. The aim of this study was to determine mineral digestibility by total collection method in LCHF diets compared with a chow diet and a standard high-fat diet (HFD, high in fat and carbohydrates). METHODS: Twelve-wk-old male Wistar rats were pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of either six different LCHF diets based on tallow and casein (crude fat 75%-50%, crude protein 10%-35%), with chow or with a HFD diet...
July 2014: Nutrition
Timothy David Noakes
This study analyses 127 communications from individuals self-reporting their weight change following adoption of a low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) eating plan. Total combined self-reported weight loss was 1 900 kg (range 5 kg gain to 84 kg loss). The mean ± standard deviation weight loss of 15 (±12) kg is among the largest yet described. Sixteen subjects reported the LCHF 'cured' (i.e. medications no longer required) one or more of their medical conditions, most commonly type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (n=14), hypertension (n=8) and hypercholesterolaemia (n=7)...
November 2013: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Yasuhiro Kobayashi, Shin-ichiro Kumita, Yoshimitsu Fukushima, Keiichi Ishihara, Masaya Suda, Minoru Sakurai
OBJECTIVES: (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is a useful tool for evaluating inflammation. Because, myocardial-FDG uptake occurs with diverse physiology, it should be suppressed during evaluation of myocardial inflammation by FDG-PET/CT. Diets inducing fat-based metabolism, such as a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (LCHF), are used in uptake-suppression protocols. However, a complete suppression of myocardial-FDG uptake has not been established...
November 2013: Journal of Cardiology
Elisa Fabbrini, Paul B Higgins, Faidon Magkos, Raul A Bastarrachea, V Saroja Voruganti, Anthony G Comuzzie, Robert E Shade, Amalia Gastaldelli, Jay D Horton, Daniela Omodei, Bruce W Patterson, Samuel Klein
We established a model of chronic portal vein catheterization in an awake nonhuman primate to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the metabolic response to low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LCHF; 20% carbohydrate and 65% fat) and high-carbohydrate/low-fat (HCLF; 65% carbohydrate and 20% fat) meal ingestion. Each meal was given 1 wk apart to five young adult (7.8 ± 1.3 yr old) male baboons. A [U-¹³C]glucose tracer was added to the meal, and a [6,6-²H₂]glucose tracer was infused systemically to assess glucose kinetics...
February 15, 2013: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ingegerd Johansson, Lena Maria Nilsson, Birgitta Stegmayr, Kurt Boman, Göran Hallmans, Anna Winkvist
BACKGROUND: In the 1970s, men in northern Sweden had among the highest prevalences of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) worldwide. An intervention program combining population- and individual-oriented activities was initiated in 1985. Concurrently, collection of information on medical risk factors, lifestyle and anthropometry started. Today, these data make up one of the largest databases in the world on diet intake in a population-based sample, both in terms of sample size and follow-up period...
2012: Nutrition Journal
Yong-Han He, Song-Tao Li, Yan-Yan Wang, Guan Wang, Ying He, Xi-Lu Liao, Chang-Hao Sun, Ying Li
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a postweaning low-calcium diet on later obesity and explore the underlying mechanisms. Ninety-six male rats were weaned at 3 weeks of age, fed standard (STD: 0.50% calcium, n=48) and low-calcium (LC: 0.15% calcium, n=48) diets for 3 weeks, and then fed the standard diet for a 3-week washout period successively. Finally, the STD rats were divided into STD control and high-fat diet (HFD) groups, and the LC ones into LC control and LC+HFD (LCHF) groups. The STD and LC rats were fed the standard diet, while the HFD control and LCFD ones were fed a high-fat diet for 6 weeks to induce obesity...
October 2012: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Maximilian Bielohuby, Kerstin Stemmer, José Berger, Juliane Ramisch, Kathleen Smith, Jenna Holland, Kenneth Parks, Paul T Pfluger, Kirk M Habegger, Matthias H Tschöp, Randy J Seeley, Martin Bidlingmaier
BACKGROUND: Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) effectively reduces body weight (BW) in obese rats and humans. However, post-surgical weight regain is frequently observed in subjects after VSG, but the underlying reasons remain poorly understood. We therefore investigated if post-surgical consumption of different diets can affect the outcome of VSG. METHODS: VSG or sham operation was performed in Long-Evans rats with diet-induced obesity (n = 37). After post-surgical recovery, rats were fed ad libitum either with standard chow (CH), high-fat (HF) or low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diets...
January 2012: Obesity Surgery
Jin-bo Ma, Yi-peng Song, Jin-ming Yu, Wei Zhou, Er-cheng Cheng, Xi-qin Zhang
PURPOSE: The aims of this trial were to study whether a decreased percentage of tumor fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake (%DeltaSUVmax) correlated with overall survival and local control times for patients with esophageal cancer and which patients would benefit from a late-course accelerated hyperfractionated (LCHF) radiation scheme. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 50 eligible patients with squamous esophageal cancer received positron-emission tomography examinations three times and were treated with the LCHF radiation scheme, with a dose of 68...
March 15, 2012: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Susanne Keipert, Anja Voigt, Susanne Klaus
Little is known about how diet and energy metabolism interact in determination of lifespan under ad libitum feeding. From 12 weeks of age until death, male and female wild-type (WT) and transgenic (TG) mice with increased skeletal muscle mitochondrial uncoupling (HSA-mUCP1 mice) were fed one of three different semisynthetic diets differing in macronutrient ratio: control (high-carbohydrate/low-fat-HCLF) and two high-fat diets: high-carbohydrate/high-fat (HCHF), and low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LCHF). Compared to control and LCHF, HCHF feeding rapidly and significantly increased body fat content in WT...
February 2011: Aging Cell
Michal Yackobovitch-Gavan, Nessia Nagelberg, Sharon Demol, Moshe Phillip, Shlomit Shalitin
The aims of this study were to compare the effects of weight-loss diets of different macronutrient compositions on weight and health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and to examine the relationship between changes in HRQOL parameters and weight loss during weight-loss programs in obese adolescents. Seventy one adolescents (12-18 years, BMI>95th percentile) were randomly allocated to one of three 12-week diet regimens: low-carbohydrate low-fat (LCLF), low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) or high-carbohydrate low-fat (HCLF) diets...
November 2008: Appetite
Nathan A Johnson, David W Walton, Toos Sachinwalla, Campbell H Thompson, Kate Smith, Patricia A Ruell, Stephen R Stannard, Jacob George
UNLABELLED: Nonalcoholic fatty liver is frequently observed in obese individuals, yet the factors that predict its development and progression to liver disease are poorly understood. We proposed that proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) might allow noninvasive assessment of hepatic lipid composition. Lipid saturation (SI) and polyunsaturation (PUI) indices measured by (1)H-MRS were in agreement with those expected in oils of known composition. Hepatic triglyceride concentration (HTGC) and composition were then measured in healthy lean (LEAN) men, obese men with normal HTGC (OB), and obese men with hepatic steatosis (OB+HS)...
May 2008: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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