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mushroom bodies

Roghayeh Karimirad, Mahdi Behnamian, Sara Dezhsetan
The aim of present study was to design a controlled release system using Cuminum cyminum essential oil loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CEO-CSNPs) and evaluate its effect on catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), peroxidase (POD) activity and ascorbic acid content of Agaricus bisporus fruit bodies during 20 days of storage at 4 °C. The success of encapsulation was evaluated through TEM, DLS, FT-IR and spectrophotometry and its release behavior was studied in buffer solutions with different pH. The CEO-CSNPs exhibited an average size of 30 to 80 nm with a spherical shape...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Dayane R Brito, Elaine R Carbonero, Sthefany R F Viana, Estefânia V Silva, Andrea Caroline Ruthes, Luciano M Lião, Marcello Iacomini
Pleurotus citrinopileatus, popularly known as "golden oyster mushroom" have medicinal properties, which are attributed mainly to the presence of bioactive polysaccharides. In this work, two partially 3-O-methylated galactans were isolated from the fruiting bodies of this fungus, via successive aqueous extraction, followed by fractionation by freeze-thawing, and precipitation of soluble material with Fehling solution. The structural assignments were carried out using mono- and bidimensional NMR spectroscopy, monosaccharide composition, and methylation analyses...
February 6, 2018: Carbohydrate Research
Hiroshi Nishino, Masazumi Iwasaki, Marco Paoli, Itsuro Kamimura, Atsushi Yoritsune, Makoto Mizunami
Animals rely on olfaction to navigate through complex olfactory landscapes, but the mechanisms that allow an animal to encode the spatial structure of an odorous environment remain unclear. To acquire information about the spatial distribution of an odorant, animals may rely on bilateral olfactory organs and compare side differences of odor intensity and timing [1-6] or may perform spatial and temporal signal integration of subsequent samplings [7]. The American cockroach can efficiently locate a source of sex pheromone even after the removal of one antenna, suggesting that bilateral comparison is not a prerequisite for odor localization in this species [8, 9]...
February 7, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Li-Zhen Zhang, Yong Zhang, Jing-Hua Hu, Zi-Long Wang, Zhi-Jiang Zeng
Tyramine is a biological polyamine, which serves important functions as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and neurohormone of the central nervous system. It participates in the regulation of various behavior and physiological processes in insects. For example, tyramine and its receptor genes are involved in the regulation of learning and memory in the animals. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequences of the tyramine receptor genes (Actyr1 and Actyr2) of the Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana, were cloned and sequenced for the first time...
February 20, 2018: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
María Soledad Vela Gurovic, Fátima R Viceconte, Marcelo T Pereyra, Maximiliano A Bidegain, María Amelia Cubitto
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi) is a medicinal mushroom historically used in Asian countries to treat a wide variety of diseases and prolong life. In the last years, G. lucidum has been internationally recognized as an effective adjuvant in cancer treatment. Among active components, the most recent research indicates that polysaccharides modulate the immune response favoring the recovery from toxicity of chemo and radiotherapy while triterpenes are cytotoxic to tumoral cells mainly by altering gene expression...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Fatima Majeed, Fozia Zahur Malik, Zaheer Ahmed, Asma Afreen, Muhammad Naveed Afzal, Nauman Khalid
During the last few decades, cancer has mushroomed as a major health issue; and almost all drugs used for its therapy are very toxic with lethal side effects. Complementary and alternative medicines gain popularity among health professionals in recent era owing to its preventive mechanism against side effect chemotherapeutic drugs. Efforts are focused by scientists to isolate compounds from medicinal plant that have chemotherapeutic attributes; and ability to neutralize the side effects of chemotherapy. Ginseng is an oriental medicinal recipe from Araliceae family and Panax species...
February 5, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Seung-Yoon Oh, Misong Kim, John A Eimes, Young Woon Lim
Tricholoma matsutake (pine mushroom, PM) is a prized mushroom in Asia due to its unique flavor and pine aroma. The fruiting body of PM forms only in its natural habitat (pine forest), and little is known regarding the natural conditions required for successful generation of the fruiting bodies in this species. Recent studies suggest that microbial interactions may be associated with the growth of PM; however, there have been few studies of the bacterial effects on PM growth. In this study, we surveyed which bacteria can directly and indirectly promote the growth of PM by using co-cultures with PM and molds associated with the fruiting body...
2018: PloS One
Marlène Cassar, Elizabeth Sunderhaus, Jill S Wentzell, Sara Kuntz, Roland Strauss, Doris Kretzschmar
Protein kinase A (PKA) has been shown to play a role in a plethora of cellular processes ranging from development to memory formation. Its activity is mediated by the catalytic subunits whereby many species express several paralogs. Drosophila encodes three catalytic subunits (PKA-C1-3) and whereas PKA-C1 has been well studied, the functions of the other two subunits were unknown. PKA-C3 is the orthologue of mammalian PRKX/Pkare and they are structurally more closely related to each other than to other catalytic subunits within their species...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
P Chanjula, A Cherdthong
The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of dried spent mushroom Cordyceps militaris (SMCM) supplementation on digestibility, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolite parameters in goats. When the mushroom production and harvesting was complete, SMCM was collected fresh from a mushroom farm. Four 18-month-old male crossbred (Thai Native x Anglo Nubian) goats with initial body weight (BW) of 26.0 ±1.40 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to receive four different levels of SMCM at 0, 100, 200, and 300 g/d...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Juan David Olivares Hernández, Fabio García-García, Israel Camacho-Abrego, Gonzalo Flores, Enrique Juárez-Aguilar
A growing body of evidence suggests that growth hormone (GH) affects synaptic plasticity at both the molecular and electrophysiological levels. However, unclear is whether plasticity that is stimulated by GH is associated with changes in neuron structure. The present study investigated the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of GH on the morphology of pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus and layer III of the prefrontal cortex. Male Wistar rats received daily ICV injections of GH (120 ng) for 7 days, and they were euthanized 21 days later...
February 5, 2018: Synapse
Diego Morales, Adriana J Piris, Alejandro Ruiz-Rodriguez, Marin Prodanov, Cristina Soler-Rivas
Three extraction methods were sequentially combined to obtain fractions from Lentinula edodes (shiitake mushrooms) containing bioactive compounds against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Fruiting bodies were first extracted with plain water, obtained residue was then submitted to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and remaining residue submitted to hot water extraction. Sequential design allowed re-utilization of the non-extracted material as raw material for the successive extractions increasing extraction yields and separating interesting compounds...
February 1, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
Noriko Miyazawa, Hiroaki Yoshimoto, Shoichi Kurihara, Tadao Hamaya, Fumio Eguchi
The anti-obesity effects of mushroom chitosan prepared from Flammulina velutipes were investigated using an animal model with diet-induced obesity. In this study, 5-week-old imprinting control region (ICR) mice were divided into six groups of 10 mice each and fed different diets based on the MF powdered diet (standard diet) for 6 weeks: standard diet control group, high-fat diet control group (induced dietary obesity) consisting of the standard diet and 20% lard, and mushroom chitosan groups consisting of the high-fat diet with mushroom chitosan added at 100, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg body weight...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
Michael A Kertesz, Meghann Thai
Mushrooms are an important food crop for many millions of people worldwide. The most important edible mushroom is the button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), an excellent example of sustainable food production which is cultivated on a selective compost produced from recycled agricultural waste products. A diverse population of bacteria and fungi are involved throughout the production of Agaricus. A range of successional taxa convert the wheat straw into compost in the thermophilic composting process. These initially break down readily accessible compounds and release ammonia, and then assimilate cellulose and hemicellulose into compost microbial biomass that forms the primary source of nutrition for the Agaricus mycelium...
January 23, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Seulah Lee, Dahae Lee, Jun Yeon Park, Soonja Seok, Tae Su Jang, Hyun Bong Park, Sang Hee Shim, Ki Sung Kang, Ki Hyun Kim
OBJECTIVES: This study demonstrates the biological and chemical analysis of the mushroom Armillariella tabescens (Scop.) Sing. (Tricholomataceae). METHODS: Chemical structures of the isolates were determined by 1D and 2D NMR, and ESI-MS, as well as comparison with previously reported data. All isolates were tested for anti-inflammatory effects based on their ability to inhibit LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells. KEY FINDINGS: We found that the MeOH extract of the fruiting bodies of A...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Jan Kropf, Wolfgang Rössler
The honeybee olfactory pathway comprises an intriguing pattern of convergence and divergence: ~60.000 olfactory sensory neurons (OSN) convey olfactory information on ~900 projection neurons (PN) in the antennal lobe (AL). To transmit this information reliably, PNs employ relatively high spiking frequencies with complex patterns. PNs project via a dual olfactory pathway to the mushroom bodies (MB). This pathway comprises the medial (m-ALT) and the lateral antennal lobe tract (l-ALT). PNs from both tracts transmit information from a wide range of similar odors, but with distinct differences in coding properties...
2018: PloS One
Yong-Kyu Kim, Mathias Saver, Jasper Simon, Clement F Kent, Lisha Shao, Mark Eddison, Pavan Agrawal, Michael Texada, James W Truman, Ulrike Heberlein
Multiple studies have investigated the mechanisms of aggressive behavior in Drosophila; however, little is known about the effects of chronic fighting experience. Here, we investigated if repeated fighting encounters would induce an internal state that could affect the expression of subsequent behavior. We trained wild-type males to become winners or losers by repeatedly pairing them with hypoaggressive or hyperaggressive opponents, respectively. As described previously, we observed that chronic losers tend to lose subsequent fights, while chronic winners tend to win them...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ying-Chao Xu, Xiao-Xia Xie, Zhong-Yu Zhou, Tao Feng, Ji-Kai Liu
A new monoterpene, 6,7,8-trihydroxy-2,6-dimethyloctanoic acid (1), and a known sesquiterpene, β-caryophyllene 4R,5R-oxide (2), as well as four known ergosta-steroids, 5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3β-y1 linoleate (3), 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-22E,24R-5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien (4), 5α,8α-epidioxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (5) and (22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-3β-ol (6), were isolated from the fruiting bodies of the mushroom Trogia venenata. The structures of these compounds were identified by the analysis of spectral data...
January 16, 2018: Natural Product Research
Deepak K Gupta, Martin Rühl, Bagdevi Mishra, Vanessa Kleofas, Martin Hofrichter, Robert Herzog, Marek J Pecyna, Rahul Sharma, Harald Kellner, Florian Hennicke, Marco Thines
BACKGROUND: Agrocybe aegerita is an agaricomycete fungus with typical mushroom features, which is commercially cultivated for its culinary use. In nature, it is a saprotrophic or facultative pathogenic fungus causing a white-rot of hardwood in forests of warm and mild climate. The ease of cultivation and fructification on solidified media as well as its archetypal mushroom fruit body morphology render A. aegerita a well-suited model for investigating mushroom developmental biology. RESULTS: Here, the genome of the species is reported and analysed with respect to carbohydrate active genes and genes known to play a role during fruit body formation...
January 15, 2018: BMC Genomics
Shota Suenami, Shiori Iino, Takeo Kubo
Although the molecular mechanisms involved in learning and memory in insects have been studied intensively, the intracellular signaling mechanisms involved in early memory formation are not fully understood. We previously demonstrated that phospholipase C epsilon (PLCe), whose product is involved in calcium signaling, is almost selectively expressed in the mushroom bodies, a brain structure important for learning and memory in the honeybee. Here, we pharmacologically examined the role of phospholipase C (PLC) in learning and memory in the honeybee...
January 12, 2018: Biology Open
Xiaoliang Zhao, Daniela Lenek, Ugur Dag, Barry Dickson, Krystyna Keleman
Recurrent connections are thought to be a common feature of the neural circuits that encode memories, but how memories are laid down in such circuits is not fully understood. Here we present evidence that courtship memory in Drosophila relies on the recurrent circuit between mushroom body gamma (MBg), M6 output, and aSP13 dopaminergic neurons. We demonstrate persistent neuronal activity of aSP13 neurons and show that it transiently potentiates synaptic transmission from MBγ>M6 neurons. M6 neurons in turn provide input to aSP13 neurons, prolonging potentiation of MBγ>M6 synapses over time periods that match short-term memory...
January 11, 2018: ELife
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