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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211339/phytoextraction-of-contaminated-urban-soils-by-panicum-virgatum-l-enhanced-with-application-of-a-plant-growth-regulator-bap-and-citric-acid
#1
Matthew Aderholt, Dale L Vogelien, Marina Koether, Sigurdur Greipsson
Lead (Pb) contamination in soil represents a threat to human health. Phytoextraction has gained attention as a potential alternative to traditional remediation methods because of lower cost and minimal soil disruption. The North American native switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) was targeted due to its ability to produce high biomass and grow across a variety of ecozones. In this study switchgrass was chemically enhanced with applications of the soil-fungicide benomyl, chelates (EDTA and citric acid), and PGR to optimize phytoextraction of Pb and zinc (Zn) from contaminated urban soils in Atlanta, GA...
February 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210953/combined-toxicity-of-imidacloprid-and-three-insecticides-to-the-earthworm-eisenia-fetida-annelida-oligochaeta
#2
Tao Cang, Dejiang Dai, Guiling Yang, Yijun Yu, Lu Lv, Leiming Cai, Qiang Wang, Yanhua Wang
Although the earthworm Eisenia fetida has been used in many ecotoxicological studies in recent years, most of these studies have only focused on assessing the effects of individual insecticides. In the present study, we aimed to compare the individual and combined toxic effects of imidacloprid and three insecticides (phoxim, chlorpyrifos, and lambda-cyhalothrin) on E. fetida. We showed that imidacloprid had the highest intrinsic toxicity to the worms in filter paper contact test, followed by phoxim and lambda-cyhalothrin, while the least toxicity was found from chlorpyrifos...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210952/two-dechlorinated-chlordecone-derivatives-formed-by-in-situ-chemical-reduction-are-devoid-of-genotoxicity-and-mutagenicity-and-have-lower-proangiogenic-properties-compared-to-the-parent-compound
#3
Samuel Legeay, Pierre-André Billat, Nicolas Clere, Fabrice Nesslany, Sébastien Bristeau, Sébastien Faure, Christophe Mouvet
Chlordecone (CLD) is a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide, now classified as a persistent organic pollutant. Several studies have previously reported that chronic exposure to CLD leads to hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, raises early child development and pregnancy complications, and increases the risk of liver and prostate cancer. In situ chemical reduction (ISCR) has been identified as a possible way for the remediation of soils contaminated by CLD. In the present study, the objectives were (i) to evaluate the genotoxicity and the mutagenicity of two CLD metabolites formed by ISCR, CLD-5a-hydro, or CLD-5-hydro (5a- or 5- according to CAS nomenclature; CLD-1Cl) and tri-hydroCLD (CLD-3Cl), and (ii) to explore the angiogenic properties of these molecules...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210719/clogging-transition-induced-by-self-filtration-in-a-slit-pore
#4
B Dersoir, A B Schofield, H Tabuteau
Particles that flow through porous environments like soils, inside a filter or within our arteries, often lead to pore clogging. Even though tremendous efforts have been made in analysing this to circumvent this issue, the clog formation and its dynamics remain poorly understood. Coupling two experimental techniques, we elucidate the clogging mechanism at the particle scale of a slit pore with its height slightly larger than the particle diameter. We identify all the particle deposition modes during the clog formation and accurately predict the corresponding deposition rate...
February 17, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209759/revisiting-seed-and-soil-examining-the-primary-tumor-and-cancer-cell-foraging-in-metastasis
#5
Amber E de Groot, Sounak Roy, Joel S Brown, Kenneth J Pienta, Sarah R Amend
Metastasis is the consequence of a cancer cell that disperses from the primary tumor, travels throughout the body, and invades and colonizes a distant site.  Based on Paget's 1889 hypothesis, the majority of modern metastasis research focuses on the properties of the metastatic "seed and soil," but the implications of the primary tumor "soil" have been largely neglected. The rare lethal metastatic "seed" arises as a result of the selective pressures in the primary tumor. Optimal foraging theory describes how cancer cells adopt a mobile foraging strategy to balance predation risk and resource reward...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208092/microscopic-evidence-for-humic-acid-induced-changes-in-lead-immobilization-by-phosphate-in-a-counterdiffusion-system
#6
Mei Wang, Zhuo Zhang, Jie Ren, Chao Zhang, Chunping Li, Guanlin Guo, Fasheng Li
Abatement of lead (Pb) contamination in soil via chemical immobilization can reduce potential risks but is influenced by soil organic matter. The aim of this study was to observe and understand the influence of organic matter on Pb immobilization by phosphate. For this purpose, humic acid (HA) was introduced into a counterdiffusion system to mimic ionic reactions of the mineralization processes between the pollutant (Pb) and amendment agent (phosphate) in soil system, and were characterized jointly by in situ optical microscopy and ex situ XRD, SEM, TEM, and LSCM...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207766/climate-change-across-seasons-experiment-ccase-a-new-method-for-simulating-future-climate-in-seasonally-snow-covered-ecosystems
#7
Pamela H Templer, Andrew B Reinmann, Rebecca Sanders-DeMott, Patrick O Sorensen, Stephanie M Juice, Francis Bowles, Laura E Sofen, Jamie L Harrison, Ian Halm, Lindsey Rustad, Mary E Martin, Nicholas Grant
Climate models project an increase in mean annual air temperatures and a reduction in the depth and duration of winter snowpack for many mid and high latitude and high elevation seasonally snow-covered ecosystems over the next century. The combined effects of these changes in climate will lead to warmer soils in the growing season and increased frequency of soil freeze-thaw cycles (FTCs) in winter due to the loss of a continuous, insulating snowpack. Previous experiments have warmed soils or removed snow via shoveling or with shelters to mimic projected declines in the winter snowpack...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205242/one-way-or-another-iron-uptake-in-plants
#8
Huei-Hsuan Tsai, Wolfgang Schmidt
Iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P), the latter taken up by plants as phosphate (Pi), are two essential nutrients that determine species distribution and often limit crop yield as a result of their low availability in most soils. Pi-deficient plants improve the interception of Pi by increasing the density of root hairs, thereby expanding the volume of soil to be explored. The increase in root hair frequency results mainly from attenuated primary root growth, a process that was shown to be dependent on the availability of external Fe...
February 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199938/assessment-of-multiple-exposure-to-chemical-elements-and-health-risks-among-residents-near-huodehong-lead-zinc-mining-area-in-yunnan-southwest-china
#9
Yirun Wang, Ruming Wang, Liyun Fan, Tiantian Chen, Yahong Bai, Qianru Yu, Ying Liu
The contents of chemical elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) in 11 kinds of crop/vegetables and soils around the Huodehong lead-zinc mining area in Yunnan, Southwest China were determined by using inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results showed that element contents in soils decreased in the order of Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Cd. The high geo-accumulation indexes (Igeo) showed that cultivated soils near mine were practically polluted by Cd, Pb and Zn. The contents of Cd, Cr and Pb in crop/vegetables samples were significantly higher than the maximum permissible standard set by China...
January 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199147/microbiological-safety-of-animal-wastes-processed-by-physical-heat-treatment-an-alternative-to-eliminate-human-pathogens-in-biological-soil-amendments-as-recommended-by-the-food-safety-modernization-act
#10
Zhao Chen, Xiuping Jiang
Animal wastes have high nutritional value as biological soil amendments of animal origin for plant cultivation in sustainable agriculture; however, they can be sources of some human pathogens. Although composting is an effective way to reduce pathogen levels in animal wastes, pathogens may still survive under certain conditions and persist in the composted products, which potentially could lead to fresh produce contamination. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act, alternative treatments are recommended for reducing or eliminating human pathogens in raw animal manure...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193592/heavy-metal-immobilization-and-microbial-community-abundance-by-vegetable-waste-and-pine-cone-biochar-of-agricultural-soils
#11
Avanthi Deshani Igalavithana, Sung-Eun Lee, Young Han Lee, Daniel C W Tsang, Jörg Rinklebe, Eilhann E Kwon, Yong Sik Ok
In order to determine the efficacy of vegetable waste and pine cone biochar for immobilization of metal/metalloid (lead and arsenic) and abundance of microbial community in different agricultural soils, we applied the biochar produced at two different temperatures to two contaminated soils. Biochar was produced by vegetable waste, pine cone, and their mixture (1:1 ww(-1)) at 200 °C (torrefied biomass) and 500 °C (biochar). Contaminated soils were incubated with 5% (ww(-1)) torrefied biomass or biochar. Sequential extraction, thermodynamic modeling, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to evaluate the metal immobilization...
February 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192628/evaluation-of-climate-related-carbon-turnover-processes-in-global-vegetation-models-for-boreal-and-temperate-forests
#12
Martin Thurner, Christian Beer, Philippe Ciais, Andrew D Friend, Akihiko Ito, Axel Kleidon, Mark R Lomas, Shaun Quegan, Tim T Rademacher, Sibyll Schaphoff, Markus Tum, Andy Wiltshire, Nuno Carvalhais
Turnover concepts in state-of-the-art global vegetation models (GVMs) account for various processes, but are often highly simplified and may not include an adequate representation of the dominant processes that shape vegetation carbon turnover rates in real forest ecosystems at a large spatial scale. Here we evaluate vegetation carbon turnover processes in GVMs participating in the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP; including HYBRID4, JeDi, JULES, LPJml, ORCHIDEE, SDGVM, and VISIT) using estimates of vegetation carbon turnover rate (k) derived from a combination of remote sensing based products of biomass and net primary production (NPP)...
February 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192471/the-abundance-and-diversity-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-are-linked-to-the-soil-chemistry-of-screes-and-to-slope-in-the-alpic-paleo-endemic-berardia-subacaulis
#13
Gabriele Casazza, Erica Lumini, Enrico Ercole, Francesco Dovana, Maria Guerrina, Annamaria Arnulfo, Luigi Minuto, Anna Fusconi, Marco Mucciarelli
Berardia subacaulis Vill. is a monospecific genus that is endemic to the South-western Alps, where it grows on alpine screes, which are extreme habitats characterized by soil disturbance and limiting growth conditions. Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is presumably of great importance in these environments, because of its positive effect on plant nutrition and stress tolerance, as well as on structuring the soil. However, there is currently a lack of information on this topic. In this paper, we tested which soil characteristics and biotic factors could contribute to determining the abundance and community composition of AMF in the roots of B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192223/emergence-of-multi-drug-resistance-among-soil-bacteria-exposing-to-insecticides
#14
Kirubakaran Rangasamy, Murugan Athiappan, Natarajan Devarajan, Javid A Parray
Impacts of pesticide exposure on the soil microbial flora and cross resistance to antibiotics have not been well documented. Development of antibiotic resistance is a common issue among soil bacteria which are exposing to pesticides continuously at sub-lethal concentration. The present study was focused to evaluate the correlation between pesticide exposures and evolution of multi drug resistance among isolates collected from soil applied with insecticides. Twenty five insecticide (Monochrotophos) degrading bacteria were isolated from contaminated agricultural soil...
February 9, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191616/removal-of-pb-zn-and-cd-from-contaminated-soil-by-new-washing-agent-from-plant-material
#15
Yaru Cao, Shirong Zhang, Guiyin Wang, Qinling Huang, Ting Li, Xiaoxun Xu
Soil washing is an effective approach to remove soil heavy metals, and the washing agent is generally regarded as one of the primary factors in the process, but there is still a lack of efficient and eco-friendly agents for this technique. Here, we showed that four plant washing agents-from water extracts of Coriaria nepalensis (CN), Clematis brevicaudata (CB), Pistacia weinmannifolia (PW), and Ricinus communis (RC)-could be feasible agents for the removal of soil lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd). The metal removal efficiencies of the agents increased with their concentrations from 20 to 80 g L(-1), decreased with the increasing solution pH, and presented different trends with the reaction time increasing...
February 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190571/comparing-different-commercial-zero-valent-iron-nanoparticles-to-immobilize-as-and-hg-in-brownfield-soil
#16
M Gil-Díaz, J Alonso, E Rodríguez-Valdés, J R Gallego, M C Lobo
Nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) particles obtained by different methods differ in their structure, which lead to different reactivity, and therefore a likely difference in the remediation efficiency. The present study compares the effectiveness of three commercial ZVI nanoparticles to immobilize As and Hg in two soils (A and B) collected from a brownfield highly contaminated by mining and metallurgy activities. Scarce data are available on the effectiveness of nZVI for Hg immobilization in soil. Two commercial nZVI slurries from Toda (RNIP and RNIP-D) and one from Nano Iron (25S) were used at different doses (1, 5 and 10%)...
February 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187936/probabilistic-modeling-of-aggregate-lead-exposure-in-children-of-urban-china-using-an-adapted-ieubk-model
#17
Buqing Zhong, Elisa Giubilato, Andrea Critto, Lingqing Wang, Antonio Marcomini, Jinliang Zhang
Lead, a ubiquitous pollutant throughout the environment, is confirmed to be neurotoxic for children by pulmonary and oral routes. As preschool children in China continue to be exposed to lead, we analyzed the available biomonitoring data for preschool children in urban China collected in the period 2004-2014 through a literature review. To identify apportionment of lead exposure sources for urban children in China, we modified the IEUBK model with a Monte Carlo module to assess the uncertainty and variability of the model output based on limited available exposure data and compared the simulated blood lead levels with the observed ones obtained through literature review...
February 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187710/ionomic-and-metabolic-responses-to-neutral-salt-or-alkaline-salt-stresses-in-maize-zea-mays-l-seedlings
#18
Rui Guo, LianXuan Shi, Changrong Yan, Xiuli Zhong, FengXue Gu, Qi Liu, Xu Xia, Haoru Li
BACKGROUND: Soil salinity and alkalinity present a serious threat to global agriculture. However, most of the studies have focused on neutral salt stress, and the information on the metabolic responses of plants to alkaline salt stress is limited. This investigation aimed at determining the influence of neutral salt and alkaline salt stresses on the content of metal elements and metabolites in maize plant tissues, by using mixtures of various proportions of NaCl, NaHCO3, Na2SO4, and Na2CO3...
February 10, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185733/evaluating-the-potential-health-risk-of-toxic-trace-elements-in-vegetables-accounting-for-variations-in-soil-factors
#19
Yang Yang, Weiping Chen, Meie Wang, Yanling Li, Chi Peng
Vegetable crop consumption is one of the main sources of dietary exposure to toxic trace elements (TEs). A paired survey of soil and vegetable samples was conducted in 589 agricultural sites in the Youxian prefecture, southern China, to investigate the effect of soil factors on the accumulation of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead in different vegetables. A site-specific model was developed to estimate the health risk from vegetable consumption. The TE concentration varied in different plant species, and rape can be cultivated in contaminated areas for its potential use in restricting the transfer of TE from soil to edible plant parts...
February 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185221/waste-dumpsites-and-public-health-a-case-for-lead-exposure-in-zimbabwe-and-potential-global-implications
#20
Tsanangurayi Tongesayi, Jameson Kugara, Sunungurai Tongesayi
Most waste sites in Zimbabwe are not sanitary landfills but open dumps that indiscriminately receive waste from municipalities, industries, commercial establishments, and social services establishments. People, including children, who eke out a living through scavenging the dumps expose themselves to environmental pollutants at the dumps via inadvertent ingestion and inhalation of contaminated dust, and dermal absorption. The public is potentially being exposed to a slew of the pollutants via air, water, and food, all contaminated by uncontrolled leachates and aerially deposited dust and particulates from the sites...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
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