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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535593/simulating-soil-organic-carbon-stock-as-affected-by-land-cover-change-and-climate-change-hyrcanian-forests-northern-iran
#1
Azam Soleimani, Seyed Mohsen Hosseini, Ali Reza Massah Bavani, Mostafa Jafari, Rosa Francaviglia
Soil organic carbon (SOC) contains a considerable portion of the world's terrestrial carbon stock, and is affected by changes in land cover and climate. SOC modeling is a useful approach to assess the impact of land use, land use change and climate change on carbon (C) sequestration. This study aimed to: (i) test the performance of RothC model using data measured from different land covers in Hyrcanian forests (northern Iran); and (ii) predict changes in SOC under different climate change scenarios that may occur in the future...
May 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534876/alpine-soil-carbon-is-vulnerable-to-rapid-microbial-decomposition-under-climate-cooling
#2
Linwei Wu, Yunfeng Yang, Shiping Wang, Haowei Yue, Qiaoyan Lin, Yigang Hu, Zhili He, Joy D Van Nostrand, Lauren Hale, Xiangzhen Li, Jack A Gilbert, Jizhong Zhou
As climate cooling is increasingly regarded as important natural variability of long-term global warming trends, there is a resurging interest in understanding its impact on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here, we report a soil transplant experiment from lower to higher elevations in a Tibetan alpine grassland to simulate the impact of cooling on ecosystem community structure and function. Three years of cooling resulted in reduced plant productivity and microbial functional potential (for example, carbon respiration and nutrient cycling)...
May 23, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534425/evaluation-of-berberine-as-a-natural-fungicide-biodegradation-and-antimicrobial-mechanism
#3
Ying Li, Yi-Ming Yin, Xin-Yue Wang, Hao Wu, Xi-Zhen Ge
Berberine (BBR) is a traditional Chinese medicine which recently was applied as a biological pesticide. Here, we studied the antimicrobial mode of BBR and its impact on soil bacterial diversity. BBR was more effective against fungi than bacteria due to the specific interaction between BBR and glucan. Also, BBR was degraded rapidly in soil, leading to the limited effect on soil bacterial diversity. Collectively, BBR is an environment-friendly pesticide and it is promising in dealing with fungal plant diseases...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533783/progress-on-azadirachta-indica-based-biopesticides-in-replacing-synthetic-toxic-pesticides
#4
REVIEW
Suman Chaudhary, Rupinder K Kanwar, Alka Sehgal, David M Cahill, Colin J Barrow, Rakesh Sehgal, Jagat R Kanwar
Over the years, extensive use of commercially available synthetic pesticides against phytophagous insects has led to their bioaccumulation in the environment causing increased resistance and reduction in soil biodiversity. Further, 90% of the applied pesticides enter the various environmental resources as a result of run-off, exposing the farmers as well as consumers of the agricultural produce to severe health issues. Therefore, growing attention has been given toward the development of alternate environmentally friendly pesticides/insecticides that would aid an efficient pest management system and also prevent chronic exposures leading to diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531965/does-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungus-affect-cadmium-uptake-and-chemical-forms-in-rice-at-different-growth-stages
#5
Na Luo, Xing Li, Ao Yu Chen, Li Jun Zhang, Hai Ming Zhao, Lei Xiang, Quan Ying Cai, Ce Hui Mo, Ming Hung Wong, Hui Li
Effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) - Rhizophagus intraradices (a mix of root pieces, mycelium pieces and spores) on the temporal variation of Cd uptake and chemical forms in rice at four growth periods (tillering, jointing, flowering, and ripening stages) were investigated in soil added with 0, 2 and 10mgCdkg(-1). Results showed that the interactions amongst rice growth stages, soil Cd concentrations and mycorrhizal inoculation had significant effects (P˂0.001) on root biomass, straw and root Cd concentrations, and straw Cd chemical forms in rice...
May 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531952/groundwater-quality-in-the-alluvial-aquifer-system-of-northwest-india-new-evidence-of-the-extent-of-anthropogenic-and-geogenic-contamination
#6
D J Lapworth, G Krishan, A M MacDonald, M S Rao
Groundwater depletion has been widely studied in northwest India, but water quality concerns are still poorly constrained. In this study, we explore the hydrochemistry of the top 160m of the aquifer system, through detailed field studies in the Bist-Doab region, considering both anthropogenic and geogenic controls. A detailed comparison is made between sites dominated by urban and agricultural landuse. Salinity, nitrate, chloride and lead concentrations are significantly higher in the shallow (0-50m) groundwater system due to surface anthropogenic contaminant loading from agricultural and urban sources...
May 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531792/an-evaluation-of-the-sustainability-of-onsite-wastewater-treatment-systems-for-nutrient-management
#7
Nancy Diaz-Elsayed, Xiaofan Xu, Maraida Balaguer-Barbosa, Qiong Zhang
The impairment of water bodies from nutrient pollution is a challenging environmental problem that could lead to high eutrophic conditions, fish kills, and human illness, while negatively impacting industries that rely on thriving water bodies. Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs) are a major source of nutrients, however no prior studies have conducted a holistic sustainability assessment of OWTSs that considers their ability to manage nutrients at the household-level in the United States. The aim of this study is therefore to evaluate the environmental and economic impacts of conventional and advanced OWTSs with respect to their ability to remove total nitrogen (TN)...
May 5, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523618/the-effect-of-sewage-sludge-on-heavy-metal-concentrations-in-wheat-plant-triticum-aestivum-l
#8
Fatemeh Shahbazi, Somayeh Ghasemi, Hamid Sodaiezadeh, Kobra Ayaseh, Rasool Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi
The use of sewage sludge in agricultural soils can improve soil physical and chemical properties and soil fertility by increasing organic materials; however, the presence of heavy metals in sewage sludge is a significant problem for the quality of agricultural products and the environment. Most heavy metals, due to their inactive nature, are stable and can affect human health. This study investigates the effect of sewage sludge on the concentration of copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, iron, and manganese in two varieties of wheat, i...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523005/impact-of-temperature-and-nutrients-on-carbon-nutrient-tissue-stoichiometry-of-submerged-aquatic-plants-an-experiment-and-meta-analysis
#9
Mandy Velthuis, Emma van Deelen, Ellen van Donk, Peiyu Zhang, Elisabeth S Bakker
Human activity is currently changing our environment rapidly, with predicted temperature increases of 1-5°C over the coming century and increased nitrogen and phosphorus inputs in aquatic ecosystems. In the shallow parts of these ecosystems, submerged aquatic plants enhance water clarity by resource competition with phytoplankton, provide habitat, and serve as a food source for other organisms. The carbon:nutrient stoichiometry of submerged aquatic plants can be affected by changes in both temperature and nutrient availability...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522456/stress-response-gene-expression-reflects-morpho-physiological-responses-to-water-deficit
#10
Wojciech Rymaszewski, Denis Vile, Alexis Bédiée, Myriam Dauzat, Nathalie Luchaire, Dominika Kamrowska, Christine Granier, Jacek Hennig
Acclimation to water deficit (WD) enables plants to maintain growth under unfavorable environmental conditions, although the mechanisms are not completely understood. In this study, the natural variation of long-term acclimation to moderate (MWD) and severe (SWD) soil water deficits was investigated in 18 Arabidopsis accessions using PHENOPSIS, an automated phenotyping platform. Soil water content was adjusted at an early stage of plant development and maintained at a constant level until reproductive age was achieved...
May 18, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521166/factors-controlling-cadmium-and-lead-activities-in-different-parent-material-derived-soils-from-the-pearl-river-basin
#11
Shuran He, Qin Lu, Wenyan Li, Zongling Ren, Zhen Zhou, Xiao Feng, Yulong Zhang, Yongtao Li
Labile metals in agricultural soils are available to crops and thus pose a great health risk for human beings. Therefore, factors influencing heavy metal activity are of interest to researchers. In this study, a total of 142 soil samples representing 5 typical parent materials in the Pearl River Basin (PRB), China were collected to investigate factors impacting the distribution of labile Cd and Pb in the soils. The results showed that the labile fractions accounted for 0.03%-14.7% for Cd and 0.01%-0.39% for Pb of the total metals, and the labile fractions were linearly correlated to their corresponding total contents...
May 2, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521165/alteration-of-trace-element-concentrations-in-plants-by-adhering-particles-methods-of-correction
#12
Solveig Pospiech, Wiebke Fahlbusch, Benedikt Sauer, Tino Pasold, Hans Ruppert
Trace element concentrations in plants may be influenced by airborne dust or adhering soil particles. Neglecting adhering particles in plant tissue leads to misinterpretation of trace element concentrations in research fields such as phytomining, phytoremediation, bio-monitoring, uptake of micronutrients and provenance studies. In case washing or brushing the samples prior to analysis is insufficient or impossible due to fragile or pre-processed samples mathematical correction should be applied. In this study three methods are presented allowing to subtract the influence of adhering particles in order to obtain the element concentrations in plants resulting only from uptake...
May 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512464/insights-into-the-mechanism-of-proliferation-on-the-special-microbes-mediated-by-phenolic-acids-in-the-radix-pseudostellariae-rhizosphere-under-continuous-monoculture-regimes
#13
Hongmiao Wu, Junjian Xu, Juanying Wang, Xianjin Qin, Linkun Wu, Zhicheng Li, Sheng Lin, Weiwei Lin, Quan Zhu, Muhammad U Khan, Wenxiong Lin
As potent allelochemicals, phenolic acids are believed to be associated with replanting disease and cause microflora shift and structural disorder in the rhizosphere soil of continuously monocultured Radix pseudostellariae. The transcriptome sequencing was used to reveal the mechanisms underlying the differential response of pathogenic bacterium Kosakonia sacchari and beneficial bacterium Bacillus pumilus on their interactions with phenolic acids, the main allelochemicals in root exudates of R. pseudostellariae in the monoculture system...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509939/bioremoval-of-lead-using-pennisetum-purpureum-augmented-with-enterobacter-cloacae-vitpasj1-a-pot-culture-approach
#14
Anamika Das, Priyanka Belgaonkar, Aditya S Raman, Sofia Banu, Jabez W Osborne
Lead is a toxic heavy metal discharged into the ecosystem from various industries. Biological remediation strategies have been effective in the bioremoval of lead. In our current study, a phytobacterial system using Pennisetum purpureum along with lead-resistant bacterium (LRB) was employed for the uptake of lead. The LRB was obtained from lead-contaminated sites. The isolate VITPASJ1 was found to be highly tolerant to lead and was identified as an effective plant growth-promoting bacterium. The 16S rRNA sequencing revealed VITPASJ1 to be the closest neighbour of Enterobacter cloacae...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509844/influence-of-nano-hydroxyapatite-on-the-metal-bioavailability-plant-metal-accumulation-and-root-exudates-of-ryegrass-for-phytoremediation-in-lead-polluted-soil
#15
Ling Ding, Jianbing Li, Wei Liu, Qingqing Zuo, Shu-Xuan Liang
Lead is recognized as one of the most widespread toxic metal contaminants and pervasive environmental health concerns in the environment. In this paper, the effects of nano-hydroxyapatite (NHAP) on remediation in artificially Pb-contaminated soils and ryegrass were studied in a pot experiment. The addition of NHAP decreased the water- and acid-soluble, exchangeable, and reducible fractions of Pb, extracted using the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) method, whilst greatly increasing the residual fraction of Pb...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508825/abcs-of-rhogtpases-indicating-potential-role-as-oncotargets
#16
REVIEW
Indira Bora, Neeta Shrivastava
RhoGTPases also known as molecular switches represent a family of GTP-binding proteins. They shuttle between "On" and "Off" states. In the "On" state, they activate plethora of molecules. These proteins perform a wide variety of functions involving cytoskeletal modeling, cell motility, migration, and mitosis. Members of this family are referred as master regulators of many cellular activities. Due to wide variety of portfolios attributed to RhoGTPases, their misbehavior leads to initiation and also progression of metastatic cancers...
January 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506057/liquid-spray-dielectric-barrier-discharge-induced-plasma-chemical-vapor-generation-for-the-determination-of-lead-by-icp-ms
#17
Xing Liu, Zhenli Zhu, Huilai Li, Dong He, Yatai Li, Hongtao Zheng, Yiqun Gan, Yanxiang Li, Nicholas Stanley Belshaw, Shenghong Hu
In the present study, a novel and sensitive liquid spray dielectric barrier discharge induced plasma-chemical vapor generation technique (LSDBD-CVG) is developed for the determination of lead concentration by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The dissolved Pb(2+) is readily converted to volatile species by LSDBD plasma induced chemical processes in the presence of 5% (v/v) formic acid in a supporting electrolyte (HCl, 0.01 mol L(-1)). In this LSDBD approach, the sample solution is converted to aerosol and simultaneously mixed with the DBD plasma generated at the nozzle of a pneumatic nebulizer, which greatly facilitates Pb vapor generation because of the enhanced interaction of sprayed analytes and the plasma...
May 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503186/the-pepper-ring-finger-e3-ligase-cadir1-regulates-the-drought-stress-response-via-aba-mediated-signaling
#18
Hyunhee Joo, Chae Woo Lim, Sang-Wook Han, Sung Chul Lee
Drought stress from soil or air limits plant growth and development, leading to a reduction in crop productivity. Several E3 ligases positively or negatively regulate the drought stress response. In the present study, we show that the pepper (Capsicum annuum) Drought Induced RING type E3 ligase 1, CaDIR1, regulates the drought stress response via abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated signaling. CaDIR1 contains a C3HC4-type RING finger domain in the N-terminal region; this domain functions during protein degradation via attachment of ubiquitins to the substrate target proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502048/the-effects-of-cadmium-pulse-dosing-on-physiological-traits-and-growth-of-the-submerged-macrophyte-vallisneria-spinulosa-and-phytoplankton-biomass-a-mesocosm-study
#19
Hui Liu, Yu Cao, Wei Li, Zhao Zhang, Erik Jeppesen, Wei Wang
Pulse inputs of heavy metals are expected to increase with a higher frequency of extreme climate events (heavy rain), leading to stronger erosion of contaminated and fertilized farmland soils to freshwaters, with potentially adverse effects on lake ecosystems. We conducted a 5-month mesocosm study to elucidate the responses of the submerged macrophyte Vallisneria spinulosa and phytoplankton to four different doses of cadmium (Cd): 0 (control), 0.05, 0.5, and 5 g m(-2) (CK, I, II, and III, respectively) under mesotrophic conditions...
May 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501399/effect-of-feeding-strategies-and-cropping-systems-on-greenhouse-gas-emission-from-wisconsin-certified-organic-dairy-farms
#20
D Liang, F Sun, M A Wattiaux, V E Cabrera, J L Hedtcke, E M Silva
Organic agriculture continues to expand in the United States, both in total hectares and market share. However, management practices used by dairy organic producers, and their resulting environmental impacts, vary across farms. This study used a partial life cycle assessment approach to estimate the effect of different feeding strategies and associated crop production on greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from Wisconsin certified organic dairy farms. Field and livestock-driven emissions were calculated using 2 data sets...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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