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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634061/isolation-of-a-protease-resistant-and-ph-stable-%C3%AE-galactosidase-displaying-hydrolytic-efficacy-toward-raffinose-family-oligosaccharides-from-the-button-mushroom-agaricus-bisporus
#1
Yujing Hu, Mengjuan Zhu, Guoting Tian, Liyan Zhao, Hexiang Wang, Tzi Bun Ng
A 45-kDa monomeric acidic α-galactosidase with a specific activity of 193.12 units/mg was isolated from the fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus. Blast search of internal peptide sequences suggested that it is a member of GH family 27 and it is most similar to hypothetical protein AGABI2DRAFT_70106. The enzyme displayed maximal activity at pH 4.0 and 60°C, respectively. The enzyme remained stable within the pH range 2.0-9.0 but its activity was markedly suppressed in the presence of Cu(2+), Hg(2+), Fe(3+) and Ag(+) ions...
June 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630461/antrodia-cinnamomea-reduces-obesity-and-modulates-the-gut-microbiota-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#2
C-J Chang, C-C Lu, C-S Lin, J Martel, Y-F Ko, D M Ojcius, T-R Wu, Y-H Tsai, T-S Yeh, J-J Lu, H-C Lai, J D Young
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis, disrupted intestinal barrier and chronic inflammation. Given the high and increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide, anti-obesity treatments that are safe, effective and widely available would be beneficial. We examined whether the medicinal mushroom Antrodia cinnamomea may reduce obesity in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD for eight weeks to induce obesity and chronic inflammation...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630111/investigation-of-seizure-susceptibility-in-a-drosophila-model-of-human-epilepsy-with-optogenetic-stimulation
#3
Arunesh Saras, Veronica V Wu, Harlan J Brawer, Mark A Tanouye
We examined seizure-susceptibility in a Drosophila model of human epilepsy using optogenetic stimulation of ReaChR opsin. Photostimulation of the seizure-sensitive mutant para(bss1) causes behavioral paralysis that resembles paralysis caused by mechanical stimulation, in many aspects. Electrophysiology shows that photostimulation evokes abnormal seizure-like neuronal firing in para(bss1) followed by a quiescent period resembling synaptic failure and apparently responsible for paralysis. The pattern of neuronal activity concludes with seizure-like activity just prior to recovery (recovery)...
June 19, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627422/down-regulation-of-kv4-channel-in-drosophila-mushroom-body-neurons-contributes-to-a%C3%AE-42-induced-courtship-memory-deficits
#4
Ge Feng, Jie Pang, Xin Yi, Qian Song, Jiaxing Zhang, Can Li, Guang He, Yong Ping
Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) is widely believed to be an early event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Kv4 is an A-type K(+) channel, and our previous report shows the degradation of Kv4, induced by the Aβ42 accumulation, may be a critical contributor to the hyperexcitability of neurons in a Drosophila AD model. Here, we used well-established courtship memory assay to investigate the contribution of the Kv4 channel to short-term memory (STM) deficits in the Aβ42-expressing AD model. We found that Aβ42 over-expression in Drosophila leads to age-dependent courtship STM loss, which can be also induced by driving acute Aβ42 expression post-developmentally...
June 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612628/radioactive-caesium-134-cs-and-137-cs-in-mushrooms-of-the-genus-boletus-from-the-reggio-emilia-in-italy-and-pomerania-in-poland
#5
Luigi Cocchi, Karolina Kluza, Tamara Zalewska, Anna Apanel, Jerzy Falandysz
Activity concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were determined in mushrooms of the Boletus species B. aereus, B. reticulatus, B. appendiculatus, B. calopus, B. edulis, B. erythropus, B. fechtneri, B. pinophilus, B. pseudoregius, B. rhodopurpureus, B. rhodoxanthus collected in the Reggio Emilia, Italy, in 1993 and 1994 and in B. edulis collected in Pomerania in northern Poland in the period from 1995-2015. Boletus edulis from the Reggio Emilia showed presence of (137)Cs at 330 ± 220 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in 1993 and at 370 ± 180 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in 1994...
June 14, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611605/different-roles-for-honey-bee-mushroom-bodies-and-central-complex-in-visual-learning-of-colored-lights-in-an-aversive-conditioning-assay
#6
Jenny A Plath, Brian V Entler, Nicholas H Kirkerud, Ulrike Schlegel, C Giovanni Galizia, Andrew B Barron
The honey bee is an excellent visual learner, but we know little about how and why it performs so well, or how visual information is learned by the bee brain. Here we examined the different roles of two key integrative regions of the brain in visual learning: the mushroom bodies and the central complex. We tested bees' learning performance in a new assay of color learning that used electric shock as punishment. In this assay a light field was paired with electric shock. The other half of the conditioning chamber was illuminated with light of a different wavelength and not paired with shocks...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605339/anti-mrsa-activity-of-fruiting-body-extracts-of-spectacular-rustgill-mushroom-gymnopilus-junonius-agaricomycetes
#7
Stephanie Barneche, Silvana Alborés, Graciela Borthagaray, María Pía Cerdeiras, Alvaro Vázquez
Despite the great advances in chemotherapeutics, infectious diseases are still one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Among some of the clinically relevant pathogens, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ranks as one of the most difficult bacteria to treat. It is a common cause of skin, soft-tissue, and endovascular infections, as well as pneumonia, septic arthritis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and sepsis. The research on Basidiomycota is extensive; many species show a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities, including antimicrobial activity...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605326/effect-of-different-proportions-of-agrowaste-on-cultivation-yield-and-nutritional-composition-of-the-culinary-medicinal-jelly-mushroom-auricularia-polytricha-higher-basidiomycetes
#8
Chiu-Yeh Wu, Chih-Hung Liang, Kuan-Jzen Wu, Hsin-Der Shih, Zeng-Chin Liang
In this study, Auricularia polytricha was cultivated on a sawdust basal substrate supplemented with different proportions (30%, 45%, and 60%, respectively) of agrowastes-sugarcane bagasse (SB), rice straw (RS), and rice husk (RH)-to evaluate the alternative substrates. The mycelial growth rate, total colonization time, time to first primordia, biological efficiency, and chemical composition of the fruiting bodies were determined. Results indicated that the 60% SB substrate was the best substrate for mycelial growth of A...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605320/preparative-isolation-of-5-antioxidant-constituents-from-the-medicinal-mushroom-phellinus-baumii-agaricomycetes-by-high-speed-countercurrent-chromatography-and-preparative-high-performance-liquid-chromatography
#9
Libin Ye, Hongjian Zheng, Zhong Zhang, Yan Yang
Four extract fractions from the fruiting bodies of Phellinus baumii were acquired. Preliminary investigation of radical scavenging ability showed that the ethyl acetate extract exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity. To gain insight into the antioxidant mechanism, 5 antioxidant constituents were prepared from the ethyl acetate extract using high-speed countercurrent chromatography with a solvent system consisting of n-hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water (0.8:3:1.5:2.5, v/v/v/v), and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605319/medicinal-mushrooms-in-human-clinical-studies-part-i-anticancer-oncoimmunological-and-immunomodulatory-activities-a-review
#10
Solomon P Wasser
More than 130 medicinal functions are thought to be produced by medicinal mushrooms (MMs) and fungi, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, antihypercholesterolemic, antiviral, antibacterial, antiparasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, and other effects. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active compounds in fruit bodies, cultured mycelia, and cultured broth. Special attention has been paid to mushroom polysaccharides...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597472/aroma-volatile-profile-of-black-morel-morchella-importuna-grown-in-israel
#11
Zipora Tietel, Segula Masaphy
BACKGROUND: Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method with gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to profile the aroma volatiles of mature fruiting bodies of Morchella importuna grown in Israel. RESULTS: We tentatively identified 40 aroma compounds and seven unknown volatiles. The M. importuna aroma profile consisted of 14 aldehydes, 6 alcohols, 10 methyl esters, 4 heterocyclic/sulfur compounds, 10 carbohydrates and 3 other compounds-one acid, one ketone and one butyl ester...
June 9, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592865/comparison-of-different-drying-methods-for-recovery-of-mushroom-dna
#12
Shouxian Wang, Yu Liu, Jianping Xu
Several methods have been reported for drying mushroom specimens for population genetic, taxonomic, and phylogenetic studies. However, most methods have not been directly compared for their effectiveness in preserving mushroom DNA. In this study, we compared silica gel drying at ambient temperature and oven drying at seven different temperatures. Two mushroom species representing two types of fruiting bodies were examined: the fleshy button mushroom Agaricus bisporus and the leathery shelf fungus Trametes versicolor...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586659/a-simple-computational-model-of-the-bee-mushroom-body-can-explain-seemingly-complex-forms-of-olfactory-learning-and-memory
#13
Fei Peng, Lars Chittka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585544/serotonin-modulates-a-depression-like-state-in-drosophila-responsive-to-lithium-treatment
#14
Ariane-Saskia Ries, Tim Hermanns, Burkhard Poeck, Roland Strauss
Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects millions of patients; however, the pathophysiology is poorly understood. Rodent models have been developed using chronic mild stress or unavoidable punishment (learned helplessness) to induce features of depression, like general inactivity and anhedonia. Here we report a three-day vibration-stress protocol for Drosophila that reduces voluntary behavioural activity. As in many MDD patients, lithium-chloride treatment can suppress this depression-like state in flies. The behavioural changes correlate with reduced serotonin (5-HT) release at the mushroom body (MB) and can be relieved by feeding the antidepressant 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan or sucrose, which results in elevated 5-HT levels in the brain...
June 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580949/upregulated-energy-metabolism-in-the-drosophila-mushroom-body-is-the-trigger-for-long-term-memory
#15
Pierre-Yves Plaçais, Éloïse de Tredern, Lisa Scheunemann, Séverine Trannoy, Valérie Goguel, Kyung-An Han, Guillaume Isabel, Thomas Preat
Efficient energy use has constrained the evolution of nervous systems. However, it is unresolved whether energy metabolism may resultantly regulate major brain functions. Our observation that Drosophila flies double their sucrose intake at an early stage of long-term memory formation initiated the investigation of how energy metabolism intervenes in this process. Cellular-resolution imaging of energy metabolism reveals a concurrent elevation of energy consumption in neurons of the mushroom body, the fly's major memory centre...
June 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572816/ergosterol-isolated-from-the-basidiomycete-pleurotus-salmoneostramineus-affects-trypanosoma-cruzi-plasma-membrane-and-mitochondria
#16
Tatiana Rodrigues Alexandre, Marta Lopes Lima, Mariana Kolos Galuppo, Juliana Tonini Mesquita, Matilia Ana do Nascimento, Augusto Leonardo Dos Santos, Patricia Sartorelli, Daniel Carvalho Pimenta, Andre Gustavo Tempone
BACKGROUND: Major drawbacks of the available treatment against Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) include its toxicity and therapeutic inefficiency in the chronic phase of the infection, which makes it a concern among neglected diseases. Therefore, the discovery of alternative drugs for treating chronic Chagas disease requires immediate action. In this work, we evaluated the mushroom Pleurotus salmoneostramineus in the search for potential antiparasitic compounds. METHODS: Fruit bodies of the basidiomycete Pleurotus salmoneostramineus were triturated and submitted to organic solvent extraction...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570075/comparative-proteome-reveals-metabolic-changes-during-the-fruiting-process-in-flammulina-velutipes
#17
Jing-Yu Liu, Ming-Chang Chang, Jun-Long Meng, Cui-Ping Feng, Hui Zhao, Ming-Liang Zhang
Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating the fruiting process in macro-fungi, especially industrially cultivated mushrooms, has long been a goal in mycological research. To gain insights into the events accompanying the transformation of mycelia into fruit-bodies in Flammulina velutipes, proteins expressed characteristically and abundantly at primordium and fruit-body stages were investigated by using the iTRAQ labeling technique. Among the 171 differentially expressed proteins, a total of 68 displayed up-regulated expression levels that were associated with 84 specific KEGG pathways...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555376/proteomic-analysis-revealed-the-fruiting-body-protein-profile-of-auricularia-polytricha
#18
Dinghong Jia, Bo Wang, Xiaolin Li, Weihong Peng, Jie Zhou, Hao Tan, Jie Tang, Zhongqian Huang, Wei Tan, Bingcheng Gan, Zhirong Yang, Jian Zhao
Auricularia polytricha is one of the most widely cultivated edible mushrooms in China. Many advances have been made to A. polytricha, but there is still no proteomic information of this species. Our current understanding was based upon the translated information of its transcriptome or other relative species. This study presented the proteomic information of fruiting-body proteins by shotgun liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), which identified 15,508 peptides corresponding to 1850 high-confidence proteins...
May 29, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554773/modulation-of-neuronal-activity-in-the-drosophila-mushroom-body-by-dopecr-a-unique-dual-receptor-for-ecdysone-and-dopamine
#19
REVIEW
Arianna Lark, Toshihiro Kitamoto, Jean-René Martin
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for steroid hormones mediate unconventional steroid signaling and play a significant role in the rapid actions of steroids in a variety of biological processes, including those in the nervous system. However, the effects of these GPCRs on overall neuronal activity remain largely elusive. Drosophila DopEcR is a GPCR that responds to both ecdysone (the major steroid hormone in insects) and dopamine, regulating multiple second messenger systems. Recent studies have revealed that DopEcR is preferentially expressed in the nervous system and involved in behavioral regulation...
May 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554138/pegylation-on-mixed-monolayer-gold-nanoparticles-effect-of-grafting-density-chain-length-and-surface-curvature
#20
Jiaqi Lin, Heng Zhang, Vahid Morovati, Roozbeh Dargazany
PEGylation on nanoparticles (NPs) is widely used to prevent aggregation and to mask NPs from the fast clearance system in the body. Understanding the molecular details of the PEG layer could facilitate rational design of PEGylated NPs that maximize their solubility and stealth ability without significantly compromising the targeting efficiency and cellular uptake. Here, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to understand the structural and dynamic the PEG coating of mixed monolayer gold NPs. Specifically, we modeled gold NPs with PEG grafting densities ranging from 0-2...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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