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Soil lead

Yichao Rui, Daniel V Murphy, Xiaoli Wang, Frances C Hoyle
Rebuilding 'lost' soil carbon (C) is a priority in mitigating climate change and underpinning key soil functions that support ecosystem services. Microorganisms determine if fresh C input is converted into stable soil organic matter (SOM) or lost as CO2. Here we quantified if microbial biomass and respiration responded positively to addition of light fraction organic matter (LFOM, representing recent inputs of plant residue) in an infertile semi-arid agricultural soil. Field trial soil with different historical plant residue inputs [soil C content: control (tilled) = 9...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Miko U F Kirschbaum, Louis A Schipper, Paul L Mudge, Susanna Rutledge, Nicolas J B Puche, David I Campbell
A possible agricultural climate change mitigation option is to increase the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC). Conversely, some factors might lead to inadvertent losses of SOC. Here, we explore the effect of various management options and environmental changes on SOC storage and milk production of dairy pastures in New Zealand. We used CenW 4.1, a process-based ecophysiological model, to run a range of scenarios to assess the effects of changes in management options, plant properties and environmental factors on SOC and milk production...
October 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
John F Obrycki, Kirk G Scheckel, Nicholas T Basta
Lead (Pb) contaminated soils are a potential exposure hazard to the public. Amending soils with phosphorus (P) may reduce Pb soil hazards. Soil from Cleveland, OH containing 726 ± 14 mg Pb kg(-1) was amended in a laboratory study with bone meal and triple super phosphate (TSP) at 5:1 P:Pb molar ratios. Soil was acidified, neturalized and re-acidified to encourage Pb phosphate formation. PRSTM-probes were used to evaluate changes in soil solution chemistry. Soil acidification did not decrease in vitro bioaccessible (IVBA) Pb using either a pH 1...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Jiangbo Qiao, Huimin Sun, Xiuhua Luo, Wang Zhang, Shiny Mathews, Xianqiang Yin
Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination of soil and its harmful effects on human and environmental health have been one concern. In this study, batch and column leaching experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of two EDTA-assisted leaching methods, continuous and intermittent (dry-wet alternate), on the removal of Pb and Cd from contaminated soil. Total content and fractions of Pb and Cd at every 1 cm soil column depth were analyzed before and after the leaching. The results indicated that continuous leaching removed 75...
October 14, 2016: Chemosphere
Preetisri Baskaran, Riitta Hyvönen, S Linnea Berglund, Karina E Clemmensen, Göran I Ågren, Björn D Lindahl, Stefano Manzoni
Tree growth in boreal forests is limited by nitrogen (N) availability. Most boreal forest trees form symbiotic associations with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, which improve the uptake of inorganic N and also have the capacity to decompose soil organic matter (SOM) and to mobilize organic N ('ECM decomposition'). To study the effects of 'ECM decomposition' on ecosystem carbon (C) and N balances, we performed a sensitivity analysis on a model of C and N flows between plants, SOM, saprotrophs, ECM fungi, and inorganic N stores...
October 17, 2016: New Phytologist
Barbara Nussbaumer-Streit, Berlinda Yeoh, Ursula Griebler, Lisa M Pfadenhauer, Laura K Busert, Stefan K Lhachimi, Szimonetta Lohner, Gerald Gartlehner
BACKGROUND: Lead poisoning is associated with physical, cognitive and neurobehavioural impairment in children, and trials have tested many household interventions to prevent lead exposure. This is an update of the original review, first published in 2008. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of household interventions for preventing or reducing lead exposure in children, as measured by improvements in cognitive and neurobehavioural development, reductions in blood lead levels and reductions in household dust lead levels...
October 16, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jian Huang
Helicoverpa armigera causes serious damage to most crops around the world. However, the impacts of snow thickness on the H. armigera overwintering pupae are little known. A field experiment was employed in 2012-2015 at Urumqi, China. At soil depths of 5, 10, and 15 cm, overwintering pupae were embedded with four treatments: no snow cover (NSC), snow cover (SC), increasing snow thickness to 1.5 times the thickness of SC (ISSC-1), and to two times the thickness of SC (ISSC-2). Results suggested that snow cover and increasing snow thickness both significantly increased soil temperatures, which helped to decrease the mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP) of H...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
Xihui Xu, Zhou Zhang, Shunli Hu, Zhepu Ruan, Jiandong Jiang, Chen Chen, Zhenguo Shen
Soil provides a critical environment for microbial community development. However, microorganisms may be sensitive to substances such as heavy metals (HMs), which are common soil contaminants. This study investigated bacterial communities using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene fragment sequencing in geographic regions with and without HM pollution to elucidate the effects of soil properties and HMs on bacterial communities. No obvious changes in the richness or diversity of bacterial communities were observed between samples from mining and control areas...
October 15, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
A Rodríguez-Seijo, A Cachada, A Gavina, A C Duarte, F A Vega, M L Andrade, R Pereira
Soil pollution at firing ranges is an issue of growing importance, due to the accumulation in soils of contaminants derived from ammunition and clay targets. The concentration of Pb and PAHs was determined in five soils of an abandoned shooting range in Galicia (northwest Spain), and an ecotoxicological characterization was performed in order to obtain an assessment of risks. Therefore, the retention capacity of soils was assessed using test organisms of different trophic levels, and the role of soils as habitat for soil invertebrates was assessed by reproduction tests and bioaccumulation assays with earthworms...
October 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Nadeesha H Koralegedara, Souhail R Al-Abed, Sanjeewa K Rodrigo, Ranju R Karna, Kirk G Scheckel, Dionysios D Dionysiou
This is the first study to evaluate the potential application of FGDG as an in situ Pb stabilizer in contaminated soils with two different compositions and to explain the underlying mechanisms. A smelter Pb contaminated soil (SM-soil), rich in ferrihydrite bound Pb (FH-Pb), cerussite and litharge with a total Pb content of 65,123mg/kg and an organic matter rich orchard soil (BO-soil), rich in FH-Pb and humic acid bound Pb with a total Pb content of 1532mg/kg were amended with 5% FGDG (w/w). We subjected the two soils to three leaching tests; toxicity characteristic leaching protocol (TCLP), synthetic precipitation leaching protocol (SPLP), kinetic batch leaching test (KBLT) and in-vitro bioaccessibility assay (IVBA) in order to evaluate the FGDG amendment on Pb stabilization...
October 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
R Jiménez-Ballesta, F J García-Navarro, S Bravo, J A Amorós, C Pérez-de-Los-Reyes, M Mejías
Contamination of aquatic systems with potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) is a major problem throughout the world. The National Park Tablas de Daimiel (NPTD) is considered to make up one of the two most important wetlands in the Biosphere Reserve called "Wet Spot." Since PTEs are good indicator of the prevailing environmental conditions and possible contamination, soil samples collected from 43 sites were analyzed in order to investigate the levels and its distribution of these elements, in the inundated floodplain area of the NPTD wetland...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Yun-Feng Duan, Xian-Wang Kong, Andreas Schramm, Rodrigo Labouriau, Jørgen Eriksen, Søren O Petersen
: Grassland cultivation can mobilize large pools of N in the soil, with a potential for N leaching and N2O emissions. Spraying with the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) before cultivation was simulated with soil columns where residue distribution corresponded to ploughing or rotovation, to study effects of soil-residue contact on N transformations. DMPP was sprayed on above-ground parts of ryegrass and white clover before incorporation. During a 42-day incubation, soil mineral N dynamics, potential ammonia oxidation (PAO) and denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA), nitrifier and denitrifier populations, and N2O emissions were investigated...
October 14, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Keisuke Inomura, Jason Bragg, Michael J Follows
Nitrogen fixation is advantageous in microbial competition when bioavailable nitrogen is scarce, but has substantial costs for growth rate and growth efficiency. To quantify these costs, we have developed a model of a nitrogen-fixing bacterium that constrains mass, electron and energy flow at the scale of the individual. When tested and calibrated with laboratory data for the soil bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii, the model reveals that the direct energetic cost of nitrogen fixation is small relative to the cost of managing intracellular oxygen...
October 14, 2016: ISME Journal
Dorine Bouquet, Armelle Braud, Thierry Lebeau
Urban garden soils are a potential repository of heavy metal pollution, resulting from either anthropogenic or geogenic origin. The efficiency of phytoextraction was compared on two garden soils with the same texture and topsoil Pb concentration (170 mg kg(-1)) but not the same origin: one geogenic, the other anthropogenic. Two varieties of Brassica juncea were tested with citric acid (25 mmol kg(-1)) or Ethylene Diamine Tetraacetic Acid (EDTA, 2.5 mmol kg(-1)). Geogenic Pb was shown to be two times less available than anthropogenic Pb, with as a result the phytoextraction efficiency being reduced by 59%...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Jennifer Herrmann, Tadeja Lukežič, Angela Kling, Sascha Baumann, Stephan Hüttel, Hrvoje Petković, Rolf Müller
Natural products continue to be a predominant source for new anti-infective agents. Research at the Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS) and the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI) is dedicated to the development of new lead structures against infectious diseases and, in particular, new antibiotics against hard-to-treat and multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens. In this chapter, we introduce some of the concepts currently being employed in the field of antibiotic discovery...
October 15, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Zachary B Freedman, Rima A Upchurch, Donald R Zak
Fossil fuel combustion and fertilizer use has increased the amount of biologically available N entering terrestrial ecosystems. Nonetheless, our understanding of how anthropogenic N may alter the physiological mechanisms by which soil microorganisms cycle N in soil is still developing. Here, we applied shotgun metagenomics to a replicated long-term field experiment to determine how two decades of experimental N deposition, at a rate expected by mid-century, has affected the genetic potential of the soil microbial community to cycle N in soils...
2016: PloS One
Ricardo J Stein, Stephan Höreth, J Romário F de Melo, Lara Syllwasschy, Gwonjin Lee, Mário L Garbin, Stephan Clemens, Ute Krämer
Leaf mineral composition, the leaf ionome, reflects the complex interaction between a plant and its environment including local soil composition, an influential factor that can limit species distribution and plant productivity. Here we addressed within-species variation in plant-soil interactions and edaphic adaptation using Arabidopsis halleri, a well-suited model species as a facultative metallophyte and metal hyperaccumulator. We conducted multi-element analysis of 1972 paired leaf and soil samples from 165 European populations of A...
October 13, 2016: New Phytologist
Elke Vandamme, Matthias Wissuwa, Terry Rose, Ibnou Dieng, Khady N Drame, Mamadou Fofana, Kalimuthu Senthilkumar, Ramaiah Venuprasad, Demba Jallow, Zacharie Segda, Lalith Suriyagoda, Dinarathna Sirisena, Yoichiro Kato, Kazuki Saito
More than 60% of phosphorus (P) taken up by rice (Oryza spp.) is accumulated in the grains at harvest and hence exported from fields, leading to a continuous removal of P. If P removed from fields is not replaced by P inputs then soil P stocks decline, with consequences for subsequent crops. Breeding rice genotypes with a low concentration of P in the grains could be a strategy to reduce maintenance fertilizer needs and slow soil P depletion in low input systems. This study aimed to assess variation in grain P concentrations among rice genotypes across diverse environments and evaluate the implications for field P balances at various grain yield levels...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Geraldine Hall, Karen C Carroll
Aerobic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria can be important pathogens in the immunocompromised host. These bacteria can be found in many environments, as part of the normal microbiota of the human host and animals, in soil and water, on plants, on fomites in the hospital, and on hospital equipment. This review provides information from relevant studies about what are the most common aerobic bacteria associated with patients who have cancer and/or are being treated for it, or who have other diseases which lead to immunodeficiencies, such as HIV, multiple myeloma, aplastic anemia, chronic diseases, and aging...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Françoise Vernier, Odile Leccia-Phelpin, Jean-Marie Lescot, Sébastien Minette, André Miralles, Delphine Barberis, Charlotte Scordia, Vanessa Kuentz-Simonet, Jean-Philippe Tonneau
Non-point source pollution is a cause of major concern within the European Union. This is reflected in increasing public and political focus on a more sustainable use of pesticides, as well as a reduction in diffuse pollution. Climate change will likely to lead to an even more intensive use of pesticides in the future, affecting agriculture in many ways. At the same time, the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and associated EU policies called for a "good" ecological and chemical status to be achieved for water bodies by the end of 2015, currently delayed to 2021-2027 due to a lack of efficiency in policies and timescale of resilience for hydrosystems, especially groundwater systems...
October 10, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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