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mushroom body

Cássio Resende de Morais, Bruno Augusto Nassif Travençolo, Stephan Malfitano Carvalho, Marcelo Emílio Beletti, Vanessa Santana Vieira Santos, Carlos Fernando Campos, Edimar Olegário de Campos Júnior, Boscolli Barbosa Pereira, Maria Paula Carvalho Naves, Alexandre Azenha Alves de Rezende, Mário Antônio Spanó, Carlos Ueira Vieira, Ana Maria Bonetti
Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera, Apidae) is a pollinator of various native and cultivated plants. Because of the expansion of agriculture and the need to ensure pest control, the use of insecticides such as fipronil (FP) has increased. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of sublethal doses of FP insecticide on M. scutellaris at different time intervals (6, 12, and 24 h) after exposure, via individually analyzed behavioral biomarkers (locomotor activity, behavioral change) as well as the effect of FP on different brain structures of bees (mushroom bodies, antennal cells, and optic cells), using sub-individual cell biomarkers (heterochromatin dispersion, total nuclear and heterochromatic volume)...
May 10, 2018: Chemosphere
Himanshi Rathore, Abhishek Sharma, Shalinee Prasad, Satyawati Sharma
Calocybe indica was cultivated on wheat straw enriched with various concentrations of sodium selenite (Na2 SeO3 ), (2.5-40 μg/ml). The content of selenium (Se) in fruit bodies increased linearly by increasing the amount of Na2 SeO3 , although the biomass yield inhibited above 5 μg/ml. The fruit bodies accumulated inorganic Se into organic forms by integrating the Se into proteins (56%-68%), polysaccharides (22%-29%), and nucleic acids (1.4%-2.7%). Maximum protein content (25.31 g/100 g) was observed in fruit bodies harvested from the substrate enriched with 10 μg/ml Se...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Wee Cheat Tan, Umah Rani Kuppusamy, Chia Wei Phan, Vikineswary Sabaratnam
Ganoderma neo-japonicum is an annual polypore that grows on decaying bamboo in the forests of Malaysia. The indigenous Temuan tribe uses this species as a medicinal mushroom to cure fever and epilepsy and to improve body strength. The potential use of G. neo-japonicum in genoprotection and DNA repair was established using a single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. The effects of the ethanol and hot aqueous extracts from wild and cultivated basidiocarps, solid substrate-fermented (SSF) wheat grains, and mycelia via submerged culture on H2O2-damaged murine RAW264...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Hazwani Mat Saad, Kae Shin Sim, Yee Shin Tan
Five culinary-medicinal mushrooms are commonly available in the Malaysian market: Agaricus bisporus (white and brown), Ganoderma lucidum, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Pleurotus floridanus, and P. pulmonarius. These species were selected for use in the current study, the aim of which was to investigate the antimelanogenesis and anti-inflammatory activity of these mushrooms in an attempt to evaluate their potential use in cosmeceuticals. Mushroom fruiting bodies were extracted with hot water, and the extracts were freeze-dried before testing...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Zhe Jiang, Mei Jin, Wei Zhou, Ren Li, Yan Zhao, Xuejun Jin, Gao Li
Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) has an important role in immune response and inflammation. Phellinus igniarius (known as Sang huang in traditional Chinese medicine) has various pharmacologic effects. In this study, 19 chemical constituents (1-19) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ph. igniarius. Their structures were elucidated based on data from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and comparison with the literature. Overall, 3 compounds (2, 7, and 11) from this species were reported, to our knowledge for the first time...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Zhaocui Sun, Meigeng Hu, Zhonghao Sun, Nailiang Zhu, Junshan Yang, Guoxu Ma, Xudong Xu
Seven pyrrole alkaloids, three of which are novel (phlebopines A⁻C ( 1 ⁻ 3 )), were isolated from the fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Phlebopus portentosus . Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data. All the isolated compounds were tested for their neuroprotective properties and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibition activities. Compound 7 displayed remarkable neuroprotective effects against hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced neuronal-cell damage in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
May 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ching-Fu Chen, Chun-Han Su, Ming-Nan Lai, Lean-Teik Ng
Polysaccharides including β-glucans are important bioactive components of mushroom. Xylaria nigripes is a popular medicinal fungus that has been used for treating trauma, insomnia and mental illness. This study examined the physicochemical characteristics and anti-inflammatory activities of water soluble non-digestible polysaccharides (TXNP and CXNP) from fruiting bodies of two cultivated X. nigripes strains (TXN and CXN). Results showed that both TXNP and CXNP possessed relatively similar FT-IR spectra. TXNP had a triple helix conformation and molecular weight of 853...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Frederico Kiffer, Alexis K Howe, Hannah Carr, Jing Wang, Tyler Alexander, Julie E Anderson, Thomas Groves, John W Seawright, Vijayalakshmi Sridharan, Gwendolyn Carter, Marjan Boerma, Antiño R Allen
NASA's Missions to Mars and beyond will expose flight crews to potentially dangerous levels of charged-particle radiation. Of all charged nuclei, 1 H is the most abundant charged particle in both the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) and solar particle event (SPE) spectra. There are currently no functional spacecraft shielding materials that are able to mitigate the charged-particle radiation encountered in space. Recent studies have demonstrated cognitive injuries due to high-dose 1 H exposures in rodents. Our study investigated the effects of 1 H irradiation on neuronal morphology in the hippocampus of adult male mice...
May 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Krzysztof Lipka, Martyna Saba, Jerzy Falandysz
Concentrations of Al, Ba, Cd, Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Hg, Rb, Ag, Na, Sr and Zn were analysed in fruiting bodies of A. muscaria. This mushroom is considered conditionally edible, since parboiling can detoxify its fruiting bodies from the hallucinogens and render it edible. The specific purpose of the research is the little-known phenomenon of the variability of mineral composition of mushrooms for generations harvested in the same forest areas - both in terms of their nutritional value and anthropogenic influences...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Jinbin Wang, Wen Li, Zhengpeng Li, Wenhui Wu, Xueming Tang
To identify the characteristic taste components of the common cultivated mushroom (brown; Portobello), Agaricus bisporus, taste components in the stipe and pileus of Portobello mushroom harvested at different growth stages were extracted and identified, and principal component analysis (PCA) and taste active value (TAV) were used to reveal the characteristic taste components during the each of the growth stages of Portobello mushroom. In the stipe and pileus, 20 and 14 different principal taste components were identified, respectively, and they were considered as the principal taste components of Portobello mushroom fruit bodies, which included most amino acids and 5'-nucleotides...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Mariko Ikeda, Masami Yoshino
The nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic GMP signaling pathway has been suggested to be important in the formation of olfactory memory in insects. However, the molecular targets of the NO signaling cascade in the central neurons associated with olfactory learning and memory have not been fully analyzed. In this study, we investigated the effects of NO donors on single voltage-dependent Na+ channels in intrinsic neurons, called Kenyon cells, in the mushroom bodies in the brain of the cricket. Step depolarization on cell-attached patch membranes induces single-channel currents with fast-activating and -inactivating brief openings at the beginning of the voltage steps followed by more persistently recurring brief openings all along the 150-ms pulses...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Xu Zeng, Hong Ling, Jianwen Yang, Juan Chen, Shunxing Guo
BACKGROUND: Hericium erinaceus, a famous edible mushroom, is also a well-known traditional medicinal fungus. To date, a large number of bioactive metabolites with antitumor, antibacterial, and immune-boosting effects were isolated from the free-living mycelium and fruiting body of H. erinaceus. OBJECTIVE: Here we used the proteomic approach to explore proteins involved in the regulation of bioactive metabolites, including terpenoid, polyketide, sterol and etc. RESULTS: Using mass spectrometry, a total of 2543 unique proteins were identified using H...
May 5, 2018: Gene
Johanna M Rinta-Kanto, Kati Pehkonen, Hanna Sinkko, Manu Valtteri Tamminen, Sari Timonen
In this study the abundance and composition of prokaryotic communities associated with the inner tissue of fruiting bodies of <i>Suillus bovinus</i>, <i>Boletus pinophilus</i>, <i>Cantharellus cibarius</i>, <i>Agaricus arvensis</I>, <i>Lycoperdon perlatum</i> and <i>Piptoporus betulinus</i> were analyzed using culture-independent methods. Our findings indicate that archaea and bacteria colonize the internal tissues of all investigated specimens and that archaea are prominent members of the prokaryotic community...
May 7, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Rachel A Koch, M Catherine Aime
Understanding how species accomplish dispersal of their propagules can shed light on how they are adapted for their ecosystem. Guyanagaster necrorhizus is a sequestrate fungus, meaning its dispersal propagules, or spores, are entirely enclosed within a fruiting body, termed a sporocarp. This fungus is most closely related to Armillaria and its allies. While Armillaria species form mushrooms and have forcibly discharged spores, G. necrorhizus spores have lost this ability, and by necessity, must be passively dispersed...
May 4, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Pratik Adhikari, Donnoban Orozco, Harpreet Randhawa, Fred W Wolf
Drug naïve animals given a single dose of ethanol show changed responses to subsequent doses, including the development of ethanol tolerance and ethanol preference. These simple forms of behavioral plasticity are due in part to changes in gene expression and neuronal properties. Surprisingly little is known about how ethanol initiates changes in gene expression or what the changes do. Here we demonstrate a role in ethanol plasticity for Hr38, the sole Drosophila homolog of the mammalian Nr4a1/2/3 class of immediate early response transcription factors...
May 3, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Yanli He, Xiulian Li, Cui Hao, Pengjiao Zeng, Meng Zhang, Yong Liu, Yajing Chang, Lijuan Zhang
Grifola frondosa, a species of Basidiomycotina, is an edible medicinal mushroom with a large fruiting body characterized by overlapping caps. The β-glucan is the major biologically active component in G. frondosa polysaccharide (GFP) or D-fraction, which has been studied extensively for nearly 30 years. GFP was approved as an adjunctive therapeutic drug in China for treating cancers in 2010. In this article, based on the search results of Chinese VIP, CNKI, and Wanfang databases, 105 independent animal studies were summarized...
April 2018: Discovery Medicine
Jan Komárek, Eva Ivanov Kavková, Josef Houser, Aneta Horáčková, Jitka Ždánská, Gabriel Demo, Michaela Wimmerová
We report the characterization of the dimeric protein AB21 from Agaricus bisporus, one of the most commonly and widely consumed mushrooms in the world. The protein shares no significant sequence similarity with any protein of known function, and it is the first characterized member of its protein family. The coding sequence of the ab21 gene was determined and the protein was expressed in E. coli in a recombinant form. We demonstrated a high thermal and pH stability of AB21 and proved the weak affinity of the protein to divalent ions of some transition metals (nickel, zinc, cadmium and cobalt)...
May 2, 2018: Proteins
Jerzy Falandysz
Leccinum scabrum is an edible mushroom common in European regions in the northern hemisphere. Macro and trace mineral constituents such as Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, P, Rb, Sr and Zn were studied in L. scabrum and in the top soil collected from the same location underneath soil substratum. The "pseudo-total" and labile (extractable fraction of minerals) were measured to get insight into the levels, distribution between the morphological parts of fruiting bodies, potential for their bioconcentration by mushroom and evaluated for human exposure via consumption of the mushroom...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
WeiHua Ma, YuSuo Jiang, Jiao Meng, HuiTing Zhao, HuaiLei Song, JinShan Shen
In social insects, the foraging gene (for) regulates insect age- and task-based foraging behaviors. We studied the expression and localization of the for gene (Acfor) in Apis cerana cerana workers to explore whether the differential regulation of this gene is associated with the behaviors of nurses and foragers. The expression profiles of Acfor in different tissues and at different ages were examined using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Cellular localization in the brain was detected using in situ hybridization...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Sujata Devi Wangkheirakpam, Devi Datt Joshi, Geeta Devi Leishangthem, Dipak Biswas, Lokesh Deb
Auricularia delicata, an edible mushroom, has been used as a traditional medicine in Manipur, India, for various gastrointestinal and liver ailments. This study evaluates the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and hepatoprotective potential of A. delicata. A. delicata fruiting bodies were extracted with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol. All these extracts were examined for in vitro antioxidant activity. To study antimicrobial activity, minimum inhibitory concentrations (milligrams per milliliter) were determined through the use of the broth dilution method...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
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