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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931572/drosophila-neprilysin-1-rescues-memory-deficits-caused-by-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide
#1
Oriane Turrel, Valérie Goguel, Thomas Preat
Neprilysins are type-II metalloproteinases known to degrade and inactivate a number of small peptides, in particular the mammalian amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). In Drosophila, several neprilysins expressed in the brain are required for middle-term (MTM) and long-term memory (LTM) in the dorsal paired medial (DPM) neurons, a pair of large neurons that broadly innervate the mushroom bodies (MB), the center of olfactory memory. These data indicate that one or several peptides need to be degraded for MTM and LTM. We have previously shown that the fly amyloid precursor protein (APPL) is required for memory in the MB...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929370/a-termite-symbiotic-mushroom-maximizing-sexual-activity-at-growing-tips-of-vegetative-hyphae
#2
Huei-Mei Hsieh, Mei-Chu Chung, Pao-Yang Chen, Fei-Man Hsu, Wen-Wei Liao, Ai-Ning Sung, Chun-Ru Lin, Chung-Ju Rachel Wang, Yu-Hsin Kao, Mei-Jane Fang, Chi-Yung Lai, Chieh-Chen Huang, Jyh-Ching Chou, Wen-Neng Chou, Bill Chia-Han Chang, Yu-Ming Ju
BACKGROUND: Termitomyces mushrooms are mutualistically associated with fungus-growing termites, which are widely considered to cultivate a monogenotypic Termitomyces symbiont within a colony. Termitomyces cultures isolated directly from termite colonies are heterokaryotic, likely through mating between compatible homokaryons. RESULTS: After pairing homokaryons carrying different haplotypes at marker gene loci MIP and RCB from a Termitomyces fruiting body associated with Odontotermes formosanus, we observed nuclear fusion and division, which greatly resembled meiosis, during each hyphal cell division and conidial formation in the resulting heterokaryons...
September 19, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921711/foxp-expression-identifies-a-kenyon-cell-subtype-in-the-honeybee-mushroom-bodies-linking-them-to-fruitfly-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-c-neurons
#3
Adriana Schatton, Constance Scharff
The arthropod mushroom bodies (MB) are a higher order sensory integration center. In insects, they play a central role in associative olfactory learning and memory. In Drosophila melanogaster (Dm), the highly ordered connectivity of heterogeneous MB neuron populations has been mapped using sophisticated molecular genetic and anatomical techniques. The MB-core subpopulation was recently shown to express the transcription factor FoxP with relevance for decision-making. Here we report the development and adult distribution of a FoxP-expressing neuron population in the MB of honeybees (Apis mellifera, Am) using in situ hybridization and a custom-made antiserum...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919858/safety-evaluation-of-sclerotium-from-a-medicinal-mushroom-lignosus-cameronensis-cultivar-preclinical-toxicology-studies
#4
Sook-Shien Lee, Nget-Hong Tan, Jayalakshmi Pailoor, Shin-Yee Fung
Twenty-eight days subacute toxicity studies performed in rats using sclerotial powder of Lignosus cameronensis cultivar was conducted to assess its safety for consumption prior to other scientific investigations on its medicinal benefits, nutraceutical or pharmaceutical application of the mushroom. The study was conducted at 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg sclerotial powder of L. cameronensis cultivar (n = 5 for each respective dose, on both male and female groups) while control groups received only distilled water...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918193/psychedelic-pleasures-an-affective-understanding-of-the-joys-of-tripping
#5
Frederik Bøhling
BACKGROUND: This paper considers the pleasures of psychedelic drugs and proposes a Deleuzian understanding of drugged pleasures as affects. In spite of a large body of work on psychedelics, not least on their therapeutic potentials, the literature is almost completely devoid of discussions of the recreational practices and pleasures of entheogenic drugs. Yet, most people do not use psychedelics because of their curative powers, but because they are fun and enjoyable ways to alter the experience of reality...
September 13, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917001/a-neural-network-model-for-familiarity-and-context-learning-during-honeybee-foraging-flights
#6
Jurek Müller, Martin Nawrot, Randolf Menzel, Tim Landgraf
How complex is the memory structure that honeybees use to navigate? Recently, an insect-inspired parsimonious spiking neural network model was proposed that enabled simulated ground-moving agents to follow learned routes. We adapted this model to flying insects and evaluate the route following performance in three different worlds with gradually decreasing object density. In addition, we propose an extension to the model to enable the model to associate sensory input with a behavioral context, such as foraging or homing...
September 15, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916631/experience-during-early-adulthood-shapes-the-learning-capacities-and-the-number-of-synaptic-boutons-in-the-mushroom-bodies-of-honey-bees-apis-mellifera
#7
Amélie Cabirol, Rufus Brooks, Claudia Groh, Andrew B Barron, Jean-Marc Devaud
The honey bee mushroom bodies (MBs) are brain centers required for specific learning tasks. Here, we show that environmental conditions experienced as young adults affect the maturation of MB neuropil and performance in a MB-dependent learning task. Specifically, olfactory reversal learning was selectively impaired following early exposure to an impoverished environment lacking some of the sensory and social interactions present in the hive. In parallel, the overall number of synaptic boutons increased within the MB olfactory neuropil, whose volume remained unaffected...
October 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902472/the-mushroom-body-d1-dopamine-receptor-controls-innate-courtship-drive
#8
Junghwa Lim, Ana I Fernandez, Samantha J Hinojos, Gissel P Aranda, Jacqueline James, Chang-Soo Seong, Kyung-An Han
Mating is critical for species survival and is profoundly regulated by neuromodulators and neurohormones to accommodate internal states and external factors. To identify the underlying neuromodulatory mechanisms, we investigated the roles of dopamine receptors in various aspects of courtship behavior in Drosophila. Here we report that the D1 dopamine receptor dDA1 regulates courtship drive in naïve males. The wild-type naïve males actively courted females regardless their appearance or mating status. On the contrary, the dDA1 mutant (dumb) males exhibited substantially reduced courtship toward less appealing females including decapitated, leg-less and mated females...
September 13, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900905/biodegradation-of-ramie-stalk-by-flammulina-velutipes-mushroom-production-and-substrate-utilization
#9
Chunliang Xie, Wenbing Gong, Li Yan, Zuohua Zhu, Zhenxiu Hu, Yuande Peng
In the textile industry, ramie stalk is byproducts with a low economic value. The potential use of this leftover as a substrate ingredient for Flammulina velutipes (F. velutipe) cultivation was evaluated. The degradation and utilization of ramie stalk by F. velutipes was evaluated through mushroom production, lignocelluloses degradation and lignocellulolytic enzymes activity. The best substrate mixture for F. velutipes cultivation comprised 50% ramie stalk, 20% cottonseed hulls, 25% wheat bran, 4% cornstarch and 2% CaCO3...
September 12, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900185/anti-a%C3%AE-single-chain-variable-fragment-antibodies-restore-memory-acquisition-in-a-drosophila-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Alfonso Martin-Peña, Diego E Rincon-Limas, Pedro Fernandez-Funez
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder triggered by the accumulation of soluble assemblies of the amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) peptide. Despite remarkable advances in understanding the pathogenesis of AD, the development of palliative therapies is still lacking. Engineered anti-Aβ42 antibodies are a promising strategy to stall the progression of the disease. Single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies increase brain penetration and offer flexible options for delivery while maintaining the epitope targeting of full antibodies...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895671/quantitative-evaluation-of-1-3-1-6-%C3%AE-d-glucan-contents-in-wild-growing-species-of-edible-polish-mushrooms
#11
Iwona Mirończuk-Chodakowska, Anna Maria Witkowska, Małgorzata Elżbieta Zujko, Katarzyna Maria Terlikowska
Background: Macrofungal β-glucans are mainly represented by compounds with β-1,3- and β-1,6 glycosidic bonds. They have been shown to have immunomodulatory, anticancer, and antioxidant properties. Although there are many reports on the bioactivity and structure of fungal glucans, studies on the quantitative assessment of these compounds are sparse. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine total β-glucans and 1,3-1,6-β-D-glucan contents in selected species of wild-growing edible Polish mushrooms...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889104/machine-learning-analysis-identifies-drosophilagrunge-atrophin-as-an-important-learning-and-memory-gene-required-for-memory-retention-and-social-learning
#12
Balint Z Kacsoh, Casey S Greene, Giovanni Bosco
High throughput experiments are becoming increasingly common, and scientists must balance hypothesis driven experiments with genome wide data acquisition. We sought to predict novel genes involved in Drosophila learning and long-term memory from existing public high-throughput data. We performed an analysis using PILGRM, which analyzes public gene expression compendia using machine learning. We evaluated the top prediction alongside genes involved in learning and memory in IMP, an interface for functional relationship networks...
September 9, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883629/reply-to-pitfalls-of-using-confocal-microscopy-based-automated-quantification-of-synaptic-complexes-in-honeybee-mushroom-bodies-response-to-peng-and-yang-2016
#13
Yi-Chan Peng, En-Cheng Yang
In a comment on our Article "Sublethal Dosage of Imidacloprid Reduces the Microglomerular Density of Honey Bee Mushroom Bodies", Rössler et al. assert that our reported counts are overall lower than previously reported due to the use of automated quantification. We address these issues in this reply.
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880968/purification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-metalloprotease-from-fruiting-bodies-of-oudemansiella-radicata
#14
Xueran Geng, Rigen Te, Guoting Tian, Yongchang Zhao, Liyan Zhao, Hexiang Wang, Tzi Bun Ng
In this study, a 39-kDa metalloprotease was purified from a rare edible mushroom with health-promoting activities, Oudemansiella radicata, using a purification protocol which entailed anion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and Q-Sepharose columns and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on a Superdex 75 column. Some peptide sequences were obtained by LC-MS/MS analysis and one of the sequences, DAWIQADVNR, manifested 90% identity to Coprinopsis cinerea metalloprotease. The optimal reaction pH and temperature for Oudemansiella radicata protease were pH 7...
2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869909/dietary-patterns-and-depressive-symptoms-during-pregnancy-in-japan-baseline-data-from-the-kyushu-okinawa-maternal-and-child-health-study
#15
Yoshihiro Miyake, Keiko Tanaka, Hitomi Okubo, Satoshi Sasaki, Shinya Furukawa, Masashi Arakawa
BACKGROUND: Only one Brazilian study has examined the association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. The current cross-sectional study examined this issue in Japan. METHODS: Study subjects were 1744 pregnant women. Between April 2007 and March 2008, information under study was obtained. Dietary patterns were derived from a factor analysis of 33 predefined food groups based on a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale score ≥ 16...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863984/immunomodulatory-properties-of-plants-and-mushrooms
#16
REVIEW
Jan Martel, Yun-Fei Ko, David M Ojcius, Chia-Chen Lu, Chih-Jung Chang, Chuan-Sheng Lin, Hsin-Chih Lai, John D Young
Plants and mushrooms are used for medicinal purposes and the screening of molecules possessing biological activities. A single plant or mushroom may produce both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on immune cells, depending on experimental conditions, but the reason behind this dichotomy remains obscure. We present here a large body of experimental data showing that water extracts of plants and mushrooms usually activate immune cells, whereas ethanol extracts inhibit immune cells. The mode of extraction of plants and mushrooms may thus determine the effects produced on immune cells, possibly due to differential solubility and potency of stimulatory and inhibitory compounds...
August 29, 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860534/genomic-and-transcriptomic-analyses-reveal-differential-regulation-of-diverse-terpenoid-and-polyketides-secondary-metabolites-in-hericium-erinaceus
#17
Juan Chen, Xu Zeng, Yan Long Yang, Yong Mei Xing, Qi Zhang, Jia Mei Li, Ke Ma, Hong Wei Liu, Shun Xing Guo
The lion's mane mushroom Hericium erinaceus is a famous traditional medicinal fungus credited with anti-dementia activity and a producer of cyathane diterpenoid natural products (erinacines) useful against nervous system diseases. To date, few studies have explored the biosynthesis of these compounds, although their chemical synthesis is known. Here, we report the first genome and tanscriptome sequence of the medicinal fungus H. erinaceus. The size of the genome is 39.35 Mb, containing 9895 gene models. The genome of H...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852015/pitfalls-of-using-confocal-microscopy-based-automated-quantification-of-synaptic-complexes-in-honeybee-mushroom-bodies-response-to-peng-and-yang-2016
#18
Wolfgang Rössler, Johannes Spaethe, Claudia Groh
A recent study by Peng and Yang in Scientific Reports using confocal-microscopy based automated quantification of anti-synapsin labeled microglomeruli in the mushroom bodies of honeybee brains reports potentially incorrect numbers of microglomerular densities. Whereas several previous studies using visually supervised or automated counts from confocal images and analyses of serial 3D electron-microscopy data reported consistent numbers of synaptic complexes per volume, Peng and Yang revealed extremely low numbers differing by a factor of 18 or more from those obtained in visually supervised counts, and by a factor 22-180 from numbers in two other studies using automated counts...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851709/imp-and-syp-rna-binding-proteins-govern-decommissioning-of-drosophila-neural-stem-cells
#19
Ching-Po Yang, Tamsin J Samuels, Yaling Huang, Lu Yang, David Ish-Horowicz, Ilan Davis, Tzumin Lee
The termination of the proliferation of Drosophila neural stem cells, also known as neuroblasts (NBs), requires a "decommissioning" phase that is controlled in a lineage-specific manner. Most NBs, with the exception of those of the Mushroom body (MB), are decommissioned by the ecdysone receptor and mediator complex causing them to shrink during metamorphosis, followed by nuclear accumulation of Prospero and cell cycle exit. Here, we demonstrate that the levels of Imp and Syp RNA-binding proteins regulate NB decommissioning...
August 29, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851609/pharmacokinetics-excretion-balance-and-tissue-distribution-of-14-c-labeled-glycolipids-and-long-chain-fatty-acids-from-dacryopinax-spathularia-in-rats
#20
Jens Bitzer, Thomas Henkel, Andrey I Nikiforov, Marisa O Rihner, Jennifer A Thomas
The pharmacokinetics, excretion balance, and tissue distribution of [(14)C]-labeled glycolipids from Dacryopinax spathularia (herein referred to as "AM-1") and [(14)C]-LCFA equivalents following single or repeated administration to Sprague Dawley rats were evaluated to support the safety assessment of these naturally derived jelly mushroom glycolipids for use as a food ingredient. Rats received equimolar doses of either [(14)C]-AM-1 or [(14)C]-LCFA via oral or intravenous administration followed by collection of biological samples at specified intervals...
August 26, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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