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mushroom bodies

Conor F McGee
Agaricus bisporus is the most widely cultivated mushroom species in the world. Cultivation is commenced by inoculating beds of semi-pasteurised composted organic substrate with a pure spawn of A. bisporus. The A. bisporus mycelium subsequently colonises the composted substrate by degrading the organic material to release nutrients. A layer of peat, often called "casing soil", is laid upon the surface of the composted substrate to induce the development of the mushroom crop and maintain compost environmental conditions...
December 8, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Fumio Watanabe, Tomohiro Bito
Vitamin B12 is synthesized only by certain bacteria and archaeon, but not by plants. The synthesized vitamin B12 is transferred and accumulates in animal tissues, which can occur in certain plant and mushroom species through microbial interaction. In particular, the meat and milk of herbivorous ruminant animals (e.g. cattle and sheep) are good sources of vitamin B12 for humans. Ruminants acquire vitamin B12, which is considered an essential nutrient, through a symbiotic relationship with the bacteria present in their stomachs...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Jeffrey M Donlea
Sleep is necessary for survival, and prolonged waking causes a homeostatic increase in the need for recovery sleep. Homeostasis is a core component of sleep regulation and has been tightly conserved across evolution from invertebrates to man. Homeostatic sleep regulation was first identified among insects in cockroaches several decades ago, but the characterization of sleep rebound in Drosophila melanogaster opened the use of insect model species to understand homeostatic functions and regulation of sleep. This review describes circuits in two neuropil structures, the central complex and mushroom bodies, that influence sleep homeostasis and neuromodulatory systems that influence the accrual of homeostatic sleep need...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Shu-Hui Hu, Ker-Shew Chen, Ming-Yi Liu, Peter Chi Keung Cheung, Jinn-Chyi Wang, Sue-Joan Chang
In this study, a large Clitocybe maxima mycelium biomass was obtained by submerged cultivation under optimal conditions. Three test samples from lyophilized mycelia, including hot water extract (CW) and elutes from solvents with different polarity (CA and CB), were combined and used to explore antioxidant and antihyper-lipidemic activities in vitro and in vivo. The CA group showed the highest DPPH free radical scavenging activity and iron-reducing capability at concentrations of 6.0% and 3.0% (w/v), respectively...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Rao-Chi Chien, Yi-Chi Yang, Eric Icheng Lai, Jeng-Leun Mau
A long-term inflammatory response can cause the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is mainly caused by abnormal metabolism of lipids in the liver. Taiwanofungus salmonea and Grifola frondosa, which are valuable medicinal mushrooms in Taiwan and exhibit many beneficial bioactivities, are used to evaluate effects on immune regulation in Raw 264.7 cells and on NASH-related responses in Hep G2 cells. According to the results, the production of proinflammatory cytokines was effectively decreased, whereas the production of interleukin-10 was increased...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Kar Lin Nyam, Cheng Fhai Chow, Chon Seng Tan, Szu Ting Ng
Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although scientific evidence supporting its therapeutic efficacy is lacking, the use of the tiger's milk mushroom (TGM; Lignosus rhinocerotis), which is native to tropical areas such as Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines, has been found to contain a very large amount of potential antioxidants. In this study, rats were weighed and then intravenously injected with 35 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). Rats were left for 1 week before blood glucose concentrations were measured to determine the onset of diabetes before the next procedure was conducted...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Honghui Pan, Yifan Zhang, Bisi Liang, Xiaojie Zhao, Xiaobing Yang, Yizhen Xie
Our earlier work indicated that Amauroderma rude seems to have an effect on immunoregulation and tumor inhibition. However, its toxicity is not yet clear. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the acute and subchronic toxicity of A. rude in order to provide a scientific basis for its possible use as a food. The acute toxicity study (involving mice) showed that the median lethal dose of the A. rude extract was >15,000 mg/kg. In the repeated-dose 90-day oral toxicity study (involving rats), the administration of A...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Anuja Bhardwaj, Payal Gupta, Navin Kumar, Jigni Mishra, Ajai Kumar, Rajput Rakhee, Kshipra Misra
This article presents a comparative gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomic analysis of mycelia and fruiting bodies of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Three aqueous extracts-mycelia, fruiting bodies, and a mixture of them-and their sequential fractions (methanolic and ethyl acetate), prepared using an accelerated solvent extractor, were characterized by GC-MS to determine volatile organic compounds and by high-performance thin-layer chromatography to quantify ascorbic acid, a potent antioxidant...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Wei Jia, Jie Feng, Jing-Song Zhang, Chi-Chung Lin, Wen-Han Wang, Hong-Ge Chen
FVPA1, a novel polysaccharide, has been isolated from fruiting bodies of the culinary-medicinal mushroom Flammulina velutipes, a historically popular, widely cultivated and consumed functional food with an attractive taste, beneficial nutraceutical properties such as antitumor and immunomodulatory effects, and a number of essential biological activities. The average molecular weight was estimated to be ~1.8 × 104 Da based on high-performance size exclusion chromatography. Sugar analyses, methylation analyses, and 1H, 13C, and 2-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed the following structure of the repeating units of the FVPA1 polysaccharide Identification of this structure would conceivably lead to better understanding of the nutraceutical functions of this very important edible fungus...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Aleksandar Knežević, Mirjana Stajić, Lada Živković, Ivan Milovanović, Biljana Spremo-Potparević, Jelena Vukojević
This study aimed to evaluate the antifungal, antioxidative, and genoprotective potentials of various extracts of Daedaleopsis confragosa fruiting bodies and mycelia. The extracts exhibited weak fungistatic and an absence of any fungicidal activities against 7 important animal and human pathogens. Although mycelial extracts, especially the hot water extract, were more effective antifungal agents than basidiocarp extracts, they were significantly weaker than the commercial antimycotic ketoconazole. The tested extracts reduced DPPH radicals to various extents, depending on the material used for extraction and the solvent...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Xiaoming Dong, Xinhua Song, Caihong Dong
Irpex lacteus, a medicinal fungus, is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat chronic glomerulonephritis. In this work, a strain of I. lacteus was isolated from the fruiting body of a wild specimen and identified by ITS-5.8S ribosomal DNA sequencing analysis. Then the nutritional requirements and culture conditions for mycelial growth of I. lacteus in semisynthetic liquid media were investigated using the one-factor-at-a-time and orthogonal matrix methods. Optimum growth occurred at 30°C and 35°C. I...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Elena Vetchinkina, Vladimir Gorshkov, Marina Ageeva, Yuri Gogolev, Valentina E Nikitina
We show here, to our knowledge for the first time, that the brown mycelial mat of the xylotrophic shiitake medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes, not only performs a protective function owing to significant changes in the ultrastructure (thickening of the cell wall, increased density, and pigmentation of the fungal hyphae) but also is a metabolically active stage in the development of the mushroom. The cells of this morphological structure exhibit repeated activation of expression of the genes lcc4, tir, exp1, chi, and exg1, coding for laccase, tyrosinase, a specific transcription factor, chitinase, and glucanase, which are required for fungal growth and morphogenesis...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Hong De Xu, Seung-Sik Cho, Soon-Young Lee, Deuk-Sil Oh, Seung-Kil Lim, Dae-Hun Park
Mycoleptodonoides aitchisonii has been used as culinary material in East Asia. We previously reported the antiasthmatic effect of M. aitchisonii; in this study we evaluated the mushroom's immune-stimulating effects. To analyze these effects, we conducted an in vitro study with splenocytes and an in vivo study with the Porsolt enforced swim test. In the in vitro study, the cell proliferation effect of the M. aitchisonii water extract (WT) was measured and the in vivo study depended on the dose of M. aitchisonii WT and the effect on swimming duration; several immune reaction-related factors were assessed, such as white blood cell count, differential cell count, the ratio of thymus or spleen weight to body weight, and concentrations of some cytokines in serum...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Chan Kam Seng, Noorlidah Abdullah, Norhaniza Aminudin
Amauroderma rugosum fruiting bodies possess excellent cardiovascular benefits, including antioxidative, antihyperlipidemic, antihypertensive, antiinflammatory, anti-platelet aggregation, and antithrombotic effects. In this article, we describe our investigations of the in vitro antioxidant activity and in vitro antiatherosclerotic potential through inhibitory effects on low-density lipoprotein (LDL), LDL peroxidation, and 3-hydroxy3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase catalytic activity using various fruiting body extracts partitioned with an organic solvent...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Abdelghani Hassainia, Hamid Satha, Sami Boufi
Chitin was isolated from three main fruit body parts of the Agaricusbisporus mushroom, i.e. pileus, stipes and gills. Chitin was extracted by alkaline treatment of A. bisporus fruit body parts in 1M NaOH at 80°C for 2h.The lyophilized fruit bodies were examined by SEM and exhibited a porous structure that is favorable to polysaccharide extraction. A mild extraction method was adopted to limit the degradation of chitin. The highest extraction yield of chitin was obtained for stipes (7.4% of dry weight). For pileus and gills, yields of chitin were 6...
November 29, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Man-Tat Lau, Yong Qi Lin, Stefan Kisling, James Cotterell, Yana A Wilson, Qiao-Ping Wang, Thang M Khuong, Noman Bakhshi, Tiffany A Cole, Lisa J Oyston, Adam R Cole, G Gregory Neely
Water intake is essential for survival and thus under strong regulation. Here, we describe a simple high throughput system to monitor water intake over time in Drosophila. The design of the assay involves dehydrating fly food and then adding water back separately so flies either eat or drink. Water consumption is then evaluated by weighing the water vessel and comparing this back to an evaporation control. Our system is high throughput, does not require animals to be artificially dehydrated, and is simple both in design and implementation...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Lifeng Meng, Xinmei Huo, Mao Feng, Yu Fang, Bin Han, Han Hu, Fan Wu, Jianke Li
The eastern (Apis cerana cerana, Acc) and western (Apis mellifera ligustica, Aml) honeybee are two major honeybee species. Surprisingly, little is known about the fundamental molecular neurobiology of brain sub-organs of Acc and Aml. We characterized and compared the proteomes of mushroom bodies (MBs), antennal lobes (ALs) and optical lobes (OLs) in the brain of both species, and biologically validated the functions related to learning and memory. Acc and Aml have evolved similar proteome signatures in MBs and OLs to drive the domain-specific neural activities...
November 29, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Robin Grob, Pauline N Fleischmann, Kornelia Grübel, Rüdiger Wehner, Wolfgang Rössler
Central place foragers are faced with the challenge to learn the position of their nest entrance in its surroundings, in order to find their way back home every time they go out to search for food. To acquire navigational information at the beginning of their foraging career, Cataglyphis noda performs learning walks during the transition from interior worker to forager. These small loops around the nest entrance are repeatedly interrupted by strikingly accurate back turns during which the ants stop and precisely gaze back to the nest entrance-presumably to learn the landmark panorama of the nest surroundings...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Pierre-Yves Musso, Aurélie Lampin-Saint-Amaux, Paul Tchenio, Thomas Preat
Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are widely used in modern human food, raising the question about their health impact. Here we have asked whether NAS consumption is a neutral experience at neural and behavioral level, or if NAS can be interpreted and remembered as negative experience. We used behavioral and imaging approaches to demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster learn the non-caloric property of NAS through post-ingestion process. These results show that sweet taste is predictive of an energy value, and its absence leads to the formation of what we call Caloric Frustration Memory (CFM) that devalues the NAS or its caloric enantiomer...
November 27, 2017: Nature Communications
A Drori, D Rotnemer-Golinkin, S Avni, A Drori, O Danay, D Levanon, J Tam, L Zolotarev, Y Ilan
BACKGROUND: Hypovitaminosis D is associated with many features of the metabolic syndrome, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Vitamin D-enriched mushrooms extracts exert a synergistic anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of the present study is to determine the immunomodulatory effect of oral administration of vitamin D-enriched mushrooms extracts on high-fat diet (HFD) animal model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: C57BL/6 mice on HFD were orally administered with vitamin D supplement, Lentinula edodes (LE) mushrooms extract, or vitamin D-enriched mushrooms extract for 25 weeks...
November 28, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
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