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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793150/exploring-the-victimization%C3%A2-early-substance-misuse-relationship-in-search-of-moderating-and-mediating-effects
#1
Glenn D Walters, Dorothy L Espelage
This study was designed to address two research questions. The first research question asked whether physical abuse victimization at the hands of parents/guardians, bullying victimization at the hands of peers, and the abuse x bullying interaction encouraged early involvement in substance misuse. The second research question inquired as to whether the victimization‒substance misuse relationship was mediated by variables proposed by various theories and research studies-specifically, cognitive impulsivity, negative affect, and low self-esteem...
May 21, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793149/educational-and-emotional-health-outcomes-in-adolescence-following-maltreatment-in-early-childhood-a-population-based-study-of-protective-factors
#2
Nisreen Khambati, Liam Mahedy, Jon Heron, Alan Emond
Although childhood maltreatment is associated with long-term impairment, some children function well despite this adversity. This study aimed to identify the key protective factors for good educational attainment and positive emotional health in adolescents who experienced maltreatment in early childhood. Data were analyzed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large UK prospective cohort study. The sample was defined by maternally reported exposure to physical or emotional maltreatment by a parent prior to 5 years...
May 21, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793095/sex-hormones-affect-acute-and-chronic-stress-responses-in-sexually-dimorphic-patterns-consequences-for-depression-models
#3
Lei Guo, Yi-Xi Chen, Yu-Ting Hu, Xue-Yan Wu, Yang He, Juan-Li Wu, Man-Li Huang, Matthew Mason, Ai-Min Bao
BACKGROUND: Alterations in peripheral sex hormones may play an important role in sex differences in terms of stress responses and mood disorders. It is not yet known whether and how stress-related brain systems and brain sex steroid levels fluctuate in relation to changes in peripheral sex hormone levels, or whether the different sexes show different patterns. We aimed to investigate systematically, in male and female rats, the effect of decreased circulating sex hormone levels following gonadectomy on acute and chronic stress responses, manifested as changes in plasma and hypothalamic sex steroids and hypothalamic stress-related molecules...
May 21, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792851/collagen-induced-arthritis-in-dark-agouti-rats-as-a-model-for-study-of-immunological-sexual-dimorphisms-in-the-human-disease
#4
Mirjana Dimitrijević, Nevena Arsenović-Ranin, Biljana Bufan, Mirjana Nacka-Aleksić, Mirjana Lazarević Macanović, Petar Milovanović, Marija Đurić, Jelena Sopta, Gordana Leposavić
Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is a frequently used animal model of rheumatoid arthritis, human autoimmune disease that exhibits clear sex bias in incidence and clinical course. Female Dark Agouti rats immunized for CIA showed also greater incidence and higher arthritic score than their male counterparts. The study investigated sex differences in mechanisms controlling the primary immune responses in draining lymph nodes (dLNs), as a factor contributing to this dimorphism. The higher frequencies of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3- cells, presumably activated effector T (Teff) cells, and IL-17+, IFN-γ + and IL-17 + IFN-γ + T cells were found in female comapared with male rat dLNs...
May 21, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792583/educator-sexual-misconduct-and-texas-educator-discipline-database-construction
#5
Catherine E Robert, David P Thompson
The purpose of this research is to describe Texas educator sexual misconduct (ESM) by examining 8 years of sanctions issued to educators (N = 1415) for either sexual misconduct or inappropriate relationships with students or minors. We first examine Texas ESM from the perspective of quality database construction and then describe the demographic characteristics of educators sanctioned for ESM between 2008 and 2016. Differences in the demographic characteristics of educators sanctioned for ESM vary according to the definition of ESM employed by the state education agency...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792582/advancing-child-sexual-abuse-prevention-in-schools-an-exploration-of-the-effectiveness-of-the-enough-online-training-program-for-k-12-teachers
#6
Melinda Gushwa, Jetta Bernier, David Robinson
Child sexual abuse (CSA) in schools and educator misconduct represents a threat to the safety and well-being of our children. The Enough! Preventing Child Sexual Abuse in My School program is a 1-hour online training course developed to address the problem of sexual misconduct and CSA in K-12 education via the use of two avatars/teachers who are navigating CSA and misconduct in their schools. One hundred and thirty-four teachers from three school districts participated in a study to examine the effectiveness of the program in terms of knowledge awareness, including prevalence rates, types of CSA behaviors, impact of CSA on children, signs and symptoms, reporting responsibilities and responses to suspected abuse...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792581/victimization-and-violence-an-exploration-of-the-relationship-between-child-sexual-abuse-violence-and-delinquency
#7
Rebecca Shoaf Kozak, Melinda Gushwa, Tamara J Cadet
Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a major public health issue with significant short- and long-term consequences. However, little contemporary research has examined the relationship between CSA and delinquent and violent behavior in adolescence. Children who have been sexually abused experience a unique form of victimization compared to children who have endured other forms of maltreatment, as CSA can result in feelings of shame, powerlessness and boundary violations. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of CSA on delinquent and violent behavior in adolescence...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792522/love-sex-and-personality-pathology-a-life-history-view-of-personality-pathologies-and-sociosexuality
#8
Peter K Jonason, Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Talia Hashmani
Love and sex are fundamental needs of most people, yet little research has examined such aspects of life in relation to personality pathologies. We examined the associations between pathological personality traits (i.e., negative affectivity, disinhibition, antagonism, psychoticism, and detachment) and sociosexuality (i.e., short-term mating orientation, long-term mating orientation, and sexual behavior) among 702 university students. In addition, we examined the mediating role of life history speed and tested whether sex moderated the associations that these pathological personality traits had with sociosexuality...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792506/testing-the-validity-of-criminal-risk-assessment-tools-in-sexually-abusive-youth
#9
Steffen Barra, Cornelia Bessler, Markus A Landolt, Marcel Aebi
Although accurate risk appraisals are mandatory to provide effective treatment to juveniles who have sexually offended (JSOs), the current knowledge on the validity of risk assessment instruments for JSOs is inconclusive. We compared the predictive validities of the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol II (J-SOAP II), the Estimate of Risk of Adolescent Sexual Offense Recidivism (ERASOR), and the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide-Revised (VRAG-R) scores concerning sexual, nonsexual-violent, and general criminal recidivism (based on both official and nonregistered reoffenses) in a consecutive sample of 597 male JSOs (Mage = 14...
May 24, 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792502/successful-validation-of-the-cat-mh-scales-in-a-sample-of-latin-american-migrants-in-the-united-states-and-spain
#10
Robert D Gibbons, Margarita Alegría, Li Cai, Lizbeth Herrera, Sheri Lapatin Markle, Francisco Collazos, Enrique Baca-García
We examined cultural differences in the item characteristic functions of self-reported of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and mania-hypomania in a Latino population taking Computerized Adaptive Tests for Mental Health (CAT-MH) in Spanish versus a non-Latino sample taking the tests in English. We studied differential item functioning (DIF) of the most common adaptively administered symptom items out of a bank of 1,008 items between Latino (n = 1276) and non-Latino (n = 798) subjects. For depression, we identified 4 items with DIF that were good discriminators for non-Latinos but poor discriminators for Latinos...
May 24, 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792479/-fewer-but-not-weaker-understanding-the-intersectional-identities-among-chinese-immigrant-young-gay-men-in-toronto
#11
Yu-Te Huang, Lin Fang
Sexual minorities of color in North America are frequently defined as a "double minority" group. Intersectionality theory has inspired investigations into how different forms of marginalization intersect to shape the lives of people with multiple minority statuses. In this constructivist grounded theory study, 18 Chinese immigrant gay men between 18 and 28 years of age participated in a semistructured individual interview to narrate their lived experiences in relation to their intersectional identities...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792308/logical-modelling-uncovers-developmental-constraints-for-primary-sex-determination-of-chicken-gonads
#12
Lucas Sánchez, Claudine Chaouiya
In the chicken, sex determination relies on a ZZ (male)/ZW (female) chromosomal system, but underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. The Z-dosage and the dominant W-chromosome hypotheses have been proposed to underlie primary sex determination. We present a modelling approach, which assembles the current knowledge and permits exploration of the regulation of this process in chickens. Relying on published experimental data, we assembled a gene network, which led to a logical model that integrates both the Z-dosage and dominant W hypotheses...
May 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792307/putative-vaccine-candidates-and-drug-targets-identified-by-reverse-vaccinology-and-subtractive-genomics-approaches-to-control-haemophilus-ducreyi-the-causative-agent-of-chancroid
#13
Alissa de Sarom, Arun Kumar Jaiswal, Sandeep Tiwari, Letícia de Castro Oliveira, Debmalya Barh, Vasco Azevedo, Carlo Jose Oliveira, Siomar de Castro Soares
Chancroid is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi The control of chancroid is difficult and the only current available treatment is antibiotic therapy; however, antibiotic resistance has been reported in endemic areas. Owing to recent outbreaks of STIs worldwide, it is important to keep searching for new treatment strategies and preventive measures. Here, we applied reverse vaccinology and subtractive genomic approaches for the in silico prediction of potential vaccine and drug targets against 28 strains of H...
May 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792255/effectiveness-of-adolescent-peer-education-programs-on-reducing-hiv-sti-risk-an-integrated-review
#14
Ganga Mahat, Mary Ann Scoloveno
There is empirical evidence suggesting that peer education is efficacious in changing adolescent sexual risk behaviors; however, it is unclear if there are similarities in outcomes across studies. Thus, the purpose of this review was to synthesize published research on peer-led HIV/STI intervention programs for adolescents in an effort to determine the efficacy of peer education on knowledge, attitudes, normative beliefs, and sexual behavior. Data collection included online searches of published research from Index Medicus (Medline), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), Educational Index, and PsycINFO (including PsycARTICLES) from 2000 to 2016...
May 1, 2018: Research and Theory for Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792253/genocide-rape-trauma-a-conceptual-framework-for-understanding-the-psychological-suffering-of-rwandan-survivors
#15
Donatilla Mukamana, Anthony Collins, William E Rosa
In 1994, the Rwandan genocide claimed the lives of approximately 1 million Tutsi and moderate Hutu citizens. Systematic rape was a strategic component of the Hutu extremist plan to eradicate the Tutsi minority population. This involved collective and repeated sexual assaults with brutal violence, public humiliation, and torture. This article maps the ongoing psychological impact on Rwandan genocide rape survivors and identifies implications for international nursing practice. The research formalizes their narratives, identifying a number of interconnected elements that combine to produce myriad forms of chronic psychological suffering in the Rwandan context...
May 1, 2018: Research and Theory for Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792129/exploring-intimate-partner-violence-before-during-and-after-pregnancy-in-bangladesh
#16
Md Jahirul Islam, Lisa Broidy, Paul Mazerolle, Kathleen Baird, Nurunnahar Mazumder
Intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant or postpartum women is known to have multiple detrimental effects on women and their children. Although results from past research suggest much continuity in trajectories of IPV, it is unclear whether pregnancy interrupts or augments these patterns. Little is known about how physical, sexual, and psychological IPV change and overlap throughout a woman's transition to parenthood. Relying on population-based data, this study examines the prevalence, co-occurring nature, and the changing patterns of physical, sexual, and psychological IPV before, during, and after pregnancy in Bangladesh...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791707/evaluation-of-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-a-novel-radiofrequency-device-for-vaginal-treatment
#17
Jeffrey C Caruth
INTRODUCTION: Vaginal laxity and atrophy are caused mainly by aging and vaginal childbirth, which lead to a loss of strength and flexibility within the vaginal wall. As a result, women may experience vaginal, pelvic, sexual and urinary symptoms that significantly affect their quality of life. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a novel radiofrequency (RF) device for internal and external vaginal treatment. METHODS: Thirty women who had been diagnosed with symptoms of vaginal laxity and pelvic relaxation received a single treatment that consisted of continuous RF in the internal genitalia and continuous RF followed by fractional RF in the external vulva...
June 1, 2018: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791641/suicidal-ideation-and-attempt-of-older-women-in-northeastern-brazil
#18
Raimunda Magalhães da Silva, Girliani Silva de Sousa, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza Vieira, José Manuel Peixoto Caldas, Maria Cecília de Souza Minayo
OBJECTIVE: to associate the life experiences of older women from the Northeast of Brazil with their suicidal ideation and attempts. METHOD: Qualitative study with fourteen older adults from Piripiri (PI), Teresina (PI), Fortaleza (CE) and Recife (PE) who were interviewed between November 2013 and July 2014. The organization of data originated the themes: experiences of abuse throughout their lives; marital fractures and social isolation; weakened motherhood. RESULTS: The women were born and lived most of their life in the countryside, amid poverty and social exclusion...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791514/high-prevalence-of-syndemic-health-problems-in-patients-seeking-post-exposure-prophylaxis-for-sexual-exposures-to-hiv
#19
Steven A Morrison, Deborah Yoong, Trevor A Hart, Paul MacPherson, Isaac Bogoch, Vishalini Sivarajah, Kevin Gough, Mark Naccarato, Darrell H S Tan
INTRODUCTION: The standard clinical approach to non-occupational HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) focuses on biomedical aspects of the intervention, but may overlook co-occurring or 'syndemic' psychosocial problems that reinforce future vulnerability to HIV. We therefore sought to determine the prevalence of syndemic health problems in a cohort of Ontario nPEP patients, and explored the relationship between syndemic burden and HIV risk. METHODS: Between 07/2013-08/2016, we distributed a self-administered questionnaire to patients presenting to three clinics in Toronto and Ottawa seeking nPEP for sexual HIV exposures...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791433/the-belfast-youth-development-study-byds-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-the-initiation-persistence-and-desistance-of-substance-use-from-adolescence-to-adulthood-in-northern-ireland
#20
Kathryn Higgins, Aisling McLaughlin, Oliver Perra, Claire McCartan, Mark McCann, Andrew Percy, Julie-Ann Jordan
BACKGROUND: Substance misuse persists as a major public health issue worldwide with significant costs for society. The development of interventions requires methodologically sound studies to explore substance misuse causes and consequences. This Cohort description paper outlines the design of the Belfast Youth Development (BYDS), one of the largest cohort studies of its kind in the UK. The study was established to address the need for a long-term prospective cohort study to investigate the initiation, persistence and desistance of substance use, alongside life course processes in adolescence and adulthood...
2018: PloS One
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