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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337138/motor-skill-learning-in-an-insect-inspired-neuro-computational-control-system
#1
Eleonora Arena, Paolo Arena, Roland Strauss, Luca Patané
In nature, insects show impressive adaptation and learning capabilities. The proposed computational model takes inspiration from specific structures of the insect brain: after proposing key hypotheses on the direct involvement of the mushroom bodies (MBs) and on their neural organization, we developed a new architecture for motor learning to be applied in insect-like walking robots. The proposed model is a nonlinear control system based on spiking neurons. MBs are modeled as a nonlinear recurrent spiking neural network (SNN) with novel characteristics, able to memorize time evolutions of key parameters of the neural motor controller, so that existing motor primitives can be improved...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334042/whole-body-counter-wbc-and-food-radiocesium-contamination-surveys-in-namie-fukushima-prefecture
#2
Yoichiro Hosokawa, Kazuki Nomura, Eiki Tsushima, Kohsei Kudo, Yuka Noto, Yoshiko Nishizawa
PURPOSE: This study examined the internal Cs exposure of residents and the Cs present in food products produced in Namie. Whole-body counter (WBC) was used for the measurement of internal exposure per each whole body of examinees. METHODS: The food products which appeared to be used for consumption, were brought by residents and commercially available food items were excluded. Most of them were wild plants or food items produced by residents. Four years of data from April 2012 to March 2013 (fiscal 2012) and April 2015 to March 2016 (Fiscal 2015) were analyzed and studied...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328153/behavioral-transcriptomic-and-epigenetic-responses-to-social-challenge-in-honey-bees
#3
Hagai Y Shpigler, Michael C Saul, Emma E Murdoch, Amy C Cash-Ahmed, Christopher H Seward, Laura Sloofman, Sriram Chandrasekaran, Saurabh Sinha, Lisa J Stubbs, Gene E Robinson
Understanding how social experiences are represented in the brain and shape future responses is a major challenge in the study of behavior. We addressed this problem by studying behavioral, transcriptomic and epigenetic responses to intrusion in honey bees. Previous research showed that initial exposure to an intruder provokes an immediate attack; we now show that this also leads to longer-term changes in behavior in the response to a second intruder, with increases in the probability of responding aggressively and the intensity of aggression lasting two and one hours, respectively...
March 22, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324737/neuroscience-intelligence-in-the-honeybee-mushroom%C3%A2-body
#4
Sophie Caron, Larry F Abbott
Intelligence, in most people's conception, involves combining pieces of evidence to reach non-obvious conclusions. A recent theoretical study shows that intelligence-like brain functions can emerge from simple neural circuits, in this case the honeybee mushroom body.
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322150/a-novel-technique-for-rejuvenation-of-degenerated-caterpillar-medicinal-mushroom-cordyceps-militaris-ascomycetes-a-valued-traditional-chinese-medicine
#5
Anhui Chen, Yulong Wang, Ying Shao, Bo Huang
Cordyceps militaris has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for many years, but its frequent degeneration during continuous maintenance in culture can lead to substantial commercial losses. In this study, a degenerated strain of C. militaris was obtained by subculturing a wild-type strain through 10 successive subcultures. The relative abundance of the 2 mating types seems to be out of balance in the degenerated strain. By cross-mating 4 single-ascospore isolates (2 for MAT 1-1 and 2 for MAT 1-2) from the degenerated strain, we were able to restore fruiting body production to wild-type levels...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322144/antioxidant-and-antiproliferative-potential-of-fruiting-bodies-of-the-wild-growing-king-bolete-mushroom-boletus-edulis-agaricomycetes-from-western-serbia
#6
Aleksandra Novakovic, Maja Karaman, Sonja Kaisarevic, Tanja Radusin, Nebojsa Llic
The aim of this work was to study the bioactivity of crude aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Boletus edulis prepared from caps and stipes of wild-growing basidiocarps collected from the Prijepolje region (western Serbia). The bioactivity screening included antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH], nitric oxide, super-oxide anion*, and hydroxyl radicals and ferric-reducing antioxidant power) and antiproliferative MTT assays (human breast MCF-7 cancer cell line). In addition, all extracts were primarily characterized by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry to determine total phenolic and flavonoid contents...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322142/enhanced-release-of-immunostimulating-%C3%AE-1-3-glucan-by-autodigestion-of-the-lingzhi-medicinal-mushroom-ganoderma-lingzhi-agaricomycetes
#7
Yuina Ishimoto, Ken-Ichi Ishibashi, Daisuke Yamanaka, Yoshiyuki Adachi, Hisatomi Ito, Kentaro Igami, Toshitsugu Miyazaki, Naohito Ohno
Ganoderma lingzhi is a widely used medicinal mushroom that has antioxidative effects, ameliorates insulin resistance, and improves quality of life in patients with metabolic syndrome. Potentiation of immunity is also a major function of G. lingzhi, and this has been applied in patients with cancer. Supplementing G. lingzhi into foods reduced the metastasis of cancer cells. β-l,3-glucan is an important bioactive component of G. lingzhi. In this study we enhanced the solubilization ofimmunostimulating β-l,3-glucan by autodigestion of G...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316048/toxic-elements-and-bio-metals-in-cantharellus-mushrooms-from-poland-and-china
#8
Jerzy Falandysz, Maria Chudzińska, Danuta Barałkiewicz, Małgorzata Drewnowska, Anetta Hanć
Data on multi-trace element composition and content relationships have been obtained for Cantharellus cibarius, C. tubaeformis, and C. minor mushrooms from Poland and China by inductive coupled plasma-dynamic reaction cell-mass spectroscopy. There is no previous data published on As, Li, V, Tl, and U in chanterelles from Poland and on Ba, Co, Cr, Ni, Rb, and Sr in chanterelles from China. The results implied a role of the soil background geochemistry at the collection site with the occurrence of Ag, As, Ba, Cr, Cs, Li, Mn, Pb, Rb, Sr, U, and V in the fruiting bodies...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315853/effects-of-extracts-and-compounds-from-tricholoma-populinum-lange-on-degranulation-and-il-2-il-8-secretion-of-immune-cells
#9
Simon Merdivan, Kristina Jenett-Siems, Karsten Siems, Timo H J Niedermeyer, Nadin Schultze, Carmen Steinborn, Carsten Gründemann, Ulrike Lindequist
Tricholoma populinum Lange is an edible basidiomycete from the family Tricholomataceae. Extracts, fractions, and different metabolites isolated from the fruiting bodies of this mushroom were tested for degranulation-inhibiting activities on RBL-2H3 cells (rat basophils). Dichloromethane extracts decreased degranulation significantly, as did a fraction after column chromatography. In addition, the extract decreased the IL-2 release from Jurkat T cells and the release of IL-8 from HMC-1 human mast cells. The results show the significant effects of extracts of T...
March 20, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315765/modulation-of-immunocyte-functions-by-a-mucin-specific-lectin-from-aspergillus-gorakhpurensis
#10
Ram Sarup Singh, Hemant Preet Kaur, John F Kennedy
Lectins are non-immune proteins or glycoproteins with the ability to induce cell agglutination and mediate cellular and molecular recognition processes in a variety of biological interactions. Recently, several mushroom lectins have been reported to show immunomodulatory activities.The immunomodulatory potential of purified A. gorakhpurensis lectin was determined by evaluating its effect on systemic anaphylaxis reaction, arthus reaction, respiratory burst activity, nitric oxide production and levels of cytokines IFN-γ and IL-6...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314725/a-genome-survey-and-postharvest-transcriptome-analysis-in-lentinula-edodes
#11
Yuichi Sakamoto, Keiko Nakade, Shiho Sato, Kentaro Yoshida, Kazuhiro Miyazaki, Satoshi Natsume, Naotake Konno
Lentinula edodes is a popular cultivated edible and medicinal mushroom. Lentinula edodes is susceptible to postharvest problems such as gill browning, fruiting body softening, and lentinan degradation. We constructed a de novo assembly draft genome sequence and performed gene prediction of Lentinula edodesDe novo assembly was carried out using short reads from paired-end and mate-paired libraries and long reads by PacBio, resulting in a contig number of 1951 and an N50 of 1 Mb. Further, we predicted genes by Augustus using RNA-seq data from the whole life cycle of Lentinula edodes, resulting in 12,959 predicted genes...
March 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300055/mycophagous-rove-beetles-highlight-diverse-mushrooms-in-the-cretaceous
#12
Chenyang Cai, Richard A B Leschen, David S Hibbett, Fangyuan Xia, Diying Huang
Agaricomycetes, or mushrooms, are familiar, conspicuous and morphologically diverse Fungi. Most Agaricomycete fruiting bodies are ephemeral, and their fossil record is limited. Here we report diverse gilled mushrooms (Agaricales) and mycophagous rove beetles (Staphylinidae) from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber, the latter belonging to Oxyporinae, modern members of which exhibit an obligate association with soft-textured mushrooms. The discovery of four mushroom forms, most with a complete intact cap containing distinct gills and a stalk, suggests evolutionary stasis of body form for ∼99 Myr and highlights the palaeodiversity of Agaricomycetes...
March 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277082/specific-accumulation-of-cadmium-and-other-trace-elements-in-sarcodon-imbricatus-using-icp-ms-with-a-chemometric-approach
#13
Małgorzata Mędyk, Maria Chudzińska, Danuta Barałkiewicz, Jerzy Falandysz
Fungi can effectively accumulate various metallic elements, metalloids and non-metals in fruiting bodies. This study provides information on the accumulation of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cs, Cu, Cr, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V, Tl, U and Zn in the edible mushroom Sarcodon imbricatus (L.) P. Karst. using the technique of inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry with a dynamic reaction cell mode. Mushrooms were foraged from four regions in Poland. Baseline concentrations of minerals, expressed in mg kg(-1) dry biomass (db), were in the composite samples of caps in the range: for Ag (0...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276652/worker-brain-development-and-colony-organization-in-ants-does-division-of-labor-influence-neuroplasticity
#14
J Frances Kamhi, Aynsley Sandridge-Gresko, Christina Walker, Simon K A Robson, James F A Traniello
Brain compartment size allometries may adaptively reflect cognitive needs associated with behavioral development and ecology. Ants provide an informative system to study the relationship of neural architecture and development because worker tasks and sensory inputs may change with age. Additionally, tasks may be divided among morphologically and behaviorally differentiated worker groups (subcastes), reducing repertoire size through specialization and aligning brain structure with task-specific cognitive requirements...
March 9, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245532/volume-and-density-of-microglomeruli-in-the-honey-bee-mushroom-bodies-do-not-predict-performance-on-a-foraging-task
#15
Byron N Van Nest, Ashley E Wagner, Glen S Marrs, Susan E Fahrbach
The mushroom bodies (MBs) are insect brain regions important for sensory integration, learning, and memory. In adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera), the volume of neuropil associated with the MBs is larger in experienced foragers compared with hive bees and less experienced foragers. In addition, the characteristic synaptic structures of the calycal neuropils, the microglomeruli, are larger but present at lower density in 35-day-old foragers relative to 1-day-old workers. Age- and experience-based changes in plasticity of the MBs are assumed to support performance of challenging tasks, but the behavioral consequences of brain plasticity in insects are rarely examined...
February 28, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229436/purification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-ubiquitin-like-antitumour-protein-with-hemagglutinating-and-deoxyribonuclease-activities-from-the-edible-mushroom-ramaria-botrytis
#16
Rong Zhou, Ya-Jie Han, Min-Hui Zhang, Ke-Ren Zhang, Tzi Bun Ng, Fang Liu
A novel ubiquitin-like antitumour protein (RBUP) was isolated from fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Ramaria botrytis. The protein was isolated with a purification protocol involving ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose fast flow and gel filtration on Sephadex G-75. SDS-PAGE, Native-PAGE and ultracentrifugation analysis disclosed that RBUP was a monomeric protein with a molecular weight of 18.5 kDa. ESI-MS/MS demonstrated that it shared 69% amino acid sequence similarity with Coprinellus congregates ubiquitin (gi|136667)...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229215/sequence-analysis-and-expression-of-a-blue-light-photoreceptor-gene-slwc-1-from-the-cauliflower-mushroom-sparassis-latifolia
#17
Chi Yang, Lu Ma, Zhenghe Ying, Xiaoling Jiang, Yanquan Lin
Light is a necessary environmental factor for fruit body formation and development of the cauliflower mushroom Sparassis latifolia, a well-known edible and medicinal fungus. In this study, we firstly characterized the SP-C strain, which belonged to S. latifolia. And then we cloned and sequenced a photoreceptor gene (Slwc-1) from S. latifolia. The product of Slwc-1, SlWC-1 (872 aa residues) contained a coiled-coil region, a LOV domain, and two PAS domains. Phylogenetic tree result showed that SLWC-1 was most close to GfWC-1 from Grifola frondosa in edible and medicinal fungus...
April 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223318/a-drosophila-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome-exhibits-defects-in-phagocytosis-by-innate-immune-cells
#18
Reed M O'Connor, Elizabeth F Stone, Charlotte R Wayne, Emily V Marcinkevicius, Matt Ulgherait, Rebecca Delventhal, Meghan M Pantalia, Vanessa M Hill, Clarice G Zhou, Sophie McAllister, Anna Chen, Jennifer S Ziegenfuss, Wesley B Grueber, Julie C Canman, Mimi M Shirasu-Hiza
Fragile X syndrome, the most common known monogenic cause of autism, results from the loss of FMR1, a conserved, ubiquitously expressed RNA-binding protein. Recent evidence suggests that Fragile X syndrome and other types of autism are associated with immune system defects. We found that Drosophila melanogaster Fmr1 mutants exhibit increased sensitivity to bacterial infection and decreased phagocytosis of bacteria by systemic immune cells. Using tissue-specific RNAi-mediated knockdown, we showed that Fmr1 plays a cell-autonomous role in the phagocytosis of bacteria...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220999/drosophila-divalent-metal-ion-transporter-malvolio-is-required-in-dopaminergic-neurons-for-feeding-decisions
#19
E Søvik, A LaMora, G Seehra, A B Barron, J G Duncan, Y Ben-Shahar
Members of the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP) family are evolutionarily conserved metal ion transporters that play an essential role in regulating intracellular divalent cation homeostasis in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Malvolio (Mvl), the sole NRAMP family member in insects, plays a role in food choice behaviors in Drosophila and other species. However, the specific physiological and cellular processes that require the action of Mvl for appropriate feeding decisions remain elusive...
February 21, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215558/optimal-degrees-of-synaptic-connectivity
#20
Ashok Litwin-Kumar, Kameron Decker Harris, Richard Axel, Haim Sompolinsky, L F Abbott
Synaptic connectivity varies widely across neuronal types. Cerebellar granule cells receive five orders of magnitude fewer inputs than the Purkinje cells they innervate, and cerebellum-like circuits, including the insect mushroom body, also exhibit large divergences in connectivity. In contrast, the number of inputs per neuron in cerebral cortex is more uniform and large. We investigate how the dimension of a representation formed by a population of neurons depends on how many inputs each neuron receives and what this implies for learning associations...
February 16, 2017: Neuron
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