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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941398/the-mechanisms-mediating-the-antiepileptic-effects-of-the-ketogenic-diet-and-potential-opportunities-for-improvement-with-metabolism-altering-drugs
#1
REVIEW
Neil A Youngson, Margaret J Morris, Bill Ballard
The ketogenic diet (KD) is increasingly being used to treat patients with intractable epilepsy. Despite decades of research, the reason for its success, when anticonvulsants have failed, is still not completely understood. There are, however, many candidate mechanisms which can be grouped into those that alter neuronal excitability at the synapse, and those that confer neuroprotection. The molecular underpinning of these mechanisms centres on the shift from glucose- to lipid-based energy generation that accompanies a high fat/low carbohydrate diet...
September 13, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938776/meta-analytic-study-of-organic-acids-as-an-alternative-performance-enhancing-feed-additive-to-antibiotics-for-broiler-chickens
#2
G V Polycarpo, I Andretta, M Kipper, V C Cruz-Polycarpo, J C Dadalt, P H M Rodrigues, R Albuquerque
The effect of organic acids as an alternative to antibiotics on the performance of broiler chickens was evaluated by meta-analysis, identifying and quantifying the main factors that influence results. A total of 51,960 broilers from 121 articles published between 1991 and 2016 were used. Interactions of additives [non-supplemented group (control), organic acids, and growth promoter antibiotics] with microbial challenge (with or without inoculation of pathogenic microorganisms) were studied on performance variables...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938750/allowable-warm-ischemic-time-and-morphological-and-biochemical-changes-in-uterine-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-cynomolgus-macaque-a-basic-study-for-uterus-transplantation
#3
Iori Kisu, Kiyoko Umeneo, Masataka Adachi, Katsura Emoto, Yuya Nogami, Kouji Banno, Iori Itagaki, Ikuo Kawamoto, Takahiro Nakagawa, Hayato Narita, Atsushi Yoshida, Hideaki Tsuchiya, Kazumasa Ogasawara, Daisuke Aoki
STUDY QUESTION: How long is the allowable warm ischemic time of the uterus and what morphological and biochemical changes are caused by uterine ischemia/reperfusion injury in cynomolgus macaques? SUMMARY ANSWER: Warm ischemia in the uterus of cynomolgus macaques is tolerated for up to 4 h and reperfusion after uterine ischemia caused no further morphological and biochemical changes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Uterus transplantation is a potential option for women with uterine factor infertility...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938749/the-testicular-transcriptome-associated-with-spermatogonia-differentiation-initiated-by-gonadotrophin-stimulation-in-the-juvenile-rhesus-monkey-macaca-mulatta
#4
Suresh Ramaswamy, William H Walker, Paula Aliberti, Rahil Sethi, Gary R Marshall, Alyxzandria Smith, Seyedmehdi Nourashrafeddin, Alicia Belgorosky, Uma R Chandran, Mark P Hedger, Tony M Plant
STUDY QUESTION: What is the genetic landscape within the testis of the juvenile rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) that underlies the decision of undifferentiated spermatogonia to commit to a pathway of differentiation when puberty is induced prematurely by exogenous LH and FSH stimulation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Forty-eight hours of gonadotrophin stimulation of the juvenile monkey testis resulted in the appearance of differentiating B spermatogonia and the emergence of 1362 up-regulated and 225 down-regulated testicular mRNAs encoding a complex network of proteins ranging from enzymes regulating Leydig cell steroidogenesis to membrane receptors, and from juxtacrine and paracrine factors to transcriptional factors governing spermatogonial stem cell fate...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938745/a-closer-look-at-expanded-carrier-screening-from-a-pgd-perspective
#5
Carolina Vaz-de-Macedo, Joyce Harper
Conventionally, the search for carrier status was based on ethnicity and/or family history and targeted to a restricted number of genetic conditions and mutations. This is now being replaced by extended panels testing for hundreds of genetic disorders with a broad range of phenotypes, in what is called 'expanded carrier screening'. While the ultimate aim of these panels is to increase the reproductive autonomy of the individuals and couples by providing preconception knowledge that could lead to the broadest range of available options, including PGD, we argue that: (i) Given the number and heterogeneity of the conditions included in panels, it cannot be guaranteed that a couple who tests positive for one of those conditions will be eligible for PGD; patients should be informed of this potential limitation before undertaking screening...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938744/an-improved-ivm-method-for-cumulus-oocyte-complexes-from-small-follicles-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-patients-enhances-oocyte-competence-and-embryo-yield
#6
F Sánchez, F Lolicato, S Romero, M De Vos, H Van Ranst, G Verheyen, E Anckaert, J E J Smitz
STUDY QUESTION: Are meiotic and developmental competence of human oocytes from small (2-8 mm) antral follicles improved by applying an optimized IVM method involving a prematuration step in presence of C-Type Natriuretic Peptide (CNP) followed by a maturation step in presence of FSH and Amphiregulin (AREG)? SUMMARY ANSWER: A strategy involving prematuration culture (PMC) in the presence of CNP followed by IVM using FSH + AREG increases oocyte maturation potential leading to a higher availability of Day 3 embryos and good-quality blastocysts for single embryo transfer...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938720/deep-whole-genome-sequencing-of-90-han-chinese-genomes
#7
Tianming Lan, Haoxiang Lin, Wenjuan Zhu, Tellier Christian Asker Melchior Laurent, Mengcheng Yang, Xin Liu, Jun Wang, Jian Wang, Huanming Yang, Xun Xu, Xiaosen Guo
Next-generation sequencing provides a high-resolution insight into human genetic information. However, the focus of previous studies has primarily been on low-coverage data due to the high cost of sequencing. Although the 1000 Genomes Project and the Haplotype Reference Consortium have both provided powerful reference panels for imputation, low-frequency and novel variants remain difficult to discover and call with accuracy on the basis of low-coverage data. Deep sequencing provides an optimal solution for the problem of these low-frequency and novel variants...
September 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938693/the-regulation-of-immune-cells-by-lactobacilli-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-anti-atherosclerosis-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Ya-Hui Ding, Lin-Yan Qian, Jie Pang, Jing-Yang Lin, Qiang Xu, Li-Hong Wang, Dong-Sheng Huang, Hai Zou
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease regulated by several immune cells including lymphocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. Gut probiotic bacteria like Lactobacilli have been shown immunomodificatory effects in the progression of atherogenesis. Some Lactobacillus stains can upregulate the activity of regulatory T-lymphocytes, suppress T-lymphocyte helper (Th) cells Th1, Th17, alter the Th1/Th2 ratio, influence the subsets ratio of M1/M2 macrophages, inhibit foam cell formation by suppressing macrophage phagocytosis of oxidized low-density lipoprotein, block the activation of the immune system with dendritic cells, which are expected to suppress the atherosclerosis-related inflammation...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938682/mental-health-of-the-old-and-new-generation-migrant-workers-in-china-who-are-at-greater-risk-for-psychological-distress
#9
Bao-Liang Zhong, Sandra S M Chan, Tie-Bang Liu, Dong Jin, Chi-Yi Hu, Helen F K Chiu
Rural-to-urban migrant workers (MWs) are a large vulnerable population in China and, recently, the new-generation MWs (those born in 1980 or later) have become the majority of this population. Examining difference in the epidemiology of poor mental health between the new- and old-generation (those born before 1980) MWs would facilitate mental health promotion efforts. However, very few related studies are available and they produced conflicting findings. This study investigated intergenerational difference in prevalence and correlates of psychological distress (PD) in MWs...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938648/a-novel-lncrna-ll22nc03-n64e9-1-represses-klf2-transcription-through-binding-with-ezh2-in-colorectal-cancer
#10
Yifan Lian, Changsheng Yan, Jie Ding, Rui Xia, Zhonghua Ma, Bingqing Hui, Hao Ji, Jing Zhou, Keming Wang
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) have been implicated in variety human cancer but their mechanisms of function are mainly undocumented. In the present study, we investigated lncRNAs alteration that contributed to colorectal cancer (CRC) by utilizing TCGA RNA sequencing data and other publicly available lncRNAs expression profiling data. Here, We screened out the CRC-associated lncRNA LL22NC03-N64E9.1, a key regulator of CRC development and progression. We also revealed that knockdown of LL22NC03-N64E9.1 inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, tumorigenicity and apoptosis promotion, both in vitro and in vivo...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938647/long-non-coding-rna-malat1-for-promoting-metastasis-and-proliferation-by-acting-as-a-cerna-of-mir-144-3p-in-osteosarcoma-cells
#11
Yong Wang, Yueyang Zhang, Tao Yang, Wei Zhao, Ningning Wang, Pengcheng Li, Xiandong Zeng, Weiguo Zhang
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in various biological processes and diseases including osteosarcoma. Long non-coding RNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is overly expressed in osteosarcoma. But the function and mechanism it works on in osteosarcoma proliferation and metastasis mediated by Rho associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) and Rho associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2 (ROCK2) remain unclear. In the present study, an elevated MALAT1 was found in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines, and the elevated MALAT1 was correlated with a poor prognosis in osteosarcoma patients...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938637/the-loss-of-function-of-dna-methyltransferase-1-by-sirna-impairs-the-growth-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-with-alleviated-side-effects-via-reactivation-of-rassf1a-and-apc-in-vitro-and-vivo
#12
Qi Lai, Yin-Hui Xu, Qiang Chen, Liang Tang, An-Gui Li, Li-Fei Zhang, Chun-Fang Zhang, Jian-Fei Song, Zhen-Zong Du
Hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) promoters by DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) can be observed in almost all cancers which represent a hallmark of carcinogenesis, including lung cancer. DNMT inhibitors (e.g.5-Aza-CR/CdR) reactivate TSGs to exert anti-cancer activity and have been applied into the clinical. However, it is cytotoxic even at low concentrations, which might be not directly related to DNA methylation. We here investigated an alternative strategy in the lung cancer therapy and aimed to estimate and compare its efficiency and side effects of knockdown of DNMT1 in vitro and in vivo...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938633/mir-543-promotes-colorectal-cancer-proliferation-and-metastasis-by-targeting-klf4
#13
Fangbing Zhai, Chunhong Cao, Liang Zhang, Jianhua Zhang
Till now, miR-543 expression has been demonstrated to be involved in the development of some cancers. However, reports about its expression and mechanism in colorectal cancer (CRC) were conflicting [1, 2]. Here, we investigated clinical implications of miR-543 and mechanisms underlying miR-543-mediated CRC development. In this study, real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) validated miR-543 was highly expressed in CRC samples and cell lines. MiR-543 was closely associated with tumor size, TNM stage and metastasis...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938628/mir-144-promotes-%C3%AE-amyloid-accumulation-induced-cognitive-impairments-by-targeting-adam10-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Liqian Sun, Manman Zhao, Jingbo Zhang, Aihua Liu, Wenjun Ji, Youxiang Li, Xinjian Yang, Zhongxue Wu
The dysregulation expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) including miR-144, has been widely documented in TBI. However, little is known about the potential roles of miR-144 in the pathogenesis of TBI. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of miR-144 on cognitive function in vivo and in vitro. The results indicated that inhibition of miR-144 conferred a better neurological outcome after TBI in vivo, as evidenced by reduced lesion volume, alleviated brain edema and increased mNSS, of particular importance, improved cognitive deficits...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938627/prostate-tumor-overexpressed-1-ptov1-promotes-docetaxel-resistance-and-survival-of-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-cells
#15
Verónica Cánovas, Yolanda Puñal, Valentina Maggio, Enric Redondo, Mercedes Marín, Begoña Mellado, Mireia Olivan, Matilde Lleonart, Jacques Planas, Juan Morote, Rosanna Paciucci
Metastatic prostate cancer is presently incurable. The oncogenic protein PTOV1, first described in prostate cancer, was reported as overexpressed and significantly correlated with poor survival in numerous tumors. Here, we investigated the role of PTOV1 in prostate cancer survival to docetaxel and self-renewal ability. Transduction of PTOV1 in docetaxel-sensitive Du145 and PC3 cells significantly increased cell survival after docetaxel exposure and induced docetaxel-resistance genes expression (ABCB1, CCNG2 and TUBB2B)...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938626/infiltrating-mast-cells-enhance-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-through-il-6-stat3-cyclin-d1-signals
#16
Zhenyu Ou, Yao He, Lin Qi, Xiongbin Zu, Longxiang Wu, Zhenzhen Cao, Yuan Li, Longfei Liu, Daud Athanasius Dube, Zhi Wang, Long Wang
Early evidences have showed that mast cells could infiltrate into benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) tissues, but the exact role of mast cells in BPH development remains unclear. In this study, we identified more mast cells existing in human BPH tissues compared with that in the normal prostate. In the in vitro co-culture system, BPH-1 prostate cells promoted activation and migration of mast cells, and mast cells conversely stimulated BPH-1 cells proliferation significantly. Molecular analysis demonstrated that mast cell-derived interleukin 6 (IL-6) could activate STAT3/Cyclin D1 signals in BPH-1 cells...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938620/pathological-expression-of-tissue-factor-confers-promising-antitumor-response-to-a-novel-therapeutic-antibody-sc1-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-and-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma
#17
Xuesai Zhang, Qingrou Li, Hui Zhao, Lanping Ma, Tao Meng, Jianchang Qian, Rui Jin, Jingkang Shen, Ker Yu
The pathological presence of tissue factor (TF) in cancer cells promotes tumor-initiated thrombosis and cancer metastasis. We found that TF is aberrantly present in large percentage of aggressive triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PaC), two most lethal forms of malignancy that urgently need effective treatment. TF expression in TNBC clustered with higher levels of vimentin, basal-type keratins KRT5/14 and caveolin-1 but lower levels of luminal-type biomarkers. We developed a novel and specific anti-TF therapeutic antibody SC1, which displayed an exceedingly high potency against TF extracellular domain (EC50: 0...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938612/magnetic-resonance-imaging-tracking-and-assessing-repair-function-of-the-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-transplantation-in-a-rat-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Hongwu Zhang, Liqin Wang, Shihong Wen, Qingfeng Xiang, Xianhong Xiang, Caixia Xu, Yong Wan, Jingnan Wang, Bin Li, Yiqian Wan, Zhiyun Yang, David Y B Deng
The transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to repair spinal cord injury (SCI) has become a promising therapy. However, there is still a lack of visual evidence directly implicating the transplanted cells as the source of the improvement of spinal cord function. In this study, BMSCs were labeled with NF-200 promoter and lipase-activated gadolinium-containing nanoparticles (Gd-DTPA-FA). Double labeled BMSCs were implanted into spinal cord transaction injury in rat models in situ, the function recovery was evaluated on 1st, 7th, 14th, 28 th days by MRI, Diffusion Tensor Imaing, CT imaging and post-processing, and histological observations...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938597/3-decylcatechol-induces-autophagy-mediated-cell-death-through-the-ire1%C3%AE-jnk-p62-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#19
Da-Hye Go, Yu Geon Lee, Da-Hye Lee, Jin-A Kim, In-Hwa Jo, Yeon Soo Han, Yong Hun Jo, Kwang-Youn Kim, Young-Kyo Seo, Jae-Hak Moon, Chang Hwa Jung, Tae-Il Jeon
The natural, phenolic lipid urushiol exhibits both antioxidant and anticancer activities; however, its biological activity on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been previously investigated. Here, we demonstrate that an urushiol derivative, 3-decylcatechol (DC), induces human HCC Huh7 cell death by induction of autophagy. DC initiates the autophagic process by activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway via Unc-51-like autophagy activating kinase 1, leading to autophagosome formation...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938596/vitamin-d3-induces-vitamin-d-receptor-and-hdac11-binding-to-relieve-the-promoter-of-the-tight-junction-proteins
#20
Feng-Hua Liu, Shan-Shan Li, Xiao-Xi Li, Shuai Wang, Mao-Gang Li, Li Guan, Tian-Gang Luan, Zhi-Gang Liu, Zhan-Ju Liu, Ping-Chang Yang
Intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction and vitamin D (VitD)-deficiency play a critical role in a large number of diseases. The histone deacetylases (HDAC) are associated with a large number of immune diseases. This study tests a hypothesis that the interaction between VitD and HDAC is associated with the regulation of epithelial barrier functions. In this study, human intestinal epithelial cell line, T84 cells, was cultured into monolayers to be used as a model to test the epithelial barrier functions. We observed that in a VitD-deficient environment, the T84 monolayer barrier function was compromised...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
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