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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742059/spanning-the-scales-of-mechanical-metamaterials-using-time-domain-simulations-in-transformed-crystals-graphene-flakes-and-structured-soils
#1
Ronald Aznavourian, Tania Michelle Guenneau-Puvirajesinghe, Stephane Brule, Stefan Enoch, Sebastien Roger Guenneau
We begin with a brief historical survey of discoveries of quasi-crystals and graphene, and then introduce the concept of transformation crystallography, which consists of the application of geometric transforms to periodic structures. We consider motifs with three-fold, four-fold and six-fold symmetries according to the crystallographic restriction theorem. Furthermore, we define motifs with five-fold symmetry such as quasi-crystals generated by a cut-and-projection method from periodic structures in higher-dimensional space...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741669/connecting-salt-stress-signalling-pathways-with-salinity-induced-changes-in-mitochondrial-metabolic-processes-in-c3-plants
#2
REVIEW
M Hafiz Che-Othman, A Harvey Millar, Nicolas L Taylor
Salinity exerts a severe detrimental effect on crop yields globally. Growth of plants in saline soils results in physiological stress, which disrupts the essential biochemical processes of respiration, photosynthesis and transpiration. Understanding the molecular responses of plants exposed to salinity stress can inform future strategies to reduce agricultural losses due to salinity however it is imperative that signalling and functional response processes are connected to tailor these strategies. Previous research has revealed the important role that plant mitochondria play in the salinity response of plants...
July 25, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741209/pb-induced-changes-in-roots-of-two-cultivated-rice-cultivars-grown-in-lead-contaminated-soil-mediated-by-smoke
#3
Nazneen Akhtar, Sehresh Khan, Ijaz Malook, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Muhammad Jamil
Nowadays, public concerns regarding deleterious effect of lead (Pb) is on rise due to its abundance and toxic effect on plants and other living organisms. In plants, it has no noticeable biological importance but can cause various morphological, physiological, and biochemical malfunctions. To evaluate the remediating potential of plant-derived smoke (Cymbopogon jwarancusa), a pot culture experiment was designed to investigate the physiological, biochemical, metabolic, and antioxidant parameters of roots in lead (0 (control), 500, 1000, and 1500 ppm)-contaminated soil...
July 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740868/climate-warming-promotes-species-diversity-but-with-greater-taxonomic-redundancy-in-complex-environments
#4
Madhav P Thakur, David Tilman, Oliver Purschke, Marcel Ciobanu, Jane Cowles, Forest Isbell, Peter D Wragg, Nico Eisenhauer
Climate warming is predicted to alter species interactions, which could potentially lead to extinction events. However, there is an ongoing debate whether the effects of warming on biodiversity may be moderated by biodiversity itself. We tested warming effects on soil nematodes, one of the most diverse and abundant metazoans in terrestrial ecosystems, along a gradient of environmental complexity created by a gradient of plant species richness. Warming increased nematode species diversity in complex (16-species mixtures) plant communities (by ~36%) but decreased it in simple (monocultures) plant communities (by ~39%) compared to ambient temperature...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738784/identification-and-characterization-of-suppressor-mutants-of-stop1
#5
Fei Jiang, Tao Wang, Yuqi Wang, Leon V Kochian, Fang Chen, Jiping Liu
BACKGROUND: Proton stress and aluminum (Al) toxicity are major constraints limiting crop growth and yields on acid soils (pH < 5). In Arabidopsis, STOP1 is a master transcription factor that controls the expression of a set of well-characterized Al tolerance genes and unknown processes involved in low pH resistance. As a result, loss-of-function stop1 mutants are extremely sensitive to low pH and Al stresses. RESULTS: Here, we report on screens of an ethyl-methane sulphonate (EMS)-mutagenized stop1 population and isolation of nine strong stop1 suppressor mutants, i...
July 24, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738207/translocation-of-heavy-metals-from-soils-into-floral-organs-and-rewards-of-cucurbita-pepo-implications-for-plant-reproductive-fitness
#6
Erna Xun, Yanwen Zhang, Jimin Zhao, Jixun Guo
Metals and metalloids in soil could be transferred into reproductive organs and floral rewards of hyperaccumulator plants and influence their reproductive success, yet little is known whether non-hyperaccumulator plants can translocate heavy metals from soil into their floral organs and rewards (i.e., nectar and pollen) and, if so, whether plant reproduction will be affected. In our studies, summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Golden Apple) was exposed to heavy-metal treatments during bud stage to investigate the translocation of soil-supplemented zinc, copper, nickel and lead into its floral organs (pistil, anther and nectary) and rewards (nectar and pollen) as well as floral metal accumulation effects on its reproduction...
July 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737443/fertirrigation-with-sugarcane-vinasse-foreseeing-potential-impacts-on-soil-and-water-resources-through-vinasse-characterization
#7
Lucas T Fuess, Isabella J Rodrigues, Marcelo L Garcia
This paper reports the characterization of the polluting potential of sugarcane vinasse, the main wastewater from ethanol production. Compositional data from vinasse samples collected from sugarcane biorefineries were used to predict negative effects on the soil, water resources and crops potentially associated with fertirrigation, the primary final destination of vinasse in Brazil. High risks of soil salinization were associated with the land disposal of vinasse, as evidenced by the high levels of total dissolved solids (TDS; >4,000 mg L(-1)) and electrical conductivity (>6...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735410/rhizosphere-sampling-protocols-for-microbiome-16s-18s-its-rrna-library-preparation-and-enrichment-for-the-isolation-of-drought-tolerance-promoting-microbes
#8
Venkatachalam Lakshmanan, Prasun Ray, Kelly D Craven
Natural plant microbiomes are abundant and have a remarkably robust composition, both as epiphytes on the plant surface and as endophytes within plant tissues. Microbes in the former "habitat" face limited nutrients and harsh environmental conditions, while those in the latter likely lead a more sheltered existence. The most populous and diverse of these microbiomes are associated with the zone around the plant roots, commonly referred to as the rhizosphere. A majority of recent studies characterize these plant-associated microbiomes by community profiling of bacteria and fungi, using amplicon-based marker genes and next-generation sequencing (NGS)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735211/runoff-initiation-soil-detachment-and-connectivity-are-enhanced-as-a-consequence-of-vineyards-plantations
#9
A Cerdà, S D Keesstra, J Rodrigo-Comino, A Novara, P Pereira, E Brevik, A Giménez-Morera, M Fernández-Raga, M Pulido, S di Prima, A Jordán
Rainfall-induced soil erosion is a major threat, especially in agricultural soils. In the Mediterranean belt, vineyards are affected by high soil loss rates, leading to land degradation. Plantation of new vines is carried out after deep ploughing, use of heavy machinery, wheel traffic, and trampling. Those works result in soil physical properties changes and contribute to enhanced runoff rates and increased soil erosion rates. The objective of this paper is to assess the impact of the plantation of vineyards on soil hydrological and erosional response under low frequency - high magnitude rainfall events, the ones that under the Mediterranean climatic conditions trigger extreme soil erosion rates...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731307/environmental-impact-of-alkyl-lead-iv-derivatives-perspective-after-their-phase-out
#10
Montserrat Filella, Josep Bonet
The use of alkyl lead derivatives as antiknock agents in gasoline can be considered as one of the main pollution disasters of the 20th century because of both the global character of the pollution emitted and the seriousness of the impact on human health. Alkyl lead derivatives in themselves cannot be considered to be persistent pollutants because they readily degrade either before being released from the tailpipes or soon afterwards in the atmosphere. However, the inorganic lead they produced has been deposited in soils all over the planet, largely, but not exclusively in urban areas and along motorways, since the direct emission of lead into the atmosphere favored its dispersal over great distances: The signal of the massive use of alkyl lead derivatives has been found all over the world, including in remote sites such as polar areas...
April 10, 2017: Metal Ions in Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731298/lead-speciation-in-microorganisms
#11
Theodora J Stewart
The biogeochemical cycles of lead (Pb) have been largely affected by anthropogenic activities as a result of its high natural abundance and use over the centuries [1]. At sites more strongly impacted by urbanization [2] and mining [3], Pb is found at high nano to low micromolar concentrations in surface waters, and can be significantly higher in soil and sediment [4]. Microorganisms are found everywhere and their responses to Pb exposure can range from resistant to highly sensitive [5, 6]. These varying levels of toxicity can be attributed to the cellular handling of Pb, making it important to understand the role of intracellular Pb speciation for more accurate toxicity predictions...
April 10, 2017: Metal Ions in Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731295/biogeochemistry-of-lead-its-release-to-the-environment-and-chemical-speciation
#12
Jay T Cullen, Jason McAlister
Lead (Pb) is a metal that is not essential for life processes and proves acutely toxic to most organisms. Compared to other metals Pb is rather immobile in the environment but still its biogeochemical cycling is greatly perturbed by human activities. In this review we present a summary of information describing the physical and chemical properties of Pb, its distribution in crustal materials, and the processes, both natural and anthropogenic, that contribute to the metal's mobilization in the biosphere. The relatively high volatility of Pb metal, low melting point, its large ionic radius, and its chemical speciation in aquatic systems contributes to its redistribution by anthropogenic and natural processes...
April 10, 2017: Metal Ions in Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730363/leaching-of-cu-cd-pb-and-phosphorus-and-their-availability-in-the-phosphate-amended-contaminated-soils-under-simulated-acid-rain
#13
Hongbiao Cui, Shiwen Zhang, Ruyan Li, Qitao Yi, Xuebo Zheng, Youbiao Hu, Jing Zhou
Phosphate amendments have been used to immobilize heavy metal-contaminated soils. However, phosphate amendments contain large amounts of phosphorus, which could leach out to potentially contaminate groundwater and surface water. A laboratory column leaching experiment was designed to study the effects of simulated acid rain (SAR) on the potential release of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and phosphorus (P), and their availability after immobilizing with hydroxyapatite (HAP) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (PDP)...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728354/spatial-assessment-of-potential-ecological-risk-of-soil-heavy-metals-from-informal-e-waste-recycling-in-ghana
#14
Vincent Nartey Kyere, Klaus Greve, Sampson Atiemo, James Hawkins Ephraim
The rapidly increasing annual global volumes and the inherently valuable fractions of e-waste have created an avenue for individuals in Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana to make a living by utilizing unconventional, uncontrolled, primitive and crude procedures to recycle and recover valuable metals from these wastes. The current form of recycling procedures releases hazardous fractions such as heavy metals into the soils posing a significant risk to ecology and human health. 132 soil samples based on 100 m grid intervals were collected using handheld GPS and analyzed for Cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) heavy metals...
July 10, 2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727205/drivers-of-woody-canopy-water-content-responses-to-drought-in-a-mediterranean-type-ecosystem
#15
Tarin Paz-Kagan, Gregory P Asner
Severe droughts increase physiological stress in woody plant species, which can lead to mortality, fundamentally altering the composition, structure, and biogeography of forests in many regions. Little is known, however, about the factors determining the physiological response of woody plants to drought at landscape scales. Our objective was to understand woody plant species responses to ongoing changes in climate, using remotely sensed canopy water content (CWC) as an indicator of plant physiological and phenological status...
July 20, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725442/identification-of-dust-storm-origin-in-south-west-of-iran
#16
Parya Broomandi, Bahram Dabir, Babak Bonakdarpour, Yousef Rashidi
BACKGROUND: Deserts are the main sources of emitted dust, and are highly responsive to wind erosion. Low content of soil moisture and lack of vegetation cover lead to fine particle's release. One of the semi-arid bare lands in Iran, located in the South-West of Iran in Khoozestan province, was selected to investigate Sand and Dust storm potential. METHODS: This paper focused on the metrological parameters of the sampling site, their changes and the relationship between these changes and dust storm occurrence, estimation of Reconaissance Drought Index, the Atterberg limits of soil samples and their relation with soil erosion ability, the chemical composition, size distribution of soil and airborne dust samples, and estimation of vertical mass flux by COMSALT through considering the effect of saffman force and interparticle cohesion forces during warm period (April-September) in 2010...
2017: Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724228/a-new-method-for-correlation-analysis-of-compositional-environmental-data-a-worked-example
#17
C Reimann, P Filzmoser, K Hron, P Kynčlová, R G Garrett
Most data in environmental sciences and geochemistry are compositional. Already the unit used to report the data (e.g., μg/l, mg/kg, wt%) implies that the analytical results for each element are not free to vary independently of the other measured variables. This is often neglected in statistical analysis, where a simple log-transformation of the single variables is insufficient to put the data into an acceptable geometry. This is also important for bivariate data analysis and for correlation analysis, for which the data need to be appropriately log-ratio transformed...
July 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724222/development-of-a-soft-extraction-method-for-sulfamethoxazole-and-transformation-products-from-agricultural-soils-effects-of-organic-matter-co-extraction-on-the-environmental-availability-assessment
#18
Anaïs Goulas, Marjolaine Bourdat-Deschamps, Sylvie Nélieu, Julie Jimenez, Dominique Patureau, Claire-Sophie Haudin, Pierre Benoit
The recycling of biosolids and livestock manure in agriculture may lead to the introduction of antibiotic residues, i.e., parent molecule and transformation products, into amended soils. Their fate in soils can be approached through the assessment of their environmental availability. In this work, the environmental availability of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and three transformation products (N(4)-acetyl-SMX, 3-amino-5-methylisoxazole, aniline) was assessed in soils amended with sludge compost or cow manure throughout a three-month incubation, using soft extractions with CaCl2, EDTA or cyclodextrin solutions...
July 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724104/fate-characterization-of-benzene-kresoxim-methyl-a-strobilurin-fungicide-in-different-aerobic-soils
#19
Jinhao Zhao, Likun Wang, Jingli Cheng, Wei Wang, Qingfu Ye
Benzene kresoxim-methyl (BKM) is a promising broad-spectrum strobilurin fungicide widely used to control fungal pathogens in crops. However, information on its environmental fate is limited. To broaden our understanding of this fungicide's kinetic fate in aerobic soils, we labeled BKM with C on its benzoate ring and used ultralow-level liquid scintillation counting coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Results show that degradation, mineralization, and bound residue (BR) formation of BKM was controlled by soil type and microbial community composition...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724080/qtls-associated-with-crown-root-angle-stomatal-conductance-and-maturity-in-sorghum
#20
Jose R Lopez, John E Erickson, Patricio Munoz, Ana Saballos, Terry J Felderhoff, Wilfred Vermerris
Three factors that directly affect the water inputs in cropping systems are root architecture, length of the growing season, and stomatal conductance to water vapor (). Deeper-rooted cultivars will perform better under water-limited conditions because they can access water stored deeper in the soil profile. Reduced limits transpiration rate () and thus throughout the vegetative phase conserves water that may be used during grain filling in water-limited environments. Additionally, growing early-maturing varieties in regions that rely on soil-stored water is a key water management strategy...
July 2017: Plant Genome
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