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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432095/mushroom-emergence-detected-by-combining-spore-trapping-with-molecular-techniques
#1
Carles Castaño, Jonàs Oliva, Juan Martínez de Aragón, Josu G Alday, Javier Parladé, Joan Pera, José Antonio Bonet
Obtaining reliable and representative mushroom production data requires time-consuming sampling schemes. In this paper, we assessed a simple methodology to detect mushroom emergence by trapping the fungal spores of the fruiting body community in plots where mushroom production was determined weekly. We compared the performance of filter paper traps with that of funnel traps and combined these spore trapping methods with species-specific quantitative real-time PCR and Illumina MiSeq to determine the spore abundance...
April 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422185/improved-ganoderic-acids-production-in-ganoderma-lucidum-by-wood-decaying-components
#2
Yanru Hu, Shakeel Ahmed, Jiawei Li, Biaobiao Luo, Zengyan Gao, Qiyun Zhang, Xiaohua Li, Xuebo Hu
Ganoderma lucidum is a legendary Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) over a few thousands of years and one kind of its major active components are Ganoderic acids (GAs). GAs are largely produced in the mushroom primordium and fruiting body but much less in mycelium stage. However, little is known on the underlying regulatory mechanism. As a saprophytic fungus, G. lucidum solely obtains nutrients by wood decaying. Wood in general contains sophisticated chemical components with diverse structural units. To explore a strategy that extensively leads to GAs induction in the submerged liquid fermentation, all chemical components that might be possibly from the wood decaying were tested individually as GAs inducers...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416632/null-epac-mutants-reveal-a-sequential-order-of-versatile-camp-effects-during-drosophila-aversive-odor-learning
#3
Antje Richlitzki, Philipp Latour, Martin Schwärzel
Here, we define a role of the cAMP intermediate EPAC in Drosophila aversive odor learning by means of null epac mutants. Complementation analysis revealed that EPAC acts downstream from the rutabaga adenylyl cyclase and in parallel to protein kinase A. By means of targeted knockdown and genetic rescue we identified mushroom body Kenyon cells (KCs) as a necessary and sufficient site of EPAC action. We provide mechanistic insights by analyzing acquisition dynamics and using the "performance increment" as a means to access the trial-based sequential organization of odor learning...
May 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416593/two-components-of-aversive-memory-in-drosophila-anesthesia-sensitive-and-anesthesia-resistant-memory-require-distinct-domains-within-the-rgk1-small-gtpase
#4
Satoshi Murakami, Maki Minami-Ohtsubo, Ryuichiro Nakato, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Tetsuya Tabata
For aversive olfactory memory in Drosophila, multiple components have been identified that exhibit different stabilities. These components have been defined by behavioral and genetic studies, and genes specifically required for a specific component have also been identified. Intermediate-term memory generated after single cycle conditioning is divided into anesthesia-sensitive memory (ASM) and anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM), with the latter being more stable. We determined that the ASM and ARM pathways converged on the Rgk1 small GTPase and that the N-terminal domain-deleted Rgk1 was sufficient for ASM formation, whereas the full-length form was required for ARM formation...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407928/wild-mushrooms-and-their-mycelia-as-sources-of-bioactive-compounds-antioxidant-anti-inflammatory-and-cytotoxic-properties
#5
Fedia Souilem, Ângela Fernandes, Ricardo C Calhelha, João C M Barreira, Lillian Barros, Fathia Skhiri, Anabela Martins, Isabel C F R Ferreira
Mushrooms are important sources of natural bioactive compounds. Pleurotus eryngii (DC.) Quél is recognized for its organoleptic quality and health effects, being extensively commercialized. Instead, Suillus bellinii (Inzenga) Watling is an ectomycorrhizal symbiont, whose main properties were scarcely reported. Considering current trends, the mycelia and the culture media of these mushrooms might be potential sources of bioactive compounds. Accordingly, P. eryngii and S. bellinii were studied for their phenolic acids and sterols, antioxidant capacity, anti-inflammatory effect and anti-proliferative activity...
September 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401598/dcf1-improves-behavior-deficit-in-drosophila-and-mice-caused-by-optogenetic-suppression
#6
Qiang Liu, Linhua Gan, Jian Ni, Yu Chen, Yanlu Chen, Zhili Huang, Xu Huang, Tieqiao Wen
Optogenetics play a significant role in neuroscientific research by providing a tool for understanding neural circuits and brain functions. Natronomonas pharaonis halorhodopsin (NpHR) actively pumps chloride ions into the cells and hyperpolarizes neuronal membranes in response to yellow light. In this study, we generated transgenic Drosophila expressing NpHR under the control of the Gal4/UAS system and virus-infected mice expressing NpHR to explore the effect of dendritic cell factor 1 (Dcf1) on the behavior mediated by the mushroom body in Drosophila and the dentate gyrus (DG) in mice...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396840/suppression-of-a-single-pair-of-mushroom-body-output-neurons-in-drosophila-triggers-aversive-associations
#7
Yutaro Ueoka, Makoto Hiroi, Takashi Abe, Tetsuya Tabata
Memory includes the processes of acquisition, consolidation and retrieval. In the study of aversive olfactory memory in Drosophila melanogaster, flies are first exposed to an odor (conditioned stimulus, CS+) that is associated with an electric shock (unconditioned stimulus, US), then to another odor (CS-) without the US, before allowing the flies to choose to avoid one of the two odors. The center for memory formation is the mushroom body which consists of Kenyon cells (KCs), dopaminergic neurons (DANs) and mushroom body output neurons (MBONs)...
April 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396149/disco-interacting-protein-2-determines-direction-of-axon-projection-under-the-regulation-of-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-in-the-drosophila-mushroom-body
#8
Yohei Nitta, Atsushi Sugie
Precisely controlled axon guidance for complex neuronal wiring is essential for appropriate neuronal function. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was found to play a role in axon guidance recently as well as in cell proliferation, protection and apoptosis. In spite of many genetic and molecular studies on these biological processes regulated by JNK, how JNK regulates axon guidance accurately has not been fully explained thus far. To address this question, we use the Drosophila mushroom body (MB) as a model since the α/β axons project in two distinct directions...
April 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386890/cooking-can-decrease-mercury-contamination-of-a-mushroom-meal-cantharellus-cibarius-and-amanita-fulva
#9
Jerzy Falandysz, Małgorzata Drewnowska
Mushrooms (Cantharellus cibarius and Amanita fulva) were blanched (parboiled) and pickled using different treatment conditions with the aim of carrying out the study into effect on removal of toxic mercury (Hg) accumulated in flesh. Blanching of fresh sliced C. cibarius caused leaching of Hg by approximately 15%, while loss of up to 35% was observed for sliced, deep-frozen fruit bodies. The rate of Hg leaching from the C. cibarius in practice was the same when blanched for 5 or 15 min irrespective of potable or deionized water used...
April 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383525/mushroom-biomass-and-diversity-are-driven-by-different-spatio-temporal-scales-along-mediterranean-elevation-gradients
#10
Josu G Alday, Juan Martínez de Aragón, Sergio de-Miguel, José Antonio Bonet
Mushrooms are important non-wood-forest-products in many Mediterranean ecosystems, being highly vulnerable to climate change. However, the ecological scales of variation of mushroom productivity and diversity, and climate dependence has been usually overlooked due to a lack of available data. We determined the spatio-temporal variability of epigeous sporocarps and the climatic factors driving their fruiting to plan future sustainable management of wild mushrooms production. We collected fruiting bodies in Pinus sylvestris stands along an elevation gradient for 8 consecutive years...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379939/re-evaluation-of-learned-information-in-drosophila
#11
Johannes Felsenberg, Oliver Barnstedt, Paola Cognigni, Suewei Lin, Scott Waddell
Animals constantly assess the reliability of learned information to optimize their behaviour. On retrieval, consolidated long-term memory can be neutralized by extinction if the learned prediction was inaccurate. Alternatively, retrieved memory can be maintained, following a period of reconsolidation during which it is labile. Although extinction and reconsolidation provide opportunities to alleviate problematic human memories, we lack a detailed mechanistic understanding of memory updating. Here we identify neural operations underpinning the re-evaluation of memory in Drosophila...
April 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378220/fomitopsis-betulina-formerly-piptoporus-betulinus-the-iceman-s-polypore-fungus-with-modern-biotechnological-potential
#12
REVIEW
Małgorzata Pleszczyńska, Marta K Lemieszek, Marek Siwulski, Adrian Wiater, Wojciech Rzeski, Janusz Szczodrak
Higher Basidiomycota have been used in natural medicine throughout the world for centuries. One of such fungi is Fomitopsis betulina (formerly Piptoporus betulinus), which causes brown rot of birch wood. Annual white to brownish fruiting bodies of the species can be found on trees in the northern hemisphere but F. betulina can also be cultured as a mycelium and fruiting body. The fungus has a long tradition of being applied in folk medicine as an antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory agent. Probably due to the curative properties, pieces of its fruiting body were carried by Ötzi the Iceman...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366532/the-drosophila-circuitry-of-sleep-wake-regulation
#13
REVIEW
Gregory Artiushin, Amita Sehgal
Sleep is a deeply conserved, yet fundamentally mysterious behavioral state. Knowledge of the circuitry of sleep-wake regulation is an essential step in understanding the physiology of the sleeping brain. Recent efforts in Drosophila have revealed new populations which impact sleep, as well as provided unprecedented mechanistic and electrophysiological detail of established sleep-regulating neurons. Multiple, distributed centers of sleep-wake circuitry exist in the fly, including the mushroom bodies, central complex and the circadian clock cells...
March 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364651/influence-of-soil-characteristics-on-rare-earth-fingerprints-in-mosses-and-mushrooms-example-of-a-pristine-temperate-rainforest-slavonia-croatia
#14
Željka Fiket, Gordana Medunić, Martina Furdek Turk, Maja Ivanić, Goran Kniewald
The present study aims to investigate levels and distribution of rare earth elements (REE) in soils, mosses and mushrooms of a pristine temperate rainforest, a non-polluted natural system, in order to characterise their environmental availability and mobility. The multielement analysis of digested soil, moss and mushroom samples was performed by High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. The distribution of rare earths in mosses and mushrooms was found primarily affected by local pedological setting...
March 29, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361237/valorization-of-spent-oyster-mushroom-substrate-and-laccase-recovery-through-successive-solid-state-cultivation-of-pleurotus-ganoderma-and-lentinula-strains
#15
Christina N Economou, Panagiota A Diamantopoulou, Antonios N Philippoussis
Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) of Pleurotus ostreatus was supplemented with wheat bran and soybean flour in various proportions to obtain C/N ratios of 10, 20, and 30, and their effect was evaluated in successive cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus pulmonarius, Ganoderma adspersum, Ganoderma resinaceum, and Lentinula edodes strains with respect to mycelium growth rate, biomass concentration, recovery of the enzyme laccase and crude exopolysaccharides, and also with additional fruiting body production...
March 30, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353071/the-preliminary-study-of-prebiotic-potential-of-polish-wild-mushroom-polysaccharides-the-stimulation-effect-on-lactobacillus-strains-growth
#16
Renata Nowak, Natalia Nowacka-Jechalke, Marek Juda, Anna Malm
PURPOSE: According to the vast body of evidence demonstrating that the intestinal microbiota is undoubtedly linked with overall health, including cancer risk, searching for functional foods and novel prebiotic influencing on beneficial bacteria is necessary. The present study aimed to investigate the potential of polysaccharides from 53 wild-growing mushrooms to stimulate the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus and to determine the digestibility of polysaccharide fractions...
March 28, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347179/a-sphingosine-type-cerebroside-in-clavicorona-pyxidata-induce-fruit-body-formation
#17
Yongbiao Zheng, Li Xu, Liufeng Wei, Mianmian Shi, Jiyan Zhang, Jianzhong Huang
Clavicorona pyxidata is a wild edible and medicinal mushroom that is rich in bioactive natural products and has thus been extensively used as traditional medicine in China. The present study has determined that the organic crude extract prepared from a fermented culture of C. pyxidata imparted auto-inhibitory effects on mycelial growth and then induced the formation of fruiting bodies. By monitoring bioactivity, one compound was isolated via successive chromatography over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and Cl8-reversed phase silica gel and was identified as a known sphingosine-type cerebroside by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and physicochemical data, namely, (4E, 8E)-N-D-2'-hydroxypalmitoyl-1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine...
March 28, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344593/agaricus-brasiliensis-polysaccharides-stimulate-human-monocytes-to-capture-candida-albicans-express-toll-like-receptors-2-and-4-and-produce-pro-inflammatory-cytokines
#18
Priscila Raquel Martins, Ângela Maria Victoriano de Campos Soares, Andrea Vanessa da Silva Pinto Domeneghini, Márjorie Assis Golim, Ramon Kaneno
BACKGROUND: Agaricus brasiliensis is a medicinal mushroom with immunomodulatory and antitumor activities attributed to the β-glucans presented in the polysaccharide fraction of its fruiting body. Since β-glucans enhance cellular immunoresponsiveness, in this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of an acid-treated polysaccharide-rich fraction (ATF) of A. brasiliensis on the ability of human monocytes to adhere/phagocyte C. albicans yeast cells, their expression of pattern recognition receptors and their ability to produce cytokines...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337138/motor-skill-learning-in-an-insect-inspired-neuro-computational-control-system
#19
Eleonora Arena, Paolo Arena, Roland Strauss, Luca Patané
In nature, insects show impressive adaptation and learning capabilities. The proposed computational model takes inspiration from specific structures of the insect brain: after proposing key hypotheses on the direct involvement of the mushroom bodies (MBs) and on their neural organization, we developed a new architecture for motor learning to be applied in insect-like walking robots. The proposed model is a nonlinear control system based on spiking neurons. MBs are modeled as a nonlinear recurrent spiking neural network (SNN) with novel characteristics, able to memorize time evolutions of key parameters of the neural motor controller, so that existing motor primitives can be improved...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334042/whole-body-counter-wbc-and-food-radiocesium-contamination-surveys-in-namie-fukushima-prefecture
#20
Yoichiro Hosokawa, Kazuki Nomura, Eiki Tsushima, Kohsei Kudo, Yuka Noto, Yoshiko Nishizawa
PURPOSE: This study examined the internal Cs exposure of residents and the Cs present in food products produced in Namie. Whole-body counter (WBC) was used for the measurement of internal exposure per each whole body of examinees. METHODS: The food products which appeared to be used for consumption, were brought by residents and commercially available food items were excluded. Most of them were wild plants or food items produced by residents. Four years of data from April 2012 to March 2013 (fiscal 2012) and April 2015 to March 2016 (Fiscal 2015) were analyzed and studied...
2017: PloS One
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