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mushroom bodies

Ha-Yeon Song, Dae-Hyuk Kim, Jung-Mi Kim
Lentinula edodes is a popular cultivated edible mushroom with high nutritional and medicinal value. To understand the regulation of gene expression in the dikaryotic mycelium and mature fruiting body in the commercially important Korean L. edodes strain, we first performed comparative transcriptomic analysis, using Illumina HiSeq platform. De novo assembly of these sequences revealed 11,675 representative transcripts in two different stages of L. edodes. A total of 9,092 unigenes were annotated and subjected to Gene Ontology, EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses...
June 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zohreh Fattahi, Taimoor I Sheikh, Luciana Musante, Memoona Rasheed, Ibrahim Ihsan Taskiran, Ricardo Harripaul, Hao Hu, Somayeh Kazeminasab, Muhammad Rizwan Alam, Masoumeh Hosseini, Farzaneh Larti, Zhila Ghaderi, Arzu Celik, Muhammad Ayub, Muhammad Ansar, Mohammad Haddadi, Thomas F Wienker, Hans Hilger Ropers, Kimia Kahrizi, John B Vincent, H Najmabadi
Exploring genes and pathways underlying Intellectual Disability (ID) provides insight into brain development and function, clarifying the complex puzzle of how cognition develops. As part of ongoing systematic studies to identify candidate ID genes, linkage analysis and next generation sequencing revealed ZBTB11, as a novel candidate ID gene. ZBTB11 encodes a less-studied transcription regulator and the two identified missense variants in this study may disrupt canonical Zn2+-binding residues of its C2H2 zinc finger domain, leading to possible altered DNA binding...
June 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Emily Jensen-Vargas, Christine Marizzi
Although significant progress has been made in our understanding of fungal diversity, identification based on phenotype can be difficult, even for trained experts. Fungi typically have a cryptic nature and can have a similar appearance to distantly related species. Moreover, the appearance of industrially processed mushrooms complicates species identification, as they are often sold sliced and dried. Here we present a small-scale citizen science project, wherein the participants generated and analyzed DNA sequences from fruiting bodies of dried and fresh fungi that were sold for commercial use in New York City supermarkets...
June 8, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Georgios Koutrotsios, Nick Kalogeropoulos, Andriana C Kaliora, Georgios Zervakis
Pleurotus ostreatus, P. eryngii and P. nebrodensis were cultivated on non-conventional substrates containing grape marc (GMC) or olive mill by-products (OMB); wheat straw (WHS) served as control. GMC-based media demonstrated equal/better mushroom productivity than WHS for P. eryngii and P. nebrodensis, while the cultivation performance of P. eryngii was improved in OMB-based media. Both GMC and OMB substrates led to large increase of fruit-bodies content in phenolic acids, resveratrol, triterpenic compounds and ergosterol; in particular, P...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Alja Lüdke, Georg Raiser, Johannes Nehrkorn, Andreas V M Herz, C Giovanni Galizia, Paul Szyszka
Animals can form associations between temporally separated stimuli. To do so, the nervous system has to retain a neural representation of the first stimulus until the second stimulus appears. The neural substrate of such sensory stimulus memories is unknown. Here, we search for a sensory odor memory in the insect olfactory system and characterize odorant-evoked Ca2+ activity at three consecutive layers of the olfactory system in Drosophila : in olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and projection neurons (PNs) in the antennal lobe, and in Kenyon cells (KCs) in the mushroom body...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Seung-Yoon Oh, Young Woon Lim
Tricholoma matsutake is an ectomycorrhizal fungus usually associated with Pinus densiflora in South Korea. Fruiting bodies (mushrooms) of T. matsutake are economically important due to their attractive aroma; yet, T. matsutake is uncultivatable and its habitat is rapidly being eradicated due to global climate change. Root-associated bacteria can influence the growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi that co-exist in the host rhizosphere and distinctive bacterial communities are associated with T. matsutake. In this study, we investigated how these bacterial communities affect T...
June 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Shuai Zhou, Jingsong Zhang, Fuying Ma, Chuanhong Tang, Qingjiu Tang, Xiaoyu Zhang
Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal mushroom that is well known for its ability to enhance human health, and products made from this fungus have been highly profitable. The substrate-degrading ability of G. lucidum could be related to its growth. CAZy proteins were more abundant in its genome than in the other white rot fungi models. Among these CAZy proteins, changes in lignocellulolytic enzymes during growth have not been well studied. Using genomic, transcriptomic and secretomic analyses, this study focuses on the lignocellulolytic enzymes of G...
2018: PloS One
Peter Amwoga Ayeka
Since time immemorial, plants and their compounds have been used in the treatment and management of various ailments. Currently, most of conventional drugs used for treatment of diseases are either directly or indirectly obtained from plant sources. The fungal group of plants is of significance, which not only provides food directly to man but also has been source of important drugs. For instance, commonly used antibiotics are derived from fungi. Fungi have also been utilized in the food industry, baking, and alcohol production...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Kohsuke Saito, Syohto Hazama, Yoshiki Oda, Munehiro Nakata
The current study found that an extract from the fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Hypsizygus marmoreus exhibited hemolytic activity against sheep red blood cells when its pH was lowered. Although hemolytic activity was not detected when an extract had a neutral pH, an extract with a low pH exhibited potent hemolytic activity. The maximal hemolytic activity was exhibited by an extract with a pH of 5.5. A heat-treated extract did not exhibit hemolytic activity before its pH was lowered, and that activity was inhibited in the presence of PMSF and EDTA...
May 29, 2018: Bioscience Trends
J Rouse, K Watkinson, A Bretman
Males of many species use social cues to predict sperm competition (SC) and tailor their reproductive strategies, such as ejaculate or behavioural investment, accordingly. While these plastic strategies are widespread, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Plastic behaviour requires individuals to learn and memorize cues associated with environmental change before using this experience to modify behaviour. Drosophila melanogaster respond to an increase in SC threat by extending mating duration after exposure to a rival male...
May 30, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Nancy L Tran, Norma T Takaesu, Elizabeth F Cornell, Stuart J Newfeld
CORL proteins (SKOR in mice and Fussel in humans) are a subfamily of central nervous system (CNS) specific proteins related to Sno/Ski oncogenes. Their developmental and homeostatic roles are largely unknown. We previously showed that Drosophila CORL ( dCORL ; fussel in Flybase) functions between the Activin receptor Baboon and Ecdysone Receptor-B1 (EcR-B1) activation in mushroom body neurons of third instar larval brains. To better understand dCORL regulation and function we generated a series of reporter genes...
May 30, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Wei Song, Lirong Zhao, Yiting Tao, Xia Guo, Jia Jia, Lei He, Yang Huang, Yan Zhu, Peng Chen, Hongtao Qin
Nociceptive stimulus involuntarily interrupts concurrent activities. This interruptive effect is related to the protective function of nociception that is believed to be under stringent evolutionary pressure. To determine whether such interruptive effect is conserved in invertebrate and potentially uncover underlying neural circuits, we examined Drosophila melanogaster. Electric shock (ES) is a commonly used nociceptive stimulus for nociception related research in Drosophila. Here we showed that background noxious ES dramatically interrupted odor response behaviors in a T-maze, which is termed blocking odor-response by electric-shock (BOBE)...
May 28, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Malin Hultberg, Thomas Prade, Hristina Bodin, Aleksandar Vidakovic, Håkan Asp
Wetlands have been successfully implemented as water purification systems for removal of plant nutrients and can play a significant role in nutrient recycling, depending on use of the harvested biomass. In a constructed wetland in southern Sweden examined in this study, assimilation of plant nutrients in wetland biomass corresponded to 234 kg/ha nitrogen, 22.8 kg/ha phosphorus, and 158 kg/ha potassium in the study year (2016). The harvested biomass, composed exclusively of common reed, was evaluated as a substrate for production of oyster mushrooms, one of the most widely produced edible mushrooms in the world...
May 16, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Alice Pavlowsky, Johann Schor, Pierre-Yves Plaçais, Thomas Preat
Memory consolidation is a crucial step for long-term memory (LTM) storage. However, we still lack a clear picture of how memory consolidation is regulated at the neuronal circuit level. Here, we took advantage of the well-described anatomy of the Drosophila olfactory memory center, the mushroom body (MB), to address this question in the context of appetitive LTM. The MB lobes, which are made by the fascicled axons of the MB intrinsic neurons, are organized into discrete anatomical modules, each covered by the terminals of a defined type of dopaminergic neuron (DAN) and the dendrites of a corresponding type of MB output neuron (MBON)...
May 9, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Cássio Resende de Morais, Bruno Augusto Nassif Travençolo, Stephan Malfitano Carvalho, Marcelo Emílio Beletti, Vanessa Santana Vieira Santos, Carlos Fernando Campos, Edimar Olegário de Campos Júnior, Boscolli Barbosa Pereira, Maria Paula Carvalho Naves, Alexandre Azenha Alves de Rezende, Mário Antônio Spanó, Carlos Ueira Vieira, Ana Maria Bonetti
Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera, Apidae) is a pollinator of various native and cultivated plants. Because of the expansion of agriculture and the need to ensure pest control, the use of insecticides such as fipronil (FP) has increased. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of sublethal doses of FP insecticide on M. scutellaris at different time intervals (6, 12, and 24 h) after exposure, via individually analyzed behavioral biomarkers (locomotor activity, behavioral change) as well as the effect of FP on different brain structures of bees (mushroom bodies, antennal cells, and optic cells), using sub-individual cell biomarkers (heterochromatin dispersion, total nuclear and heterochromatic volume)...
May 10, 2018: Chemosphere
Himanshi Rathore, Abhishek Sharma, Shalinee Prasad, Satyawati Sharma
Calocybe indica was cultivated on wheat straw enriched with various concentrations of sodium selenite (Na2 SeO3 ), (2.5-40 μg/ml). The content of selenium (Se) in fruit bodies increased linearly by increasing the amount of Na2 SeO3 , although the biomass yield inhibited above 5 μg/ml. The fruit bodies accumulated inorganic Se into organic forms by integrating the Se into proteins (56%-68%), polysaccharides (22%-29%), and nucleic acids (1.4%-2.7%). Maximum protein content (25.31 g/100 g) was observed in fruit bodies harvested from the substrate enriched with 10 μg/ml Se...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Wee Cheat Tan, Umah Rani Kuppusamy, Chia Wei Phan, Vikineswary Sabaratnam
Ganoderma neo-japonicum is an annual polypore that grows on decaying bamboo in the forests of Malaysia. The indigenous Temuan tribe uses this species as a medicinal mushroom to cure fever and epilepsy and to improve body strength. The potential use of G. neo-japonicum in genoprotection and DNA repair was established using a single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. The effects of the ethanol and hot aqueous extracts from wild and cultivated basidiocarps, solid substrate-fermented (SSF) wheat grains, and mycelia via submerged culture on H2O2-damaged murine RAW264...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Hazwani Mat Saad, Kae Shin Sim, Yee Shin Tan
Five culinary-medicinal mushrooms are commonly available in the Malaysian market: Agaricus bisporus (white and brown), Ganoderma lucidum, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Pleurotus floridanus, and P. pulmonarius. These species were selected for use in the current study, the aim of which was to investigate the antimelanogenesis and anti-inflammatory activity of these mushrooms in an attempt to evaluate their potential use in cosmeceuticals. Mushroom fruiting bodies were extracted with hot water, and the extracts were freeze-dried before testing...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Zhe Jiang, Mei Jin, Wei Zhou, Ren Li, Yan Zhao, Xuejun Jin, Gao Li
Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) has an important role in immune response and inflammation. Phellinus igniarius (known as Sang huang in traditional Chinese medicine) has various pharmacologic effects. In this study, 19 chemical constituents (1-19) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ph. igniarius. Their structures were elucidated based on data from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and comparison with the literature. Overall, 3 compounds (2, 7, and 11) from this species were reported, to our knowledge for the first time...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Zhaocui Sun, Meigeng Hu, Zhonghao Sun, Nailiang Zhu, Junshan Yang, Guoxu Ma, Xudong Xu
Seven pyrrole alkaloids, three of which are novel (phlebopines A⁻C ( 1 ⁻ 3 )), were isolated from the fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Phlebopus portentosus . Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data. All the isolated compounds were tested for their neuroprotective properties and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibition activities. Compound 7 displayed remarkable neuroprotective effects against hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced neuronal-cell damage in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
May 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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