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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330349/pharmacologic-inhibition-of-phospholipase-c-in-the-brain-attenuates-early-memory-formation-in-the-honeybee-apis-mellifera-l
#1
Shota Suenami, Shiori Iino, Takeo Kubo
Although the molecular mechanisms involved in learning and memory in insects have been studied intensively, the intracellular signaling mechanisms involved in early memory formation are not fully understood. We previously demonstrated that phospholipase C epsilon (PLCe), whose product is involved in calcium signaling, is almost selectively expressed in the mushroom bodies, a brain structure important for learning and memory in the honeybee. Here, we pharmacologically examined the role of phospholipase C (PLC) in learning and memory in the honeybee...
January 12, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322941/persistent-activity-in-a-recurrent-circuit-underlies-courtship-memory-in-drosophila
#2
Xiaoliang Zhao, Daniela Lenek, Ugur Dag, Barry Dickson, Krystyna Keleman
Recurrent connections are thought to be a common feature of the neural circuits that encode memories, but how memories are laid down in such circuits is not fully understood. Here we present evidence that courtship memory in Drosophila relies on the recurrent circuit between mushroom body gamma (MBg), M6 output, and aSP13 dopaminergic neurons. We demonstrate persistent neuronal activity of aSP13 neurons and show that it transiently potentiates synaptic transmission from MBγ>M6 neurons. M6 neurons in turn provide input to aSP13 neurons, prolonging potentiation of MBγ>M6 synapses over time periods that match short-term memory...
January 11, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318535/specialized-pollination-by-fungus-gnats-in-the-introduced-population-of-aspidistra-elatior
#3
Kenji Suetsugu, Masahiro Sueyoshi
The monocot genus Aspidistra comprises rhizomatous perennials that are distributed in tropical to warm temperate regions of Asia. Little is known about the pollinators of almost all the species, probably due to the inconspicuous nature of Aspidistra flowers. Nevertheless, the unusual floral morphology suggests biotic pollination, since pollen grains are hidden under each flower's stigma. Aspidistra elatior has been suspected to have a very peculiar pollination ecology. So far, pollination by mollusks, crustaceans, or collembolans has been suspected...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306981/unusual-stability-of-a-recombinant-verrucomicrobium-spinosum-tyrosinase-to-denaturing-agents-and-its-use-for-a-production-of-a-protein-with-adhesive-properties
#4
A S Axambayeva, L R Zhaparova, Zh S Shagyrova, E M Ramankulov, A V Shustov
Tyrosinases catalyze oxidation of phenols with a formation of biphenols, quinones, and highly polymerized melanins. Tyrosinases have prospects for industrial use to remove phenols, also in biosensors, in bioorganic synthesis, and for a production of biocompatible adhesives (medical glues). Despite growing fields of potential applications, a selection of commercially available tyrosinases are currently limited to a single enzyme which is isolated from fruiting bodies of mushrooms. This article describes a preparation of recombinant tyrosinase from a bacterium Verrucomicrobium spinosum using a heterologous expression in Escherichia coli...
January 6, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297258/novel-tyrosinase-inhibitors-from-liquid-culture-of-neolentinus-lepideus
#5
Atsushi Ishihara, Yuri Ide, Tomohiro Bito, Naoki Ube, Naoki Endo, Kozue Sotome, Nitaro Maekawa, Kotomi Ueno, Akira Nakagiri
Tyrosinase is the key enzyme that controls melanin formation in the human skin. We performed a screening of 96 extracts of mushroom cultures and fruiting bodies for examining their inhibitory activity against mushroom tyrosinase. The ethyl acetate extracts of culture filtrate of Neolentinus lepideus exhibited the strongest inhibitory activity. The active compounds 1 and 2 were purified by repeated chromatographic separations from the extract. On the basis of spectroscopic analyses, 1 and 2 were identified to be 1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-4,5,7-triol and 5-methoxy-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-4,7-diol, respectively...
January 3, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287801/subchronic-toxicity-and-genotoxicity-studies-of-antrodia-mushroom-%C3%AE-glucan-preparation
#6
S N Chen, C S Chang, S Chen, Madhu Soni
Antrodia cinnamomea is one of the most highly valued mushrooms utilized in traditional Taiwanese therapeutic practices. Its neutral monosaccharides (mannose, glucose and xylose) linked by a β-D-glucan chain have been claimed to be responsible for its health benefits. The objective of the present study was to investigate adverse effects, if any, of β-glucan (∼65% pure) from A. cinnamomea in subchronic toxicity and mutagenicity studies. In the subchronic toxicity study, Sprague Dawley rats (12/sex/group) were followed Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test guideline with Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) application, and were administered (gavage) Antrodia mushroom β-glucan preparation at dose levels of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day for 90 days...
December 26, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284750/cyclic-amp-dependent-plasticity-underlies-rapid-changes-in-odor-coding-associated-with-reward-learning
#7
Thierry Louis, Aaron Stahl, Tamara Boto, Seth M Tomchik
Learning and memory rely on dopamine and downstream cAMP-dependent plasticity across diverse organisms. Despite the central role of cAMP signaling, it is not known how cAMP-dependent plasticity drives coherent changes in neuronal physiology that encode the memory trace, or engram. In Drosophila, the mushroom body (MB) is critically involved in olfactory classical conditioning, and cAMP signaling molecules are necessary and sufficient for normal memory in intrinsic MB neurons. To evaluate the role of cAMP-dependent plasticity in learning, we examined how cAMP manipulations and olfactory classical conditioning modulate olfactory responses in the MB with in vivo imaging...
December 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277563/the-physiology-of-agaricus-bisporus-in-semi-commercial-compost-cultivation-appears-to-be-highly-conserved-among-unrelated-isolates
#8
María Victoria Aguilar Pontes, Aleksandrina Patyshakuliyeva, Harm Post, Edita Jurak, Kristiina Hildén, Maarten Altelaar, Albert Heck, Mirjam A Kabel, Ronald P de Vries, Miia R Mäkelä
The white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus is one of the most widely produced edible fungus with a great economical value. Its commercial cultivation process is often performed on wheat straw and animal manure based compost that mainly contains lignocellulosic material as a source of carbon and nutrients for the mushroom production. As a large portion of compost carbohydrates are left unused in the current mushroom cultivation process, the aim of this work was to study wild-type A. bisporus strains for their potential to convert the components that are poorly utilized by the commercial strain A15...
December 22, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274425/chemical-characterization-and-wound-healing-property-of-a-%C3%AE-d-glucan-from-edible-mushroom-piptoporus-betulinus
#9
Liana Inara de Jesus, Fhernanda R Smiderle, Andrea C Ruthes, Francisco Vilaplana, Fernando Tonholi Dal, Daniele Maria-Ferreira, Maria Fernanda Werner, Leo J L D Van Griensven, Marcello Iacomini
A water-soluble β-D-glucan was obtained from fruiting bodies of Piptoporus betulinus, by hot aqueous extraction followed by freeze-thawing procedure and dialysis. Its molar mass distribution and conformational behavior in solution was assessed by size-exclusion chromatography, showing a polysaccharide with an average molecular weight of 2.5 × 105 Da with a random coil conformation for molecular weights below 1 × 106 Da. Typical signals of β-(1 → 3)-linkages were observed in NMR spectrum (δ 102...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273995/applied-mycology-can-contribute-to-sustainable-rural-livelihoods-building-upon-china-s-matsutake-management-initiatives
#10
Madeline Brown, Timothy McLellan, Huili Li, Samantha C Karunarathna
Matsutake mushrooms are an important part of rural livelihoods and forest ecosystems across large parts of China, as well as elsewhere in East Asia, Northern Europe and North America. Mushroom harvesters have developed sophisticated understandings of matsutake ecology and production, and are applying this knowledge in various innovative management strategies. At the same time, Chinese government agencies and scientists are promoting matsutake-based livelihoods to support development and conservation goals. We collaborated with matsutake harvesters in one Yunnan community to carry out a systematic experiment on a popular shiro-level management technique: covering matsutake shiros with either plastic or leaf litter...
December 22, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247619/a-new-drosophila-model-of-ubiquilin-knockdown-shows-the-effect-of-impaired-proteostasis-on-locomotive-and-learning-abilities
#11
Salinee Jantrapirom, Luca Lo Piccolo, Hideki Yoshida, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
Ubiquilin (UBQLN) plays a crucial role in cellular proteostasis through its involvement in the ubiquitin proteasome system and autophagy. Mutations in the UBQLN2 gene have been implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ALS with frontotemporal lobar dementia (ALS/FTLD). Previous studies reported a key role for UBQLN in Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the mechanistic involvement of UBQLN in other neurodegenerative diseases remains unclear. The genome of Drosophila contains a single UBQLN homolog (dUbqn) that shows high similarity to UBQLN1 and UBQLN2; therefore, the fly is a useful model for characterizing the role of UBQLN in vivo in neurological disorders affecting locomotion and learning abilities...
December 13, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228376/effects-of-cyclophosphamide-cyp-and-or-doxorubicin-dox-in-a-murine-model-of-post-chemotherapy-cognitive-impairment
#12
Timothy J Flanigan, Julie E Anderson, Ikram Elayan, Antiño R Allen, Sherry A Ferguson
Post-chemotherapy cognitive impairment, or PCCI, is a common complaint, particularly among breast cancer patients. However, the exact nature of PCCI appears complex. To model the human condition, ovariectomized C57BL/6J mice were treated iv weekly for 4 weeks with saline, 2 mg/kg doxorubicin (DOX), 50 mg/kg cyclophosphamide (CYP), or DOX+CYP. For the subsequent 10 weeks, mice were assessed on several behavioral tests, including those measuring spatial learning and memory. After sacrifice, hippocampal spine density and morphology in the dentate gyrus, CA1, and CA3 regions were measured...
December 7, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222576/microbial-ecology-of-the-agaricus-bisporus-mushroom-cropping-process
#13
REVIEW
Conor F McGee
Agaricus bisporus is the most widely cultivated mushroom species in the world. Cultivation is commenced by inoculating beds of semi-pasteurised composted organic substrate with a pure spawn of A. bisporus. The A. bisporus mycelium subsequently colonises the composted substrate by degrading the organic material to release nutrients. A layer of peat, often called "casing soil", is laid upon the surface of the composted substrate to induce the development of the mushroom crop and maintain compost environmental conditions...
December 8, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216732/vitamin-b12-sources-and-microbial-interaction
#14
Fumio Watanabe, Tomohiro Bito
Vitamin B12 is synthesized only by certain bacteria and archaeon, but not by plants. The synthesized vitamin B12 is transferred and accumulates in animal tissues, which can occur in certain plant and mushroom species through microbial interaction. In particular, the meat and milk of herbivorous ruminant animals (e.g. cattle and sheep) are good sources of vitamin B12 for humans. Ruminants acquire vitamin B12, which is considered an essential nutrient, through a symbiotic relationship with the bacteria present in their stomachs...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208223/neuronal-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-sleep-homeostasis
#15
REVIEW
Jeffrey M Donlea
Sleep is necessary for survival, and prolonged waking causes a homeostatic increase in the need for recovery sleep. Homeostasis is a core component of sleep regulation and has been tightly conserved across evolution from invertebrates to man. Homeostatic sleep regulation was first identified among insects in cockroaches several decades ago, but the characterization of sleep rebound in Drosophila melanogaster opened the use of insect model species to understand homeostatic functions and regulation of sleep. This review describes circuits in two neuropil structures, the central complex and mushroom bodies, that influence sleep homeostasis and neuromodulatory systems that influence the accrual of homeostatic sleep need...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199585/optimization-of-submerged-cultivation-conditions-for-production-of-big-cup-culinary-medicinal-mushroom-clitocybe-maxima-agaricomycetes-biomass-with-significant-antioxidative-and-antihyperlipidemic-activities
#16
Shu-Hui Hu, Ker-Shew Chen, Ming-Yi Liu, Peter Chi Keung Cheung, Jinn-Chyi Wang, Sue-Joan Chang
In this study, a large Clitocybe maxima mycelium biomass was obtained by submerged cultivation under optimal conditions. Three test samples from lyophilized mycelia, including hot water extract (CW) and elutes from solvents with different polarity (CA and CB), were combined and used to explore antioxidant and antihyper-lipidemic activities in vitro and in vivo. The CA group showed the highest DPPH free radical scavenging activity and iron-reducing capability at concentrations of 6.0% and 3.0% (w/v), respectively...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199584/anti-inflammation-and-lipogenic-inhibition-of-taiwanofungus-salmonea-mycelium-and-grifola-frondosa-fruiting-body
#17
Rao-Chi Chien, Yi-Chi Yang, Eric Icheng Lai, Jeng-Leun Mau
A long-term inflammatory response can cause the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is mainly caused by abnormal metabolism of lipids in the liver. Taiwanofungus salmonea and Grifola frondosa, which are valuable medicinal mushrooms in Taiwan and exhibit many beneficial bioactivities, are used to evaluate effects on immune regulation in Raw 264.7 cells and on NASH-related responses in Hep G2 cells. According to the results, the production of proinflammatory cytokines was effectively decreased, whereas the production of interleukin-10 was increased...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199582/antidiabetic-properties-of-the-tiger-s-milk-medicinal-mushroom-lignosus-rhinocerotis-agaricomycetes-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#18
Kar Lin Nyam, Cheng Fhai Chow, Chon Seng Tan, Szu Ting Ng
Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although scientific evidence supporting its therapeutic efficacy is lacking, the use of the tiger's milk mushroom (TGM; Lignosus rhinocerotis), which is native to tropical areas such as Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines, has been found to contain a very large amount of potential antioxidants. In this study, rats were weighed and then intravenously injected with 35 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). Rats were left for 1 week before blood glucose concentrations were measured to determine the onset of diabetes before the next procedure was conducted...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199572/acute-and-subchronic-toxicity-of-dusky-skinned-mushroom-amauroderma-rude-agaricomycetes
#19
Honghui Pan, Yifan Zhang, Bisi Liang, Xiaojie Zhao, Xiaobing Yang, Yizhen Xie
Our earlier work indicated that Amauroderma rude seems to have an effect on immunoregulation and tumor inhibition. However, its toxicity is not yet clear. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the acute and subchronic toxicity of A. rude in order to provide a scientific basis for its possible use as a food. The acute toxicity study (involving mice) showed that the median lethal dose of the A. rude extract was >15,000 mg/kg. In the repeated-dose 90-day oral toxicity study (involving rats), the administration of A...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199568/lingzhi-or-reishi-medicinal-mushroom-ganoderma-lucidum-agaricomycetes-inhibits-candida-biofilms-a-metabolomic-approach
#20
Anuja Bhardwaj, Payal Gupta, Navin Kumar, Jigni Mishra, Ajai Kumar, Rajput Rakhee, Kshipra Misra
This article presents a comparative gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomic analysis of mycelia and fruiting bodies of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Three aqueous extracts-mycelia, fruiting bodies, and a mixture of them-and their sequential fractions (methanolic and ethyl acetate), prepared using an accelerated solvent extractor, were characterized by GC-MS to determine volatile organic compounds and by high-performance thin-layer chromatography to quantify ascorbic acid, a potent antioxidant...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
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