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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332180/cd39-adenosinergic-axis-in-renal-pathophysiology-and-therapeutics
#1
REVIEW
Bellamkonda K Kishore, Simon C Robson, Karen M Dwyer
Extracellular ATP interacts with purinergic type 2 (P2) receptors and elicits many crucial biological functions. Extracellular ATP is sequentially hydrolyzed to ADP and AMP by the actions of defined nucleotidases, such as CD39, and AMP is converted to adenosine, largely by CD73, an ecto-5'-nucleotidase. Extracellular adenosine interacts with P1 receptors and often opposes the effects of P2 receptor activation. The balance between extracellular ATP and adenosine in the blood and extracellular fluid is regulated chiefly by the activities of CD39 and CD73, which constitute the CD39-adenosinergic axis...
January 13, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331956/adenosine-production-by-biomaterial-supported-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-reduces-the-innate-inflammatory-response-in-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#2
Eric Y Shin, Lanfang Wang, Marina Zemskova, Juline Deppen, Kai Xu, Frederick Strobel, Andrés J García, Rabindra Tirouvanziam, Rebecca D Levit
BACKGROUND: During myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury, there is extensive release of immunogenic metabolites that activate cells of the innate immune system. These include ATP and AMP, which upregulate chemotaxis, migration, and effector function of early infiltrating inflammatory cells. These cells subsequently drive further tissue devitalization. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a potential treatment modality for MI/R because of their powerful anti-inflammatory capabilities; however, the manner in which they regulate the acute inflammatory milieu requires further elucidation...
January 13, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328479/the-human-umbilical-cord-stem-cells-improve-the-viability-of-oa-degenerated-chondrocytes
#3
Hao Wang, Xu Yan, Yuxin Jiang, Zheng Wang, Yufei Li, Qingdong Shao
Osteoarthritis (OA) affects a large number of patients; however, human umbilical cord stem cells exhibit therapeutic potential for treating OA. The aim of the present study was to explore the interaction between human umbilical cord stem cells and degenerated chondrocytes, and the therapeutic potential of human umbilical cord stem cells on degenerated chondrocytes. Human umbilical cord‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC‑MSCs) were harvested from human umbilical cords, and flow cytometry was used to analyze the surface antigen markers, in addition, chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation on the cells was investigated...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327490/fetal-subcutaneous-cells-have-potential-for-autologous-tissue-engineering
#4
Åsa Ekblad, Magnus Westgren, Magdalena Fossum, Cecilia Götherström
BACKGROUND: Major congenital malformations affect up to 3% of newborns. Infants with prenatally diagnosed soft tissue defects should benefit from having autologous tissue readily available for surgical implantation in the perinatal period. In this study, we investigate fetal subcutaneous cells (fSC) as cellular source for tissue engineering. METHODS: Fetal subcutaneous biopsies were collected from elective terminations at gestational week 20-21. Cells were isolated, expanded and characterized in vitro...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315226/unfolding-role-of-a-danger-molecule-adenosine-signaling-in-modulation-of-microbial-infection-and-host-cell-response
#5
REVIEW
Jaden S Lee, Özlem Yilmaz
Ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73, specific nucleotide metabolizing enzymes located on the surface of the host, can convert a pro-inflammatory environment driven by a danger molecule extracellular-ATP to an adenosine-mediated anti-inflammatory milieu. Accordingly, CD39/CD73 signaling have has strongly implicated in modulating the intensity, duration, and composition of purinergic danger signals delivered to host. Recent studies have eluted potential roles for CD39 and CD73 in selective triggering of a variety of host immune cells and molecules in the presence of pathogenic microorganisms or microbial virulence molecules...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314362/a-small-population-of-resident-limb-bud-mesenchymal-cells-expresses-few-msc-associated-markers-but-the-expression-of-these-markers-is-increased-immediately-after-cell-culture
#6
Jessica Cristina Marín-Llera, Jesús Chimal-Monroy
Skeletal progenitors are derived from resident limb bud mesenchymal cells of the vertebrate embryos. However, it remains poorly understood if they represent stem cells, progenitors or multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). Derived-MSC of different adult tissues under in vitro experimental conditions can differentiate into the same cellular lineages that are present in the limb. Here, comparing non-cultured versus cultured mesenchymal limb bud cells, we determined the expression of MSC-associated markers, the in vitro differentiation capacity and their gene expression profile...
January 4, 2018: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307583/transcriptionally-and-functionally-distinct-mesenchymal-subpopulations-are-generated-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#7
Chee Jia Chin, Suwen Li, Mirko Corselli, David Casero, Yuhua Zhu, Chong Bin He, Reef Hardy, Bruno Péault, Gay M Crooks
Various mesenchymal cell types have been identified as critical components of the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) niche. Although several groups have described the generation of mesenchyme from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), the capacity of such cells to support hematopoiesis has not been reported. Here, we demonstrate that distinct mesenchymal subpopulations co-emerge from mesoderm during hPSC differentiation. Despite co-expression of common mesenchymal markers (CD73, CD105, CD90, and PDGFRβ), a subset of cells defined as CD146hiCD73hi expressed genes associated with the HSPC niche and supported the maintenance of functional HSPCs ex vivo, while CD146loCD73lo cells supported differentiation...
January 3, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306022/t-regulatory-cells-mediate-immunosuppresion-by-adenosine-in-peripheral-blood-sentinel-lymph-node-and-tils-from-melanoma-patients
#8
P Di Gennaro, G Gerlini, R Caporale, S Sestini, P Brandani, C Urso, N Pimpinelli, L Borgognoni
T regulatory cells (Tregs), involved in tumour tolerance, can generate Adenosine by CD39/CD73 surface enzymes, which identify four Tregs subsets: CD39+CD73- nTregs, CD39+CD73+ iTregs, CD39-CD73+ oTregs and CD39-CD73- xTregs. In melanoma patients, increased Tregs levels are detected in peripheral blood (PB), sentinel lymph node (SLN) and tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), but Adenosine role was not investigated yet. We examined total Tregs and Adenosine subsets in PB, SLN and TILs from melanoma patients (n = 32) and PB from healthy donors (HD; n = 10) by flow cytometry...
January 3, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305710/ecto-5-nucleotidase-cd73-contributes-to-the-radiosensitivity-of-t24-human-bladder-cancer-cell-line
#9
Fabrícia Dietrich, Fabrício Figueiró, Eduardo Cremonese Filippi-Chiela, Angélica Regina Cappellari, Liliana Rockenbach, Alain Tremblay, Patrícia Boni de Paula, Rafael Roesler, Aroldo Braga Filho, Jean Sévigny, Fernanda Bueno Morrone, Ana Maria Oliveira Battastini
PURPOSE: Trimodal therapy is a reasonable bladder-preserving option to radical cystectomy. However, many tumors are radioresistive. In this sense, the identification of new prognostic and predictive biomarkers that allow the selection of patients with better responses to radiation therapy would improve outcomes. With the aim of using ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 as a predictive biomarker, the role of this enzyme in the context of radiotherapy in T24 human bladder cancer cell line was investigated...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301020/discovery-of-internalizing-antibodies-to-basal-breast-cancer-cells
#10
Yu Zhou, Hao Zou, Christina Yau, Lequn Zhao, Steven C Hall, Daryl C Drummond, Shauna Farr-Jones, John W Park, Christopher C Benz, James D Marks
We present a strategy to discover recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to specific cancers and demonstrate this approach using basal subtype breast cancers. A phage antibody library was depleted of antibodies to common cell surface molecules by incubation with luminal breast cancer cell lines, and then selected on a single basal-like breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) for binding associated receptor-mediated endocytosis. Additional profiling against two luminal and four basal-like cell lines revealed 61 unique basal-specific mAbs from a pool of 1440 phage antibodies...
December 28, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279046/human-wharton-s-jelly-cells-activate-degenerative-nucleus-pulposus-cells-in-vitro
#11
Zhihua Han, Yan Zhang, Liang Gao, Shujun Jiang, Di-Ke Ruan
In order to investigate the interaction between human Wharton's jelly cells (WJCs) and degenerative nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs), human WJCs were cocultured with degenerative NPCs with or without direct cell-cell contact. WJCs were isolated from the human umbilical cord and degenerative NPCs were isolated from the surgically obtained degenerative intervertebral disc tissue. The isolated WJCs positively expressed CD73, CD105, CD90, CD29, CD166 and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-ABC, but negatively expressed CD34, CD45, and HLA-DR...
December 27, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278640/infant-cardiopulmonary-bypass-cd73-kinetics-association-with-clinical-outcomes-and-influence-on-serum-adenosine-production-capacity
#12
Jessica N Persson, Christine H Baird, Suhong Tong, Tracy T Urban, Jelena Klawitter, Paul E Wischmeyer, Jesse A Davidson
BACKGROUND: Extracellular adenine nucleotides contribute to ischemia-reperfusion injury following infant cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), while conversion to adenosine may be protective. Alkaline phosphatase (AP), a key enzyme responsible for this conversion, decreases after infant CPB. Indirect evidence suggests that soluble CD73 may simultaneously increase and partially offset this loss of AP. We sought to measure CD73 levels in infants undergoing CPB and determine its association with adenosine production capacity and post-operative support requirements...
December 26, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274390/extracellular-atp-signaling-and-clinical-relevance
#13
REVIEW
Lei Dou, Yi-Fa Chen, Peter J Cowan, Xiao-Ping Chen
Since purinergic signaling was discovered in the early 1970s, it has been shown that extracellular nucleotides, and their derivative nucleosides, are released in a regulated or unregulated manner by cells in various challenging settings and then bind defined purinergic receptors to activate intricate signaling networks. Extracellular ATP plays a role based on different P2 receptor subtypes expressed on specific cell types. Sequential hydrolysis of extracellular ATP catalyzed by ectonucleotidases (e.g. CD39, CD73) is the main pathway for the generation of adenosine, which in turn activates P1 receptors...
December 20, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273916/characterization-of-ecto-nucleotidases-in-human-oviducts-with-an-improved-approach-simultaneously-identifying-protein-expression-and-in-situ-enzyme-activity
#14
María Lina Villamonte, Benjamín Torrejón-Escribano, Aitor Rodríguez-Martínez, Carla Trapero, August Vidal, Inmaculada Gómez de Aranda, Jean Sévigny, Xavier Matías-Guiu, Mireia Martín-Satué
Extracellular ATP and its hydrolysis product adenosine modulate various reproductive functions such as those taking place in oviducts, including contraction, beating of cilia, and maintenance of fluid composition that, in turn, influences sperm capacitation and hyperactivation, as well as oocyte and embryo nourishing. Ecto-nucleotidases are the enzymes that regulate extracellular ATP and adenosine levels, thus playing a role in reproduction. We have optimized a convenient method for characterizing ecto-nucleotidases that simultaneously localizes the protein and its associated enzyme activity in the same tissue slice and characterizes ecto-nucleotidases in human oviducts...
December 22, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273051/a-role-for-b-cells-in-organic-dust-induced-lung-inflammation
#15
Jill A Poole, Ted R Mikuls, Michael J Duryee, Kristi J Warren, Todd A Wyatt, Amy J Nelson, Debra J Romberger, William W West, Geoffrey M Thiele
BACKGROUND: Agriculture organic dust exposures induce lung disease with lymphoid aggregates comprised of both T and B cells. The precise role of B cells in mediating lung inflammation is unknown, yet might be relevant given the emerging role of B cells in obstructive pulmonary disease and associated autoimmunity. METHODS: Using an established animal model, C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and B-cell receptor (BCR) knock-out (KO) mice were repetitively treated with intranasal inhalation of swine confinement organic dust extract (ODE) daily for 3 weeks and lavage fluid, lung tissues, and serum were collected...
December 22, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242640/effects-of-maternal-obesity-on-wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#16
Heba Badraiq, Aleksandra Cvoro, Antonio Galleu, Marisa Simon, Cristian Miere, Carl Hobbs, Reiner Schulz, Richard Siow, Francesco Dazzi, Dusko Ilic
We investigated whether maternal metabolic environment affects mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) from umbilical cord's Wharton's Jelly (WJ) on a molecular level, and potentially render them unsuitable for clinical use in multiple recipients. In this pilot study on umbilical cords post partum from healthy non-obese (BMI = 19-25; n = 7) and obese (BMI ≥ 30; n = 7) donors undergoing elective Cesarean section, we found that WJ MSC from obese donors showed slower population doubling and a stronger immunosuppressive activity...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241918/human-amniotic-fluid-stem-cells-have-better-potential-in-early-second-trimester-of-pregnancy-and-can-be-reprogramed-to-ips
#17
S W Steven Shaw, Po-Jen Cheng, Yao-Lung Chang, An-Shine Chao, Tzu-Hao Wang, Shuenn-Dyh Chang, T'sang-T'ang Hsieh, Kuo-Hsuan Chang
OBJECTIVE: To study the difference of amniotic fluid stem cell potential at different gestational age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Second trimester amniocentesis was performed during 15 to 22nd week of gestational age in a single medical center from 2015 to 2016. Early second trimester amniotic fluid stem cells (E-AFS) and later one (L-AFS) were defined 15-18th week, and 19-22nd week, respectively. Cell characteristics, surface markers and ability to form induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) were studied...
December 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239337/globose-basal-cells-for-spinal-cord-regeneration
#18
Durai Murugan Muniswami, Indirani Kanakasabapathy, George Tharion
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition with loss of motor and sensory functions below the injury level. Cell based therapies are experimented in pre-clinical studies around the world. Neural stem cells are located intra-cranially in subventricular zone and hippocampus which are highly invasive sources. The olfactory epithelium is a neurogenic tissue where neurogenesis takes place throughout the adult life by a population of stem/progenitor cells. Easily accessible olfactory neuroepithelial stem/progenitor cells are an attractive cell source for transplantation in SCI...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239050/therapeutic-potential-of-amniotic-fluid-stem-cells-to-treat-bilateral-ovarian-dystrophy-in-dairy-cows-in-a-subtropical-region
#19
L-B Chang, S-Y Peng, C-J Chou, Y-J Chen, J-S Shiu, P-A Tu, S-X Gao, Y-C Chen, T-K Lin, S-C Wu
Amniotic fluid is a rich source of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) have become a new source of stem cells; they have low immunogenicity and are easily harvested. For this reason, they may be useful in clinical tissue engineering. Moreover, AFSCs have anti-inflammatory properties and can repair tissues. This study evaluated the utility of AFSC injection to treat bilateral ovarian dystrophy in Holstein-Friesian cows. Bovine AFSCs (BAFSCs) were collected at slaughter from Holstein-Friesian cows during the third or fourth month of pregnancy and cultured in vitro...
December 14, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222418/heb-is-required-for-the-specification-of-fetal-il-17-producing-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells
#20
Tracy S H In, Ashton Trotman-Grant, Shawn Fahl, Edward L Y Chen, Payam Zarin, Amanda J Moore, David L Wiest, Juan Carlos Zúñiga-Pflücker, Michele K Anderson
IL-17-producing γδ T (γδT17) cells are critical components of the innate immune system. However, the gene networks that control their development are unclear. Here we show that HEB (HeLa E-box binding protein, encoded by Tcf12) is required for the generation of a newly defined subset of fetal-derived CD73- γδT17 cells. HEB is required in immature CD24+CD73- γδ T cells for the expression of Sox4, Sox13, and Rorc, and these genes are repressed by acute expression of the HEB antagonist Id3. HEB-deficiency also affects mature CD73+ γδ T cells, which are defective in RORγt expression and IL-17 production...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
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