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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656164/lignolytic-mushroom-lenzites-elegans-wdp2-laccase-production-characterization-and-bioremediation-of-synthetic-dyes
#1
Raj Kumar Pandey, Salil Tewari, Lakshmi Tewari
A mycoremedial study was undertaken for decolourization of synthetic dyes using wood rot fungal culture Lenzites elegans WDP2. The culture was isolated from decaying wood as fruiting body, and identified on the basis of 5.8S ITS rRNA gene sequence analysis. Qualitative plate screening of culture showed extracellular laccase and lignin peroxidase production, while only laccase enzyme was produced in higher amount (156.793 Uml-1 ) in minimal salt broth medium containing glucose and veratryl alcohol. Laccase activity was increased up to 189...
April 12, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643770/neural-control-of-startle-induced-locomotion-by-the-mushroom-bodies-and-associated-neurons-in-drosophila
#2
Jun Sun, An Qi Xu, Julia Giraud, Haiko Poppinga, Thomas Riemensperger, André Fiala, Serge Birman
Startle-induced locomotion is commonly used in Drosophila research to monitor locomotor reactivity and its progressive decline with age or under various neuropathological conditions. A widely used paradigm is startle-induced negative geotaxis (SING), in which flies entrapped in a narrow column react to a gentle mechanical shock by climbing rapidly upwards. Here we combined in vivo manipulation of neuronal activity and splitGFP reconstitution across cells to search for brain neurons and putative circuits that regulate this behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627524/molecular-cloning-and-the-expression-pattern-of-aepopb-involved-in-the-%C3%AE-amanitin-biosynthesis-in-amanita-exitialis-fruiting-bodies
#3
Cheng-Hua Zhang, Jun-Ping Zou, Wang-Qiu Deng, Tai-Hui Li, Zi-de Jiang
Amanita exitialis Zhu L. Yang & T. H. Li is the species responsible for the largest number of mushroom-associated human poisonings and fatalities in South China due to its lethal cyclic peptide toxins. Prolyl oligopeptidase B (POPB) is considered a key enzyme in the production of the highly toxic cyclic peptide α-amanitin. However, the POPB gene of A. exitialis has not been studied. In the present study we cloned and sequenced the full-length A. exitialis POPB (AePOPB) gene. The aim was to verify the gene structure and functions of AePOPB...
April 5, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625207/synaptic-organization-and-division-of-labor-in-the-exceptionally-polymorphic-ant-pheidole-rhea
#4
Darcy G Gordon, James F A Traniello
Social insect polyphenisms provide models to examine the neural basis of division of labor and anatomy of the invertebrate social brain. Worker size-related behavior is hypothesized to enhance task performance, raising questions concerning the integration of morphology, behavior, and cellular neuroarchitecture, and how variation in sensory inputs and cognitive demands of behaviorally differentiated workers is reflected in higher-order processing ability. We used the highly polymorphic ant Pheidole rhea, which has three distinct worker size classes - minors, soldiers, and supersoldiers - to examine variation in synaptic circuitry across worker size and social role...
April 3, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623092/a-data-mining-approach-to-improve-inorganic-characterization-of-amanita-ponderosa-mushrooms
#5
Cátia Salvador, M Rosário Martins, Henrique Vicente, A Teresa Caldeira
Amanita ponderosa are wild edible mushrooms that grow in some microclimates of Iberian Peninsula. Gastronomically this species is very relevant, due to not only the traditional consumption by the rural populations but also its commercial value in gourmet markets. Mineral characterisation of edible mushrooms is extremely important for certification and commercialization processes. In this study, we evaluate the inorganic composition of Amanita ponderosa fruiting bodies (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Ag, Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn) and their respective soil substrates from 24 different sampling sites of the southwest Iberian Peninsula (e...
2018: International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621710/major-and-trace-elements-in-boletus-aereus-and-clitopilus-prunulus-growing-on-volcanic-and-sedimentary-soils-of-sicily-italy
#6
M G Alaimo, G Dongarrà, A La Rosa, E Tamburo, G Vasquez, D Varrica
The aim of this study was to determine and compare the content of 28 elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, Sr, Tl, U, V and Zn) in fruiting bodies of Boletus aereus Bull. and Clitopilus prunulus P. Kumm collected from eleven unpolluted sites of Sicily (Italy) and, also to relate the abundance of chemical elements in soil with their concentration in mushrooms. Median concentrations of the most abundant elements in Boletus aereus ranged from 31,290 μg/g (K) to 107 μg/g (Zn) in caps and from 24,009 μg/g (K) to 57 μg/g (Zn) in stalks with the following abundance order: K > Na > Ca > Mg > Fe > Al > Rb > Zn...
April 2, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619846/lactobacillus-fermentum-hp3-mediated-fermented-hericium-erinaceus-juice-as-a-health-promoting-food-supplement-to-manage-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Chaiyavat Chaiyasut, Sasimar Woraharn, Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi, Narissara Lailerd, Periyanaina Kesika, Sartjin Peerajan
The current study investigated the antidiabetic property of Lactobacillus fermentum HP3-mediated fermented Hericium erinaceus juice (FHJ) using male Wistar rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (DM). FHJ was prepared using boiled mushroom juice and L. fermentum HP3. Amino acid and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content of FHJ was analyzed. Streptozotocin-induced DM rats were supplemented with FHJ in a pre- and posttreatment method. The changes in plasma insulin, plasma glucose level, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), representative cytokines, and the antioxidant system were assessed in experimental rats using spectrophotometric methods and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
January 2018: Journal of evidence-based integrative medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604915/aphrodisiac-activity-of-an-aqueous-extract-of-wood-ear-mushroom-auricularia-polytricha-heterobasidiomycetes-in-male-rats
#8
Gaurav Gupta, Rakesh Kumar Sharma, Rajiv Dahiya, Anurag Mishra, Juhi Tiwari, Ganesh N Sharma, Sanjay Sharma, Kamal Dua
Auricularia polytricha is a popular mushroom found all over the world. In this study we considered the effect of an aqueous extract of A. polytricha (AEAP) on restoring sexual performance parameters to normal, evaluated by considering observations of sexual behavior. At 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 days, the following parameters of sexual performance were identified before and throughout the observations: mount latency, intromission latency, ejaculation latency, mounting frequency, intromission frequency, ejaculation frequency, and postejaculatory interval...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603608/triterpenes-and-meroterpenes-with-neuroprotective-effects-from-ganoderma-leucocontextum
#9
Hongyu Chen, Jinjin Zhang, Jinwei Ren, Wenzhao Wang, Weiping Xiong, Yaodong Zhang, Li Bao, Hongwei Liu
Ganoderma leucocontextum is a well-known medicinal mushroom cultivated in the Tibet Plateau of China. Chemistry investigation on the fruiting bodies of this mushroom resulted in the isolation of sixteen secondary metabolites including three new lanostane triterpenes, ganoleucoins Q-S (1-3), as well as thirteen known compounds (4-16). The structures of compounds 1-3 were determined by NMR, MS, CD spectral analysis and chemical derivation method. The neuroprotective effects of compounds 1-16 were tested on PC12 cells...
March 30, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596356/dissipation-and-migration-of-pyrethroids-in-auricularia-polytricha-mont-from-cultivation-to-postharvest-processing-and-dietary-risk
#10
Jin-Jing Xiao, Jin-Sheng Duan, Yan-Can Wu, Yan-Hong Shi, Qing-Kui Fang, Min Liao, Ri-Mao Hua, Hai-Qun Cao
In order to ensure raw consumption safety the dissipation behavior, migration, postharvest processing, and dietary risk assessment of five pyrethroids in mushroom ( Auricularia polytricha Mont.) cultivated under Chinese greenhouse-field conditions. Half-lives ( t 1/2 ) of pyrethroids in fruiting body and substrate samples were 3.10-5.26 and 17.46-40.06 d, respectively. Fenpropathrin dissipated rapidly in fruiting bodies ( t 1/2 3.10 d); bifenthrin had the longest t 1/2 . At harvest, pyrethroid residues in A...
March 29, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594343/heat-and-light-stresses-affect-metabolite-production-in-the-fruit-body-of-the-medicinal-mushroom-cordyceps-militaris
#11
Zhang Jiaojiao, Wang Fen, Liu Kuanbo, Liu Qing, Yang Ying, Dong Caihong
Cordyceps militaris is a highly valued edible and medicinal fungus due to its production of various metabolites, including adenosine, cordycepin, N6 -(2-hydroxyethyl)-adenosine, and carotenoids. The contents of these metabolites are indicative of the quality of commercially available fruit body of this fungus. In this work, the effects of environmental abiotic factors, including heat and light stresses, on the fruit body growth and metabolite production in C. militaris were evaluated during the late growth stage...
March 29, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564093/bioprospecting-of-powdered-pineapple-rind-as-an-organic-supplement-of-composted-sawdust-for-pleurotus-ostreatus-mushroom-cultivation
#12
Deborah L Narh Mensah, Peter Addo, Matilda Dzomeku, Mary Obodai
Pineapple rind is a by-product of the pineapple processing industry and contains nutrients and other compounds which must be utilized as a bioresource for socio-economic benefits while preventing the potential problems of improper agroindustrial biomass disposal methods. Pleurotus ostreatus is an edible oyster mushroom with medicinal properties and can be cultivated on various agroindustrial biomass, including sawdust containing supplements. Pineapple rind was powdered and used as a supplement of composted sawdust at 2%, 5%, 10%, 12%, 15%, and 20% (w/w) on dry weight basis...
March 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551489/active-protection-learning-activated-raf-mapk-activity-protects-labile-memory-from-rac1-independent-forgetting
#13
Xuchen Zhang, Qian Li, Lianzhang Wang, Zhong-Jian Liu, Yi Zhong
Active forgetting explains the intrinsic instability of a labile memory lasting for hours. However, how such memory maintains stability against unwanted disruption is not completely understood. Here, we report a learning-activated active protection mechanism that enables labile memory to resist disruptive sensory experiences in Drosophila. Aversive olfactory conditioning activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) transiently in the mushroom-body γ lobe, where labile-aversive memory is stored. This increased MAPK activity significantly prolongs labile memory retention and enhances its resistance to disruption induced by heat shock, electric shock, or odor reactivation...
March 7, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549725/medicinal-mushroom-phellinus-igniarius-induced-cell-apoptosis-in-gastric-cancer-sgc-7901-through-a-mitochondria-dependent-pathway
#14
Fei-Fei Wang, Chao Shi, Yue Yang, Yong Fang, Li Sheng, Ning Li
Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Phellinus igniarius is a traditional medicinal mushroom used in China and other countries of East Asia for the treatment of various diseases including cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antitumor activity of P. igniarius and elucidate the possible mechanism. MTT assay displayed that the total ethanol extract of P. igniarius (TPI) had antitumor activities against five human tumor cell lines of HepG-2, AGS, SGC-7901, Hela and A-549...
March 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549237/functional-architecture-of-reward-learning-in-mushroom-body-extrinsic-neurons-of-larval-drosophila
#15
Timo Saumweber, Astrid Rohwedder, Michael Schleyer, Katharina Eichler, Yi-Chun Chen, Yoshinori Aso, Albert Cardona, Claire Eschbach, Oliver Kobler, Anne Voigt, Archana Durairaja, Nino Mancini, Marta Zlatic, James W Truman, Andreas S Thum, Bertram Gerber
The brain adaptively integrates present sensory input, past experience, and options for future action. The insect mushroom body exemplifies how a central brain structure brings about such integration. Here we use a combination of systematic single-cell labeling, connectomics, transgenic silencing, and activation experiments to study the mushroom body at single-cell resolution, focusing on the behavioral architecture of its input and output neurons (MBINs and MBONs), and of the mushroom body intrinsic APL neuron...
March 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547121/-drosophila-mushroom-bodies-integrate-hunger-and-satiety-signals-to-control-innate-food-seeking-behavior
#16
Chang-Hui Tsao, Chien-Chun Chen, Chen-Han Lin, Hao-Yu Yang, Suewei Lin
The fruit fly can evaluate its energy state and decide whether to pursue food-related cues. Here, we reveal that the mushroom body (MB) integrates hunger and satiety signals to control food-seeking behavior. We have discovered five pathways in the MB essential for hungry flies to locate and approach food. Blocking the MB-intrinsic Kenyon cells (KCs) and the MB output neurons (MBONs) in these pathways impairs food-seeking behavior. Starvation bi-directionally modulates MBON responses to a food odor, suggesting that hunger and satiety controls occur at the KC-to-MBON synapses...
March 16, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545390/elongator-complex-is-required-for-long-term-olfactory-memory-formation-in-drosophila
#17
Dinghui Yu, Ying Tan, Molee Chakraborty, Seth Tomchik, Ronald L Davis
The evolutionarily conserved Elongator Complex associates with RNA polymerase II for transcriptional elongation. Elp3 is the catalytic subunit, contains histone acetyltransferase activity, and is associated with neurodegeneration in humans. Elp1 is a scaffolding subunit and when mutated causes familial dysautonomia. Here, we show that elp3 and elp1 are required for aversive long-term olfactory memory in Drosophila RNAi knockdown of elp3 in adult mushroom bodies impairs long-term memory (LTM) without affecting earlier forms of memory...
April 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541257/purified-mushroom-tyrosinase-induced-melanogenic-protein-expression-in-b16f10-melanocytes-a-quantitative-densitometric-analysis
#18
Kamal U Zaidi, Sharique A Ali, Ayesha S Ali
Background: Human skin exists in a wide range of different colors and gradations, ranging from white to brown to black. This is due to the presence of a chemically inert and stable pigment known as melanin, which is produced deep inside the skin but is displayed as a mosaic at the surface of the body. Methods & Materials: In mammalian melanocytes, melanosome is a highly specialized organelle where melanin is synthesized. Melanin synthesis is controlled by tyrosinase, the vital enzyme in melanogenic pathway...
2018: Open Medicinal Chemistry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532183/effect-of-fairy-ring-bacteria-on-the-growth-of-tricholoma-matsutake-in-vitro-culture
#19
Seung-Yoon Oh, Young Woon Lim
Tricholoma matsutake (pine mushroom) (Basidiomycota, Agaricales) is a valuable edible fungal species that cannot be cultivated artificially. As an ectomycorrhizal fungus, T. matsutake interacts with trees belonging to the Pinaceae and Fagaceae, and forms fairy rings around host trees that are arc-shaped areas with dense hyphae of T. matsutake in the soil. Because the fairy rings maintain their dense hyphae for several years and form fruiting bodies, the characteristics of the fairy ring may be important in understanding the ecology of T...
March 12, 2018: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515886/multimodal-integration-and-stimulus-categorization-in-putative-mushroom-body-output-neurons-of-the-honeybee
#20
Martin F Strube-Bloss, Wolfgang Rössler
Flowers attract pollinating insects like honeybees by sophisticated compositions of olfactory and visual cues. Using honeybees as a model to study olfactory-visual integration at the neuronal level, we focused on mushroom body (MB) output neurons (MBON). From a neuronal circuit perspective, MBONs represent a prominent level of sensory-modality convergence in the insect brain. We established an experimental design allowing electrophysiological characterization of olfactory, visual, as well as olfactory-visual induced activation of individual MBONs...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
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