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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102836/preparation-characterization-and-in-vitro-dosimetry-of-dispersed-engineered-nanomaterials
#1
Glen M DeLoid, Joel M Cohen, Georgios Pyrgiotakis, Philip Demokritou
Evidence continues to grow of the importance of in vitro and in vivo dosimetry in the hazard assessment and ranking of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Accurate dose metrics are particularly important for in vitro cellular screening to assess the potential health risks or bioactivity of ENMs. To ensure meaningful and reproducible quantification of in vitro dose, with consistent measurement and reporting between laboratories, it is necessary to adopt standardized and integrated methodologies for (i) generation of stable ENM suspensions in cell culture media; (ii) colloidal characterization of suspended ENMs, particularly of properties that determine particle kinetics in an in vitro system (size distribution and formed agglomerate effective density); and (iii) robust numerical fate and transport modeling for accurate determination of the ENM dose delivered to cells over the course of the in vitro exposure...
February 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102295/bioactive-compounds-and-antioxidant-activity-of-wolfberry-infusion
#2
Yujing Sun, Japaer Rukeya, Wenyang Tao, Peilong Sun, Xingqian Ye
An infusion of the wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) is a traditional Asian herbal tea. This is the most commonly consumed form of dried wolfberry worldwide, yet little scientific information on wolfberry infusions is available. We investigated the effects of making infusions with hot water on the color, the content of bioactive compounds (polysaccharides, polyphenols, flavonoids and carotenoids) and the antioxidant ability of wolfberry infusions. The contents of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of a wolfberry infusion increased with increased infusion temperature and time...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102294/novel-bio-functional-magnesium-coating-on-porous-ti6al4v-orthopaedic-implants-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study
#3
Xiaokang Li, Peng Gao, Peng Wan, Yifeng Pei, Lei Shi, Bo Fan, Chao Shen, Xin Xiao, Ke Yang, Zheng Guo
Titanium and its alloys with various porous structures are one of the most important metals used in orthopaedic implants due to favourable properties as replacement for hard tissues. However, surface modification is critical to improve the osteointegration of titanium and its alloys. In this study, a bioactive magnesium coating was successfully fabricated on porous Ti6Al4V by means of arc ion plating, which was proved with fine grain size and high film/substrate adhesion. The surface composition and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101713/macro-and-microelement-content-and-other-properties-of-chaenomeles-japonica-l-fruit-and-protective-effects-of-its-aqueous-extract-on-hepatocyte-metabolism
#4
Irena Baranowska-Bosiacka, Beata Bosiacka, Julita Rast, Izabela Gutowska, Jolanta Wolska, Ewa Rębacz-Maron, Kamila Dębia, Katarzyna Janda, Jan Korbecki, Dariusz Chlubek
This growing interest in the cultivation of Japanese quince Chaenomeles japonica L. results from the potentially beneficial properties of its fruit. Fresh fruits are very firm and too acidic to eat raw, but their bioactive components, distinctive aroma, and high amount of dietary fiber make the fruits well suited for industrial processing. However, not all the properties of the fruit have been investigated. For example, there are no comprehensive reports about the mineral content or potentially harmful effects on liver metabolism...
January 18, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101239/naphthazarin-suppresses-cell-proliferation-and-induces-apoptosis-in-human-colorectal-cancer-cells-via-the-b-cell-lymphoma-2-b-cell-associated-x-protein-signaling-pathway
#5
Ai-Dong Chen, Hui Li, Yong-Chun Li, Hai Zeng
Colorectal cancer is the most common gastrointestinal cancer in the USA. Naphthazarin, one of the naturally available 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives, is a natural bioactive molecule that exhibits an antitumor effect. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the anticancer effect of naphthazarin on cell proliferation and apoptosis in human SW480 colorectal cancer cells. In the present study, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays were performed to assess the effect of napthazarin on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity of SW430 cells, respectively...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101178/endothelium-dependent-vasodilation-effects-of-panax-notoginseng-and-its-main-components-are-mediated-by-nitric-oxide-and-cyclooxygenase-pathways
#6
Yanyan Wang, Yu Ren, Leilei Xing, Xiangdong Dai, Sheng Liu, Bin Yu, Yi Wang
Panax notoginseng, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The main bioactive components of this species are Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS). The present study aimed to investigate the effects of PNS and five of its main components (ginsenosides Rg1, Re, Rb1 and Rd, and notoginsenoside R1) on rat aorta rings pre-contracted with norepinephrine (NE) and to determine the underlying mechanism of action. Isolated aorta rings (with or without intact endothelium) from adult male Wistar rats were stimulated with NE to induce vasoconstriction, and subsequently treated with different concentrations of PNS and its five main components (Rg1, Re, Rb1, R1 and Rd) separately...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101164/paeoniflorin-attenuates-hippocampal-damage-in-a-rat-model-of-vascular-dementia
#7
Ying Zhang, Li-Li Wang, Yan Wu, Ning Wang, Shang-Ming Wang, Bin Zhang, Cui-Ge Shi, Shu-Cheng Zhang
Paeoniflorn (PF), the principal bioactive component of Paeoniae radix prescribed in traditional Chinese medicine, possesses a wide range of biological effects and exhibits neuroprotective effects in numerous diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that PF significantly attenuates memory impairment in rats with vascular dementia (VD). In the present study, a bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) rat model was used to explore the underlying mechanisms of PF. The expression levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), S100β, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein, cytochrome c and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus were measured by western blot analysis...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100853/antioxidant-and-antimicrobial-properties-of-bioactive-phytochemicals-from-cranberry
#8
Monika Baranowska, Agnieszka Bartoszek
In the rational human diet, the important role of fruits and vegetables, which are a source of bioactive phytochemicals, is emphasized. Among fruits particular attention, due to a number of documented health-promoting properties, is focused on cranberry. This fruit is characterized by the high content of antioxidant phenolic compounds, which may support the natural antioxidant defense system of the body in the prevention of damage caused by oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, cranberry is suggested for the prevention of civilization diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension and cancer, whose etiology is associated directly with oxidative stress...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100844/phospholipids-and-products-of-their-hydrolysis-as-dietary-preventive-factors-for-civilization-diseases
#9
Karol Parchem, Agnieszka Bartoszek
The results of numerous epidemiological studies indicate that phospholipids play an important role in the prevention of chronic diseases faced by contemporary society. Firstly, these compounds are responsible for the proper functioning of cell membranes, by ensuring liquidity and permeability, which is pivotal for normal activity of membrane proteins, including receptors. These mechanisms are at the core of prevention of cancer, autoimmune or neurological disorders. Secondly, structure and properties of phospholipids cause that they are highly available source of biologically active fatty acids...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100492/dynamic-assembly-of-ultrasoft-colloidal-networks-enables-cell-invasion-within-restrictive-fibrillar-polymers
#10
Alison M Douglas, Alexandros A Fragkopoulos, Michelle K Gaines, L Andrew Lyon, Alberto Fernandez-Nieves, Thomas H Barker
In regenerative medicine, natural protein-based polymers offer enhanced endogenous bioactivity and potential for seamless integration with tissue, yet form weak hydrogels that lack the physical robustness required for surgical manipulation, making them difficult to apply in practice. The use of higher concentrations of protein, exogenous cross-linkers, and blending synthetic polymers has all been applied to form more mechanically robust networks. Each relies on generating a smaller network mesh size, which increases the elastic modulus and robustness, but critically inhibits cell spreading and migration, hampering tissue regeneration...
January 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100287/characterisation-of-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-different-insulin-resistant-phenotypes-by-means-of-stable-isotopes
#11
Ellen E Blaak
The obese insulin resistant and/or prediabetic state is characterised by systemic lipid overflow, mainly driven by an impaired lipid buffering capacity of adipose tissue, and an impaired capacity of skeletal muscle to increase fat oxidation upon increased supply. This leads to the accumulation of bioactive lipid metabolites in skeletal muscle interfering with insulin sensitivity via various mechanisms. In this review, the contribution of dietary v. endogenous fatty acids to lipid overflow, their extraction or uptake by skeletal muscle as well as the fractional synthetic rate, content and composition of the muscle lipid pools is discussed in relation to the development or presence of insulin resistance and/or an impaired glucose metabolism...
January 19, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100224/radical-scavenging-activities-of-lagerstroemia-speciosa-l-pers-petal-extracts-and-its-hepato-protection-in-ccl4-intoxicated-mice
#12
Bipransh Kumar Tiwary, Somit Dutta, Priyankar Dey, Mossaraf Hossain, Anoop Kumar, Sony Bihani, Ashis Kumar Nanda, Tapas Kumar Chaudhuri, Ranadhir Chakraborty
BACKGROUND: Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. has medicinal importance. Bioactive phytochemicals isolated from different parts of L. speciosa, have revealed hypoglycemic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and hepato protective properties. Despite one report from Philippines detailing the use of L. speciosa as curative for fever and as well as diuretic, there is no experimental evidence about the hepatoprotective activity of the flower extracts. METHODS: Several spectroscopic methods, including GC-MS, were used to characterize phytochemicals present in the petal extract of L...
January 18, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100172/integrated-genomics-based-mapping-reveals-the-genetics-underlying-maize-flavonoid-biosynthesis
#13
Min Jin, Xuehai Zhang, Mingchao Zhao, Min Deng, Yuanhao Du, Yang Zhou, Shouchuang Wang, Takayuki Tohge, Alisdair R Fernie, Lothar Willmitzer, Yariv Brotman, Jianbing Yan, Weiwei Wen
BACKGROUND: Flavonoids constitute a diverse class of secondary metabolites which exhibit potent bioactivities for human health and have been indicated to play an important role in plant development and defense. However, accumulation and variation of flavonoid content in diverse maize lines and the genes responsible for their biosynthesis in this important crop remain largely unknown. In this study, we combine genetic mapping, metabolite profiling and gene regulatory network analysis to further enhance understanding of the maize flavonoid pathway...
January 18, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100113/characterization-and-production-of-multifunctional-cationic-peptides-derived-from-rice-proteins
#14
Masayuki Taniguchi, Akihito Ochiai
Food proteins have been identified as a source of bioactive peptides. These peptides are inactive within the sequence of the parent protein and must be released during gastrointestinal digestion, fermentation, or food processing. Of bioactive peptides, multifunctional cationic peptides are more useful than other peptides that have specific activity in promotion of health and/or the treatment of diseases. We have identified and characterized cationic peptides from rice enzymes and proteins that possess multiple functions, including antimicrobial, endotoxin-neutralizing, arginine gingipain-inhibitory, and/or angiogenic activities...
January 19, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100102/pharmacokinetics-and-tissue-distribution-of-crotonoside
#15
Peiao Yan, Lan Zhang, Cheng Peng, Ruoqi Zhang
1. Crotonoside is a bioactive ingredient from Croton Herba with a strong antitumour activity. This study aimed to develop a highly sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to quantify crotonoside in biological samples for pharmacokinetics and distribution studies. 2. Protein precipitation by perchloric acid was used to separate crotonoside from the biological samples, and the recovery rates for crotonoside and the internal standard (luteoloside) were  >80%. All calibration curves examining the crotonoside levels in plasma and tissues were linear (all correlation coefficients > 0...
January 19, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100082/synthesis-and-bioactivity-of-several-new-hetaryl-sulfonamides
#16
Parham Taslimi, Afsun Sujayev, Sevgi Mamedova, Pınar Kalın, İlhami Gulçin, Nastaran Sadeghian, Sukru Beydemir, O Irfan Kufrevioglu, Saleh H Alwasel, Vagif Farzaliyev, Sabir Mamedov
1-(4-Methylsulfonyl)-2-thione-4-aryl-5-Z-6-methyl and oxyalkyl-imidazoles were synthesized from different tetrahydropyrimidinethiones and aryl sulfonyl chloride. These compunds were tested for metal chelating effects and to determine the phrase in which inhibition occured between two physiologically pertinent compunds and carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozymes I and II (hCA I and II), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). AChE was detected in high concentrations in the brain and red blood cells...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100074/antioxidant-capacity-and-identification-of-the-constituents-of-ethyl-acetate-fraction-from-rhus-verniciflua-stokes-by-hplc-ms
#17
Hongxia Chen, Chengzhang Wang, Hao Zhou, Ran Tao, Jianzhong Ye, Wenjun Li
Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) from Rhus verniciflua Stokes is an important source of bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was the tentative identification and quantification of phenolic compounds, comparison of the phenolic structure-antioxidant activity relationships. Twelve compounds of EAF belonging to polyphenol types were detected by high performance liquid chromatography and analysed on line with negative ion electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry, which were ethoxy 3-hydroxy benzoic acid, gallic acid (GA), 3,4-dihydroxy amygdalic acid, gallic acid cetyl ester, protocatechuic acid (PA), fustin, ethyl gallate (EG), garbanzol, fisetin, sulfuretin, butin and 3,7-dihydroxyflavanone-4'-rhamnoside...
January 18, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099856/screening-bioactives-reveals-nanchangmycin-as-a-broad-spectrum-antiviral-active-against-zika-virus
#18
Keiko Rausch, Brent A Hackett, Nathan L Weinbren, Sophia M Reeder, Yoel Sadovsky, Christopher A Hunter, David C Schultz, Carolyn B Coyne, Sara Cherry
Zika virus is an emerging arthropod-borne flavivirus for which there are no vaccines or specific therapeutics. We screened a library of 2,000 bioactive compounds for their ability to block Zika virus infection in three distinct cell types with two different strains of Zika virus. Using a microscopy-based assay, we validated 38 drugs that inhibited Zika virus infection, including FDA-approved nucleoside analogs. Cells expressing high levels of the attachment factor AXL can be protected from infection with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, while placental-derived cells that lack AXL expression are insensitive to this inhibition...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099482/a-new-statistical-approach-to-characterize-chemical-elicited-behavioral-effects-in-high-throughput-studies-using-zebrafish
#19
Guozhu Zhang, Lisa Truong, Robert L Tanguay, David M Reif
Zebrafish have become an important alternative model for characterizing chemical bioactivity, partly due to the efficiency at which systematic, high-dimensional data can be generated. However, these new data present analytical challenges associated with scale and diversity. We developed a novel, robust statistical approach to characterize chemical-elicited effects in behavioral data from high-throughput screening (HTS) of all 1,060 Toxicity Forecaster (ToxCast™) chemicals across 5 concentrations at 120 hours post-fertilization (hpf)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099120/the-clinical-significance-of-platelet-microparticle-associated-micrornas
#20
Patrick Provost
Circulating blood platelets play a central role in the maintenance of hemostasis. They adhere to subendothelial extracellular matrix proteins that become exposed upon vessel wall damage, which is followed by platelet activation, further platelet recruitment, platelet aggregation and formation of an occlusive, or non-occlusive, platelet thrombus. Platelets host a surprisingly diverse transcriptome, which is comprised of ~9500 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and different classes of non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs, as well as a significant repertoire of proteins that contribute to their primary (adhesion, aggregation, granule secretion) and alternative (RNA transfer, mRNA translation, immune regulation) functions...
January 18, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
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