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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805639/development-and-evolution-of-brain-allometry-in-wasps-vespidae-size-ecology-and-sociality
#1
REVIEW
Sean O'Donnell, Susan Bulova
We review research on brain development and brain evolution in the wasp family Vespidae. Basic vespid neuroanatomy and some aspects of functional neural circuitry are well-characterized, and genomic tools for exploring brain plasticity are being developed. Although relatively modest in terms of species richness, the Vespidae include species spanning much of the known range of animal social complexity, from solitary nesters to highly eusocial species with some of the largest known colonies and multiple reproductives...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796202/the-complete-connectome-of-a-learning-and-memory-centre-in-an-insect-brain
#2
Katharina Eichler, Feng Li, Ashok Litwin-Kumar, Youngser Park, Ingrid Andrade, Casey M Schneider-Mizell, Timo Saumweber, Annina Huser, Claire Eschbach, Bertram Gerber, Richard D Fetter, James W Truman, Carey E Priebe, L F Abbott, Andreas S Thum, Marta Zlatic, Albert Cardona
Associating stimuli with positive or negative reinforcement is essential for survival, but a complete wiring diagram of a higher-order circuit supporting associative memory has not been previously available. Here we reconstruct one such circuit at synaptic resolution, the Drosophila larval mushroom body. We find that most Kenyon cells integrate random combinations of inputs but that a subset receives stereotyped inputs from single projection neurons. This organization maximizes performance of a model output neuron on a stimulus discrimination task...
August 9, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769066/long-term-memory-requires-sequential-protein-synthesis-in-three-subsets-of-mushroom-body-output-neurons-in-drosophila
#3
Jie-Kai Wu, Chu-Yi Tai, Kuan-Lin Feng, Shiu-Ling Chen, Chun-Chao Chen, Ann-Shyn Chiang
Creating long-term memory (LTM) requires new protein synthesis to stabilize learning-induced synaptic changes in the brain. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, aversive olfactory learning forms several phases of labile memory to associate an odor with coincident punishment in the mushroom body (MB). It remains unclear how the brain consolidates early labile memory into LTM. Here, we survey 183 Gal4 lines containing almost all 21 distinct types of MB output neurons (MBONs) and show that sequential synthesis of learning-induced proteins occurs at three types of MBONs...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766678/identification-of-hispidin-as-a-bioluminescent-active-compound-and-its-recycling-biosynthesis-in-the-luminous-fungal-fruiting-body
#4
Yuichi Oba, Yoshiki Suzuki, Gabriel N R Martins, Rodrigo P Carvalho, Tatiana A Pereira, Hans E Waldenmaier, Shusei Kanie, Masashi Naito, Anderson G Oliveira, Felipe A Dörr, Ernani Pinto, Ilia V Yampolsky, Cassius V Stevani
We previously showed that luminous fungi share a common mechanism in bioluminescence, and identified hispidin as a luciferin precursor in Neonothopanus nambi mycelium. Here we showed the presence of hispidin as a bioluminescent active compound at 25-1000 pmol g(-1) in the fruiting bodies of Mycena chlorophos, Omphalotus japonicus, and Neonothopanus gardneri. These results suggest that luminous mushrooms contain hispidin as a luciferin precursor. We also found that non-luminous "young" fruiting bodies exhibited luminescence by hispidin treatment...
August 2, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766143/pickling-of-chanterelle-cantharellus-cibarius-mushrooms-highly-reduce-cadmium-contamination
#5
Małgorzata Drewnowska, Anetta Hanć, Danuta Barałkiewicz, Jerzy Falandysz
Mushrooms are considered as potential bio-remediation agents in soil polluted with heavy metals, while many species which efficiently accumulate them in flesh are edible. Question is if there is any possible culinary use of edible mushrooms with high heavy metal contents? This study aimed to investigate and discuss a fate of cadmium (Cd) in common household-treated fruitbodies of common chanterelle Cantharellus cibarius. The samples of Cantharellus cibarius Fr. were collected from five spatially distanced sites in Poland in 2011-2012...
August 1, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765012/chemical-constituents-from-the-rare-mushroom-calvatia-nipponica-inhibit-the-promotion-of-angiogenesis-in-huvecs
#6
Seulah Lee, Jun Yeon Park, Dahae Lee, Soonja Seok, Yeon Jung Kwon, Tae Su Jang, Ki Sung Kang, Ki Hyun Kim
Calvatia species, also known as puffball mushrooms, are common sources of food worldwide. Calvatia nipponica (Agaricaceae) is one of the most rare species in the Calvatia genus. It was first validated in 2008. Due to its scarcity, C. nipponica has never been chemically investigated. Its recent discovery in Korea allowed to conduct this study, and using bioactivity-guided fractionation for antiangiogenic activity, chemical investigation of the MeOH extract of the fruiting bodies of C. nipponica led to the isolation of five alkaloids (1-5) and two phenolic compounds (6-7)...
July 21, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760967/deep-evolutionary-conservation-of-autism-related-genes
#7
Hagai Y Shpigler, Michael C Saul, Frida Corona, Lindsey Block, Amy Cash Ahmed, Sihai D Zhao, Gene E Robinson
E. O. Wilson proposed in Sociobiology that similarities between human and animal societies reflect common mechanistic and evolutionary roots. When introduced in 1975, this controversial hypothesis was beyond science's ability to test. We used genomic analyses to determine whether superficial behavioral similarities in humans and the highly social honey bee reflect common molecular mechanisms. Here, we report that gene expression signatures for individual bees unresponsive to various salient social stimuli are significantly enriched for autism spectrum disorder-related genes...
July 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756946/fragile-x-mental-retardation-protein-requirements-in-activity-dependent-critical-period-neural-circuit-refinement
#8
Caleb A Doll, Dominic J Vita, Kendal Broadie
Activity-dependent synaptic remodeling occurs during early-use critical periods, when naive juveniles experience sensory input. Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) sculpts synaptic refinement in an activity sensor mechanism based on sensory cues, with FMRP loss causing the most common heritable autism spectrum disorder (ASD), fragile X syndrome (FXS). In the well-mapped Drosophila olfactory circuitry, projection neurons (PNs) relay peripheral sensory information to the central brain mushroom body (MB) learning/memory center...
August 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743801/foxq2-has-a-key-role-in-anterior-head-and-central-brain-patterning-in-insects
#9
Peter Kitzmann, Matthias Weißkopf, Magdalena Ines Schacht, Gregor Bucher
Anterior patterning of animals is based on a set of highly conserved transcription factors but the interactions within the protostome anterior gene regulatory network (aGRN) remain enigmatic. Here, we identify the foxQ2 ortholog of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum as novel upstream component of the aGRN. It is required for the development of the labrum and higher order brain structures, namely the central complex and the mushroom bodies. We reveal Tc-foxQ2 interactions by RNAi and heat shock-mediated misexpression...
July 25, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740466/a-tyrosine-hydroxylase-characterization-of-dopaminergic-neurons-in-the-honey-bee-brain
#10
Stevanus R Tedjakumala, Jacques Rouquette, Marie-Laure Boizeau, Karen A Mesce, Lucie Hotier, Isabelle Massou, Martin Giurfa
Dopamine (DA) plays a fundamental role in insect behavior as it acts both as a general modulator of behavior and as a value system in associative learning where it mediates the reinforcing properties of unconditioned stimuli (US). Here we aimed at characterizing the dopaminergic neurons in the central nervous system of the honey bee, an insect that serves as an established model for the study of learning and memory. We used tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity (ir) to ensure that the neurons detected synthesize DA endogenously...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740296/lithium-biofortification-of-medicinal-mushrooms-agrocybe-cylindracea-and-hericium-erinaceus
#11
Piotr Rzymski, Przemysław Niedzielski, Marek Siwulski, Mirosław Mleczek, Sylwia Budzyńska, Monika Gąsecka, Barbara Poniedziałek
Although an increase in dietary lithium (Li) has been suggested as a possible method for mood stabilization and for decreasing violence and suicidal rates, no Li-enriched food has entered the market. Here we continue to explore the feasibility of mushrooms in this respect and have investigated the growth, accumulation and mineral content (Ca, K, Mg and Na) of Agrocybe cylidracea and Hericium erinaceus cultivated on substrates supplemented with 0.25-1.0 mM of Li as acetate or chloride. As demonstrated, supplementation with LiCl yielded more satisfactory results, did not alter mushroom biomass, appearance, shape or size regardless of Li concentration...
July 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735315/the-diversity-growth-promoting-abilities-and-anti-microbial-activities-of-bacteria-isolated-from-the-fruiting-body-of-agaricus-bisporus
#12
Quanju Xiang, Lihua Luo, Yuhuan Liang, Qiang Chen, Xiaoping Zhang, Yunfu Gu
Agaricus bisporus plays an important role in ecological processes and is one of the most widely cultivated mushrooms worldwide. Mushroom growth-promoting bacteria have been isolated from casing soil and compost, but microorganisms in the fruiting body have received only a little attention. To get an overview of phylogenetic diversity of microorganisms in the fruiting body of A. bisporus, as well as to screen antimicrobial and mushroom growth-promoting strains, and eventually intensify mushroom production, we isolated and characterized microorganisms from the fruiting body of A...
July 6, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728024/origins-of-cell-type-specific-olfactory-processing-in-the-drosophila-mushroom-body-circuit
#13
Kengo Inada, Yoshiko Tsuchimoto, Hokto Kazama
How cell-type-specific physiological properties shape neuronal functions in a circuit remains poorly understood. We addressed this issue in the Drosophila mushroom body (MB), a higher olfactory circuit, where neurons belonging to distinct glomeruli in the antennal lobe feed excitation to three types of intrinsic neurons, α/β, α'/β', and γ Kenyon cells (KCs). Two-photon optogenetics and intracellular recording revealed that whereas glomerular inputs add similarly in all KCs, spikes were generated most readily in α'/β' KCs...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718825/olive-mill-waste-enhances-%C3%AE-glucan-content-in-the-edible-mushroom-pleurotus-eryngii
#14
Sharon Avni, Nirit Ezove, Hilla Hanani, Itamar Yadid, Michal Karpovsky, Hilla Hayby, Ofer Gover, Yitzhak Hadar, Betty Schwartz, Ofer Danay
Mushroom polysaccharides are edible polymers that have numerous reported biological functions; the most common effects are attributed to β-glucans. In recent years, it became apparent that the less abundant α-glucans also possess potent effects in various health conditions. Here we explore several Pleurotus species for their total, β and α-glucan content. Pleurotus eryngii was found to have the highest total glucan concentrations and the highest α-glucans proportion. We also found that the stalks (stipe) of the fruit body contained higher glucan content then the caps (pileus)...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718765/a-connectome-of-a-learning-and-memory-center-in-the-adult-drosophila-brain
#15
Shin-Ya Takemura, Yoshinori Aso, Toshihide Hige, Allan Wong, Zhiyuan Lu, C Shan Xu, Patricia K Rivlin, Harald Hess, Ting Zhao, Toufiq Parag, Stuart Berg, Gary Huang, William Katz, Donald J Olbris, Stephen Plaza, Lowell Umayam, Roxanne Aniceto, Lei-Ann Chang, Shirley Lauchie, Omotara Ogundeyi, Christopher Ordish, Aya Shinomiya, Christopher Sigmund, Satoko Takemura, Julie Tran, Glenn C Turner, Gerald M Rubin, Louis K Scheffer
Understanding memory formation, storage and retrieval requires knowledge of the underlying neuronal circuits. In Drosophila, the mushroom body (MB) is the major site of associative learning. We reconstructed the morphologies and synaptic connections of all 983 neurons within the three functional units, or compartments, that compose the adult MB's α lobe, using a dataset of isotropic 8 nm voxels collected by focused ion-beam milling scanning electron microscopy. We found that Kenyon cells (KCs), whose sparse activity encodes sensory information, each make multiple en passant synapses to MB output neurons (MBONs) in each compartment...
July 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713046/a-90-day-oral-toxicity-study-of-glycolipids-from-dacryopinax-spathularia-in-beagle-dogs
#16
Jens Bitzer, Thomas Henkel, Andrey I Nikiforov, Marisa O Rihner, Kim A Henderson
The subchronic toxicity of glycolipids from Dacryopinax spathularia (herein referred to as "AM-1") was studied in male and female Beagle dogs administered AM-1 by oral capsule at doses of 150, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day for 90 days. AM-1 was well tolerated at all dosages and there were no test article-related effects on survival, clinical observations, neurological screening (functional observational battery) parameters, clinical pathology parameters, organ weights, macroscopic or microscopic evaluations. Test article-related changes were limited to minimal effects on food consumption and body weight changes in the 1000 mg/kg/day group females...
July 13, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700109/biological-responses-in-balb-c-mice-after-long-term-parenteral-administration-of-the-light-subunit-of-mushroom-tyrosinase
#17
Wangsa T Ismaya, Alida Efthyani, Raymond R Tjandrawinata, Heni Rachmawati
Light subunit of mushroom tyrosinase (LSMT) is a protein of unknown function from mushroom Agaricus bisporus that has been demonstrated to permeate through rat intestine ex vivo. Thus, it can be absorbed in the intestine, thereby holding a promise as a drug carrier for oral administration, similar to HA-33 protein from botulinum, one of the closest structural homologs of LSMT. However, the safety of LSMT should be ensured prior to its use. Here, we described biological response of LSMT upon weekly intraperitoneal administration of 50 μg/day to the Balb/c mice for 12 weeks...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691489/matsutakone-and-matsutoic-acid-two-nor-steroids-with-unusual-skeletons-from-the-edible-mushroom-tricholoma-matsutake
#18
Zhen-Zhu Zhao, He-Ping Chen, Bin Wu, Ling Zhang, Zheng-Hui Li, Tao Feng, Ji-Kai Liu
Matsutakone (1), a novel sterol with an unprecedented polycyclic ring system, together with a new norsteroid matsutoic acid (2) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Tricholoma matsutake. Their structures and absolute configurations were assigned by extensive spectroscopic analyses and computational methods. Bioassay results showed that compounds 1 and 2 exhibited inhibitory activities against acetylcholinesterase (IC50 20.9 μM for 1).
July 19, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688806/evaluation-of-the-genotoxicity-of-alpha-amanitin-in-mice-bone-marrow-cells
#19
B Marciniak, D Łopaczyńska, T Ferenc
Alpha-amanitin is a known cytotoxic substance found in some mushroom species including Amanita phalloides. Its main mechanism of action is to block the transcription, which can lead to cell death. Lack of reports on the genotoxicity of this toxin was an inspiration for undertaking this experiment. Genotoxic effect of α-amanitin on balb/c mice bone marrow cells was tested using: comet assay and chromosomal aberration test. The tested substance was given once by intraperitoneal administration to animals at doses: 0...
July 6, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686838/occurrence-of-the-2r-3s-isomer-of-2-amino-3-4-dihydroxybutanoic-acid-in-the-mushroom-hypsizygus-marmoreus
#20
Tomokazu Ito, Zhuoer Yu, Issei Yoshino, Yurina Hirozawa, Kana Yamamoto, Kiyotugu Shinoda, Akira Watanabe, Hisashi Hemmi, Yasuhiko Asada, Tohru Yoshimura
Here, we report the occurrence of the (2R,3S)-isomer of 2-amino-3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid (d-ADHB) in the fruiting body of an edible mushroom, Hypsizygus marmoreus. This is an unusual example of the accumulation of a d-amino acid whose enantiomer is not a proteinogenic amino acid. We show that d-ADHB occurs specifically in the mushroom H. marmoreus. Other edible mushrooms examined, including Pholiota microspora, Pleurotus eryngii, Mycena chlorophos, Sparassis crispa, Grifola frondosa, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Flammulina velutipes, do not contain detectable levels of d-ADHB...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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