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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072817/drosophila-clock-is-required-in-brain-pacemaker-neurons-to-prevent-premature-locomotor-aging-independently-of-its-circadian-function
#1
Alexandra Vaccaro, Abdul-Raouf Issa, Laurent Seugnet, Serge Birman, André Klarsfeld
Circadian clocks control many self-sustained rhythms in physiology and behavior with approximately 24-hour periodicity. In many organisms, oxidative stress and aging negatively impact the circadian system and sleep. Conversely, loss of the clock decreases resistance to oxidative stress, and may reduce lifespan and speed up brain aging and neurodegeneration. Here we examined the effects of clock disruptions on locomotor aging and longevity in Drosophila. We found that lifespan was similarly reduced in three arrhythmic mutants (ClkAR, cyc0 and tim0) and in wild-type flies under constant light, which stops the clock...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071017/evaluation-of-the-potential-use-of-probiotic-strain-lactobacillus-plantarum-299v-in-lactic-fermentation-of-button-mushroom-fruiting-bodies
#2
Ewa Jabłońska-Ryś, Aneta Sławińska, Wojciech Radzki, Waldemar Gustaw
BACKGROUND: The available literature does not provide data on the application of probiotic strains in mushroom processing. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential to use the L. plantarum 299v strain with documented probiotic properties in the process of lactic fermentation of button mushroom fruiting bodies (Agaricus bisporus). METHODS: Fresh button mushroom fruiting bodies and cultures of lactic acid bacteria L. plantarum Ib and a probiotic strain L...
October 2016: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018916/tricholoma-matsutake-aqueous-extract-induces-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cell-apoptosis-via-caspase-dependent-mitochondrial-pathway
#3
Yanzhen Wang, Yiling Chen, Xinrui Zhang, Guangsheng Cai, Shengshu An, Xue Wang, Lirong Teng, Di Wang
Tricholoma matsutake, one of widely accepted functional mushrooms, possesses various pharmacological activities, and its antitumor effect has become an important research point. Our study aims to evaluate the cytotoxicity activities of T. matsutake aqueous extract (TM) in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells. In in vitro experiments, TM strikingly reduced cell viability, promoted cell apoptosis, inhibited cell migration ability, induced excessive generation of ROS, and caused caspases cascade and mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017607/a-simple-computational-model-of-the-bee-mushroom-body-can-explain-seemingly-complex-forms-of-olfactory-learning-and-memory
#4
Fei Peng, Lars Chittka
Honeybees are models for studying how animals with relatively small brains accomplish complex cognition, displaying seemingly advanced (or "non-elemental") learning phenomena involving multiple conditioned stimuli. These include "peak shift" [1-4]-where animals not only respond to entrained stimuli, but respond even more strongly to similar ones that are farther away from non-rewarding stimuli. Bees also display negative and positive patterning discrimination [5], responding in opposite ways to mixtures of two odors than to individual odors...
December 18, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013555/primary-and-secondary-metabolites-of-an-european-edible-mushroom-and-its-nutraceutical-value-suillus-bellinii-inzenga-kuntze
#5
Alessandro Venditti, Claudio Frezza, Fabio Sciubba, Mauro Serafini, Armandodoriano Bianco
In this work, we report the study on the composition in primary and secondary metabolites of the polar and less-polar fractions obtained from the fruiting bodies of Suillus bellinii (Inzenga) Kuntze collected from Central Italy. Thirteen compounds were identified through a series of classical chromatographic methods and through spectroscopic techniques (nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS)), namely suillin (1), ergosterol (2), glutamic acid (3), isoleucine (4), leucine (5), threonine (6), tyrosine (7), valine (8), D-mannitol (9), sucrose (10), D-sorbitol (11), fumaric acid (12) and alanine (13)...
December 26, 2016: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008974/drosophila-microrna-34-impairs-axon-pruning-of-mushroom-body-%C3%AE-neurons-by-downregulating-the-expression-of-ecdysone-receptor
#6
Yen-Wei Lai, Sao-Yu Chu, Jia-Yi Wei, Chu-Ya Cheng, Jian-Chiuan Li, Po-Lin Chen, Chun-Hong Chen, Hung-Hsiang Yu
MicroRNA-34 (miR-34) is crucial for preventing chronic large-scale neurite degeneration in the aged brain of Drosophila melanogaster. Here we investigated the role of miR-34 in two other types of large-scale axon degeneration in Drosophila: axotomy-induced axon degeneration in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and developmentally related axon pruning in mushroom body (MB) neurons. Ectopically overexpressed miR-34 did not inhibit axon degeneration in OSNs following axotomy, whereas ectopically overexpressed miR-34 in differentiated MB neurons impaired γ axon pruning...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008813/evaluation-of-anticholinesterase-and-inflammation-inhibitory-activity-of-medicinal-mushroom-phellinus-pini-basidiomycetes-fruiting-bodies
#7
Kyung Hoan Im, Trung Kien Nguyen, Jae Kwang Kim, Jae-Hyuk Choi, Tae Soo Lee
Phellinus pini, a medicinal mushroom, has been used as folk medicine in Asian countries for treating ailments such as cancer and gastrointestinal diseases. In this study we evaluated in vitro the antidementia and anti-inflammatory activities of Ph. Pini fruiting bodies. Eleven phenol compounds were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory effects of a methanol extract and a hot water extract were moderate and comparable with those of galanthamine, the standard drug used to treat the early stages of Alzheimer's disease...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008812/anti-inflammation-properties-of-fruiting-bodies-and-submerged-cultured-mycelia-of-culinary-medicinal-higher-basidiomycetes-mushrooms
#8
Rao-Chi Chien, Lan-Min Lin, Yuan-Hua Chang, Yu-Chieh Lin, Pei-Hsuan Wu, Mikheil D Asatiani, Sophie-Gabrielle Wasser, Maxim Krakhmalnyi, Abed Agbarya, Solomon P Wasser, Jeng-Leun Mau
This research shows the phenolic composition and anti-inflammation properties of fruiting bodies and mycelia of 15 strains of 12 species of higher Basidiomycetes medicinal mushrooms. In this research, 15 extracts were prepared and their effects on inflammation-related mediators in RAW 264.7 cells were evaluated. In the extracts, amounts of total phenols ranged from 8.47 to 70.32 gallic acid equivalents mg/g and amounts of flavonoids ranged from 0.13 to 15.21 rutin equivalents mg/g. The production of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 was decreased at different levels by these extracts, whereas the production of interleukin-10 was increased by 6 of the extracts...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008809/medicinal-properties-of-the-genus-clitocybe-and-of-lectins-from-the-clouded-funnel-cap-mushroom-c-nebularis-agaricomycetes-a-review
#9
Jure Pohleven, Janko Kos, Jerica Sabotic
Current knowledge of the medicinal properties of Basidiomycetes mushroom species of the genus Clitocybe and of the biological activity of C. nebularis fruiting bodies is reviewed. The main focus is the therapeutic potential of lectins from C. nebularis. Species of the genus Clitocybe, including C. nebularis, have not been traditionally considered as medicinal mushrooms; however, recent studies have demonstrated their antitumor, immunomodulatory, and antioxidative properties, their antimicrobial (antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal) activities against various bacteria and fungi, as well as their potential use in therapy for alcoholism and as psychotropic agents...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008808/antitumor-activity-of-extracts-from-medicinal-basidiomycetes-mushrooms
#10
Elena Vetchinkina, Alexandr Shirokov, Alla Bucharskaya, Nikita Navolokin, Artur Prilepskii, Andrey Burov, Galina Maslyakova, Valentina E Nikitina
Aqueous extracts from the vegetative submerged mycelia of cultivated Basidiomycetes Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes, and Grifola frondosa, as well as from the fruiting bodies of G. lucidum, were found to have antitumor activity. The antitumor effect of the mycelial extracts from all 3 fungal species was ascertained in vivo in rats with implanted kidney cancer. Dystrophic changes in tumor cells and tumor necrosis (up to 90%) were noted. In vitro cytotoxicity studies of the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line and HEp-2 human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma cells showed that the extracts from the G...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008309/role-of-drosophila-amyloid-precursor-protein-in-memory-formation
#11
REVIEW
Thomas Preat, Valérie Goguel
The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a membrane protein engaged in complex proteolytic pathways. APP and its derivatives have been shown to play a central role in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by memory decline. Despite a huge effort from the research community, the primary cause of AD remains unclear, making it crucial to better understand the physiological role of the APP pathway in brain plasticity and memory. Drosophila melanogaster is a model system well-suited to address this issue...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006812/coping-with-brackish-water-a-new-species-of-cave-dwelling-i-protosuberites-i-porifera-demospongiae-suberitidae-from-the-western-mediterranean-and-a-first-contribution-to-the-phylogenetic-relationships-within-the-genus
#12
Paolo Melis, Ana Riesgo, Sergio Taboada, Renata Manconi
We used both morphological and genetic approaches to investigate and to describe a new Mediterranean sponge species of the genus Protosuberites from the estuarine-anchialine Bue Marino Cave of Sardinia (Tyrrhenian Sea). The morphotraits of the specimens were compared versus congeneric species with the strongest affinities, covering the genus geographic range worldwide. Protosuberites mereui sp. nov. is light yellow, thinly encrusting, devoid of any special ectosomal skeleton, with spicular complement of tylostyles of three size classes, single or arranged in bundles/tufts, with round to suboval heads...
December 18, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997541/suppression-of-dopamine-neurons-mediates-reward
#13
Nobuhiro Yamagata, Makoto Hiroi, Shu Kondo, Ayako Abe, Hiromu Tanimoto
Massive activation of dopamine neurons is critical for natural reward and drug abuse. In contrast, the significance of their spontaneous activity remains elusive. In Drosophila melanogaster, depolarization of the protocerebral anterior medial (PAM) cluster dopamine neurons en masse signals reward to the mushroom body (MB) and drives appetitive memory. Focusing on the functional heterogeneity of PAM cluster neurons, we identified that a single class of PAM neurons, PAM-γ3, mediates sugar reward by suppressing their own activity...
December 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987815/isolation-purification-structural-analysis-and-immunostimulatory-activity-of-water-soluble-polysaccharides-from-grifola-frondosa-fruiting-body
#14
Meng Meng, Dai Cheng, Lirong Han, Yuanyuan Chen, Chunling Wang
A new polysaccharide had been successfully isolated from maitake mushroom (Grifola Frondosa)-GFP. HPLC and Monosaccharide analysis showed that the average molecular weight of GFP was 155kDa and it was mainly composed of rhamnose, xylose, mannose, glucose, molar ratio of 1.00: 1.04: 1.11: 6.21. FTIR, methylation analysis and NMR were used to analyze the structural characterization of GFP. Structural analysis results revealed that its backbone consisted of (1→4)-linked methylation, Glcp residues were major structural polysaccharide GFP units, accounting of the polysaccharide backbone speculate GFP every→3)-Glcp-(1→and one→3,4)-Glcp-(1→connected interval with a small amount of 1→, 1→4, 1→6 glycosidic linkage...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984821/accumulation-and-distribution-of-metallic-elements-and-metalloids-in-edible-amanita-fulva-mushrooms
#15
Jerzy Falandysz, Małgorzata Drewnowska, Maria Chudzińska, Danuta Barałkiewicz
Baseline concentrations of Ag, Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sr, Tl, V, U and Zn were presented in Amanita fulva collected from unpolluted areas in Poland. There is no previous data published on the bio-element constituents of A. fulva. A very narrow range of values was determined by ICP-DRC-MS and ICP-AES for the trace elements Ag, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Rb, Sr, Tl and Zn in caps and of Ag, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Sr, U and Zn in stipes and also for the macro elements K, P, Na and Mg. The fruitbodies of A...
March 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981196/social-defeat-stress-induces-depression-like-behavior-and-alters-spine-morphology-in-the-hippocampus-of-adolescent-male-c57bl-6-mice
#16
Sergio D Iñiguez, Antonio Aubry, Lace M Riggs, Jason B Alipio, Roseanna M Zanca, Francisco J Flores-Ramirez, Mirella A Hernandez, Steven J Nieto, David Musheyev, Peter A Serrano
Social stress, including bullying during adolescence, is a risk factor for common psychopathologies such as depression. To investigate the neural mechanisms associated with juvenile social stress-induced mood-related endophenotypes, we examined the behavioral, morphological, and biochemical effects of the social defeat stress model of depression on hippocampal dendritic spines within the CA1 stratum radiatum. Adolescent (postnatal day 35) male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to defeat episodes for 10 consecutive days...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979199/rare-earth-elements-in-parasol-mushroom-macrolepiota-procera
#17
Jerzy Falandysz, Atindra Sapkota, Małgorzata Mędyk, Xinbin Feng
This study aimed to investigate occurrence and distribution of 16 rare earth elements (REEs) in edible saprobic mushroom Macrolepiota procera, and to estimate possible intake and risk to human consumer. Mushrooms samples were collected from sixteen geographically diverse sites in the northern regions of Poland. The results showed that for Ce as the most abundant among the RREs in edible caps, the mean concentration was at 0.18±0.29mgkg(-1)dry biomass. The mean concentration for Σ16 REEs determined in caps of fungus was 0...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975202/contamination-level-distribution-and-health-risk-assessment-of-heavy-and-toxic-metallic-and-metalloid-elements-in-a-cultivated-mushroom-pleurotus-florida-mont-singer
#18
Rouhollah Khani, Maryam Moudi, Vahid Khojeh
There are great concentrations of toxic metallic and metalloid elements such as lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium or silver in many species of mushrooms comparative to other fruits and vegetables. In this study, contamination with heavy and toxic metallic and metalloid elements in the cultivated mushroom of (Pleurotus florida (Mont.) Singer) is investigated. P. florida was cultivated on different substrates; wheat straw (as blank), wheat straw + pine cone, wheat straw + soybean straw and wheat straw + urea and the effects of these substrates on contamination levels of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were analyzed...
December 15, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974514/neural-correlates-of-side-specific-odour-memory-in-mushroom-body-output-neurons
#19
Martin F Strube-Bloss, Martin P Nawrot, Randolf Menzel
Humans and other mammals as well as honeybees learn a unilateral association between an olfactory stimulus presented to one side and a reward. In all of them, the learned association can be behaviourally retrieved via contralateral stimulation, suggesting inter-hemispheric communication. However, the underlying neuronal circuits are largely unknown and neural correlates of across-brain-side plasticity have yet not been demonstrated. We report neural plasticity that reflects lateral integration after side-specific odour reward conditioning...
December 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958255/evaluation-of-serum-vitamin-b12-level-and-related-nutritional-status-among-apparently-healthy-obese-female-individuals
#20
D Baltaci, M H Deler, Y Turker, F Ermis, D Iliev, U Velioglu
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a major public health problem and great risk for not only cardiovascular diseases but also cancer, musculoskeletal, and gynecological diseases. This study was aimed to investigate the association between serum Vitamin B12 (vitB12), body mass index (BMI), and nutritional status among obese women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled consecutive female subjects. The consumptions of red meat, fish, bovine liver, egg, and mushroom were recorded...
January 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
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