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Elisa Fiume, Jacopo Barberi, Enrica Verné, Francesco Baino
Nowadays, bioactive glasses (BGs) are mainly used to improve and support the healing process of osseous defects deriving from traumatic events, tumor removal, congenital pathologies, implant revisions, or infections. In the past, several approaches have been proposed in the replacement of extensive bone defects, each one with its own advantages and drawbacks. As a result, the need for synthetic bone grafts is still a remarkable clinical challenge since more than 1 million bone-graft surgical operations are annually performed worldwide...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Nadia Lombardi, Stefania Vitale, David Turrà, Massimo Reverberi, Corrado Fanelli, Francesco Vinale, Roberta Marra, Michelina Ruocco, Alberto Pascale, Giada d'Errico, Sheridan Lois Woo, Matteo Lorito
Plant roots release complex mixtures of bioactive molecules including compounds that affect the activity and modify the composition of the rhizosphere microbiome. In this work, we investigated the initial phase of the interaction between tomato and an effective biocontrol strain of Trichoderma harzianum (T22). We found that root exudates (RE), obtained from plants grown in a split root system and exposed to a choice of biotic and abiotic stress factors (wounding, salt, pathogen attack), stimulate the growth and act as chemoattractants of the biocontrol fungus...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Harry J Shirley, Megan L Jamieson, Margaret A Brimble, Christopher D Bray
Covering: 2009 up to the end of 2017There has been a recent eruption in the number of known marine sesterterpenoids which have been isolated from Pacific Rim marine organisms. These compounds have novel and unusual structures that exhibit incredibly potent and varied bioactivities. This review details the isolation, biological testing and prospects for this exciting new family with discussion of their potential biogenetic origins.
March 16, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Mona Mokhtari, Michael Jackson, Alistair Brown, David Ackerley, Nigel Ritson, Robert A Keyzers, Andrew Munkacsi
Pathogenic fungi continue to develop resistance against current antifungal drugs. To explore the potential of agricultural waste products as a source of novel antifungal compounds, we obtained an unbiased GC-MS profile of 151 compounds from 16 commercial and experimental cultivars of feijoa peels. Multivariate analysis correlated 93% of the compound profile with antifungal bioactivity. Of 18 compounds that significantly correlated with antifungal activity, five had not previously been described from feijoa...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Hengyao You, Srinivas Rao Vegi, Chandraiah Lagishetti, Shuo Chen, Rekula Santhosh Reddy, Xiaohong Yang, Jian Guo, Chenhui Wang, Yun He
A convenient synthesis of 3,4-dihydro-2H-naphtho [2,3-b] [1,4] oxazine-5,10-diones and 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-naphtho [2,3-b] azepine-6,11-diones via copper catalysed intramolecular C-O/C-C coupling reaction is described. This method showed good tolerance for functional groups and was applied to the synthesis of natural product core strcutures. Some coupling products exhibited moderate activities against lung cancer A549 cells.
March 16, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Christine D Plant, Giles W Plant
Schwann cells are the primary inducers of regeneration of the peripheral nervous system. Schwann cells can be isolated from adult peripheral nerves, expanded in large numbers, and genetically transduced by viral vectors in vitro prior to their use in vivo. Here we describe how to use lentiviral vectors to transduce primary Schwann cells in vitro. We also describe how cultured Schwann cells can be used in conjunction with decellularized peripheral nerve sheaths prepared by multiple freeze thawing of peripheral nerve tissue...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Armin Zittermann, Jana B Ernst, Sylvana Prokop, Uwe Fuchs, Jens Dreier, Joachim Kuhn, Cornelius Knabbe, Heiner K Berthold, Ioanna Gouni-Berthold, Jan F Gummert, Jochen Börgermann, Stefan Pilz
PURPOSE: Observational studies indicate a positive association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and testosterone (T) concentrations. Because low 25OHD concentrations and T deficiency are considered to be a generalized phenomenon in patients with advanced heart failure (HF), we aimed to investigate whether vitamin D supplementation has beneficial effects on T indices in these patients. METHODS: In a pre-specified secondary analysis of the EVITA (effect of vitamin D on mortality in heart failure) randomized controlled trial, we analyzed in male subjects with 25OHD concentrations < 75 nmol/L the effect of a daily vitamin D3 supplement of 4000 IU for 3 years (n = 71) vs...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Shengye Liu, Long Zhou, Liyu Yang, Shuai Mu, Tao Fang, Qin Fu
Background: Prolonged and over-dosed administration of glucocorticoids results in more bone remodeling, leading to glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, which is primarily due to dysfunction and apoptosis of osteoblasts. The present study investigated the therapeutic effect and molecular mechanism of gastrodin, a natural bioactive compound isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal agent Gastrodia elata, on osteoblastic cells in vivo and in vitro . Materials and Methods: The anti-dexamethasone (DEX) effects of gastrodin on primary osteoblasts were measured by cell viability, flow cytometry, and western blot analysis in vitro , and also extensively examined in a rat model in vivo ...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Jun Bian, Dan Cao, Jie Shen, Bo Jiang, Dan Chen, Lanzheng Bian
N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP), a small bioactive molecule, has the potential to stimulate bone formation and inhibit osteoclast differentiation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of NMP on the inflammatory response and underlying molecular mechanisms in MG-63 cells. The mRNA and protein expression of cytokines from peripheral blood in children with or without ankle fracture were determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and ELISA, respectively...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Yuan-Jun Xia, Hong Xia, Ling Chen, Qing-Shui Ying, Xiang Yu, Li-Hua Li, Jian-Hua Wang, Ying Zhang
Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) serves an important role in the development of bone and cartilage. However, administration of BMP-2 protein alone by intravenous delivery is not very effective. Sustained delivery of stabilized BMP-2 by carriers has been proven necessary to improve the osteogenesis effect of BMP-2. The present study constructed a novel drug delivery system using dextran sulfate (DS)-chitosan (CS) microspheres and investigated the efficiency of the delivery system on recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2)...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Piera Valenti, Luigi Rosa, Daniela Capobianco, Maria Stefania Lepanto, Elisa Schiavi, Antimo Cutone, Rosalba Paesano, Paola Mastromarino
The innate defense system of the female mucosal genital tract involves a close and complex interaction among the healthy vaginal microbiota, different cells, and various proteins that protect the host from pathogens. Vaginal lactobacilli and lactoferrin represent two essential actors in the vaginal environment. Lactobacilli represent the dominant bacterial species able to prevent facultative and obligate anaerobes outnumber in vaginal microbiota maintaining healthy microbial homeostasis. Several mechanisms underlie the protection exerted by lactobacilli: competition for nutrients and tissue adherence, reduction of the vaginal pH, modulation of immunity, and production of bioactive compounds...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Qianqian Wang, Jiahui Xu, Ying Li, Jumin Huang, Zebo Jiang, Yuwei Wang, Liang Liu, Elaine Lai Han Leung, Xiaojun Yao
Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is able to regulate gene transcription by catalyzing the symmetrical dimethylation of arginine residue of histone, which plays a key role in tumorigenesis. Many efforts have been taken in discovering small-molecular inhibitors against PRMT5, but very few were reported and most of them were SAM-competitive. EPZ015666 is a recently reported PRMT5 inhibitor with a new binding site, which is different from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-binding pocket. This new binding site provides a new clue for the design and discovery of potent and specific PRMT5 inhibitors...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Zhu Yi-Shen, Sun Shuai, Richard FitzGerald
To date, no extensive literature review exists regarding potential uses of mung bean proteins and peptides. As mung bean has long been widely used as a food source, early studies evaluated mung bean nutritional value against the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/the World Health Organization (WHO) amino acids dietary recommendations. The comparison demonstrated mung bean to be a good protein source, except for deficiencies in sulphur-containing amino acids, methionine and cysteine...
2018: Food & Nutrition Research
Brett Ford, Eloise Foo, Robert E Sharwood, Miroslava Karafiatova, Jan Vrána, Colleen MacMillan, David S Nichols, Burkhard Steuernagel, Cristobal Uauy, Jaroslav Doležel, Peter Chandler, Wolfgang Spielmeyer
Semi-dwarfing genes have contributed to major yield increases in crop species by reducing height, improving lodging resistance, and partitioning more assimilates to grain growth. In wheat, the Rht18 semi-dwarfing gene was identified and deployed in durum wheat before it was transferred into bread wheat where it was shown to have agronomic potential. Rht18, a dominant and gibberellin (GA) responsive mutant, is genetically and functionally distinct from the widely used GA insensitive semi-dwarfing genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b...
March 15, 2018: Plant Physiology
Sandrina Lampis, Maura Carboni, Daniela Steri, Sergio Murgia, Maura Monduzzi
Lipid based formulations, endowed of long term stability as a result of the formation of lamellar liquid crystals, were prepared using the natural lipids lecithin and glycerol trioleate in water, and characterized using optical microscopy, SAXRD and NMR. The formulations, designed as possible carriers for lysozyme and caffeine, were evaluated for structural features and stability after the loading of the guest molecules. Release experiments were performed at 37 °C using the PBS medium. No burst release was observed either for lysozyme or caffeine...
March 2, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Eleonora Scorletti, Christopher D Byrne
For many years it has been known that high doses of long chain omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in the treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia. Over the last three decades, there has also been a wealth of in vitro and in vivo data that has accumulated to suggest that long chain omega-3 fatty acid treatment might be beneficial to decrease liver triacylglycerol. Several biological mechanisms have been identified that support this hypothesis; notably, it has been shown that long chain omega-3 fatty acids have a beneficial effect: a) on bioactive metabolites involved in inflammatory pathways, and b) on alteration of nuclear transcription factor activities such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP), involved in inflammatory pathways and liver lipid metabolism...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Ioannis E Messinis, Christina I Messini, George Anifandis, Antonios Garas, Alexandros Daponte
Gonadotropin surge-attenuating factor (GnSAF) is a nonsteroidal ovarian substance, which attenuates the endogenous LH surge in superovulated women. Different molecular sequences have been found, but only one of them has shown substantial homology to a known substance of the human genome. A molecular mass of 12.5kDa showing identity to the carboxyl-terminal fragment of human serum albumin and expressing GnSAF bioactivity in vitro has been identified. It has been suggested that in the normal menstrual cycle the in vivo bioactivity of GnSAF increases under the influence of the intercycle rise of FSH...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Da Yong Shin, Min-Ho Kang, In-Gu Kang, Hyoun-Ee Kim, Seol-Ha Jeong
A biodegradable polylactic acid composite containing tricalcium phosphate microsphere was fabricated. The composite exhibited enhanced biocompatibility and a well-interconnected porous structure that enabled tissue ingrowth after degradation. The tricalcium phosphate microspheres had an average size of 106 ± 43 μm and were incorporated into the polylactic acid matrix using a high-shear mixer. The resulting bioactivity and hydrophilicity were enhanced to levels comparable to those of a polylactic acid composite containing tricalcium phosphate powder, which is a well-known material used in the medical field...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Jianguo Li, Roger Beuerman, Chandra Verma
Molecular aggregation plays a significant role in modulating the solubility, permeability, and bioactivity of drugs. The propensity to aggregate depends on hydrophobicity and on molecular shape. Molecular dynamics simulations coupled with enhanced sampling methods are used to explore the early stages of oligomerization of two drug molecules which have a strong aggregation propensity, but with contrasting molecule shapes: the antibiotic ciprofloxacin and the anticancer drug Nutlin-3A. The planar shape of ciprofloxacin induces the formation of stable oligomers at all cluster sizes...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Enxiang Zhang, Shutao Yin, Xiaotong Lu, Linhu Ye, Lihong Fan, Hongbo Hu
Glycycoumarin (GCM) is a representative of bioactive coumarin compounds isolated from licorice, an edible and medicinal plant widely used for treating various diseases including liver diseases. The purpose of the present study is to examine the possibility of GCM as a sensitizer to improve the efficacy of BH3 mimetic ABT-737 against liver cancer. Three liver cancer cell lines (HepG2, Huh-7 and SMMC-7721) were used to evaluate the in vitro combinatory effect of ABT-737/GCM. HepG2 xenograft model was employed to assess the in vivo efficacy of ABT-737/GCM combination...
March 15, 2018: Nutrients
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