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olfactory memory

Mahua Chatterjee, Fernando Perez de Los Cobos Pallares, Alex Loebel, Michael Lukas, Veronica Egger
During odor sensing the activity of principal neurons of the mammalian olfactory bulb, the mitral and tufted cells (MTCs), occurs in repetitive bursts that are synchronized to respiration, reminiscent of hippocampal theta-gamma coupling. Axonless granule cells (GCs) mediate self- and lateral inhibitory interactions between the excitatory MTCs via reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses. We have explored long-term plasticity at this synapse by using a theta burst stimulation (TBS) protocol and variations thereof...
2016: Neural Plasticity
D P Devanand
Several recently developed biomarkers of Alzheimer disease (AD) are invasive, expensive, and difficult to obtain in most clinical settings. Olfactory identification test performance represents a noninvasive, inexpensive biomarker of AD that may have predictive accuracy comparable with neuroimaging measures and biomarkers assessed in cerebrospinal fluid. Neurofibrillary tangles in the olfactory bulb are among the earliest pathologic features of AD and are also seen in the projection pathways from the olfactory bulb to secondary olfactory brain regions, including the piriform and medial temporal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and other limbic regions...
August 17, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Bandhan Mukherjee, Qi Yuan
The interactions of L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) and NMDA receptors (NMDARs) in memories are poorly understood. Here we investigated the specific roles of anterior piriform cortex (aPC) LTCCs and NMDARs in early odor preference memory in mice. Using calcium imaging in aPC slices, LTCC activation was shown to be dependent on NMDAR activation. Either D-APV (NMDAR antagonist) or nifedipine (LTCC antagonist) reduced somatic calcium transients in pyramidal cells evoked by lateral olfactory tract stimulation. However, nifedipine did not further reduce calcium in the presence of D-APV...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Stina Cornell Kärnekull, Artin Arshamian, Mats E Nilsson, Maria Larsson
Although evidence is mixed, studies have shown that blind individuals perform better than sighted at specific auditory, tactile, and chemosensory tasks. However, few studies have assessed blind and sighted individuals across different sensory modalities in the same study. We tested early blind (n = 15), late blind (n = 15), and sighted (n = 30) participants with analogous olfactory and auditory tests in absolute threshold, discrimination, identification, episodic recognition, and metacognitive ability. Although the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed no overall effect of blindness and no interaction with modality, follow-up between-group contrasts indicated a blind-over-sighted advantage in auditory episodic recognition, that was most pronounced in early blind individuals...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Toshiharu Ichinose, Hiromu Tanimoto
Memory retrieval requires both accuracy and speed. Olfactory learning of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster serves as a powerful model system to identify molecular and neuronal substrates of memory and memory-guided behavior. The behavioral expression of olfactory memory has traditionally been tested as a conditioned odor response in a simple T-maze, which measures the result, but not the speed, of odor choice. Here, we developed multiplexed T-mazes that allow video recording of the choice behavior. Automatic fly counting in each arm of the maze visualizes choice dynamics...
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
Seigo Sugimachi, Yukihisa Matsumoto, Makoto Mizunami, Jiro Okada
Caffeine is a plant-derived alkaloid that is generally known as a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant. In order to examine the effects of caffeine on higher CNS functions in insects, we used an appetitive olfactory learning paradigm for the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Crickets can form significant long-term memories (LTMs) after repetitive training sessions, during which they associate a conditioned stimulus (CS: odor) with an unconditioned stimulus (US: reward). Administration of hemolymphal injections of caffeine established LTM after only single-trial conditioning over a wide range of caffeine dosages (1...
October 2016: Zoological Science
Yu Guo, Zilong Wang, You Li, Guifeng Wei, Jiao Yuan, Yu Sun, Huan Wang, Qiuhong Qin, Zhijiang Zeng, Shaowu Zhang, Runsheng Chen
In the last decade, it has been demonstrated that brain functional asymmetry occurs not only in vertebrates but also in invertebrates. However, the mechanisms underlying functional asymmetry remain unclear. In the present study, we trained honeybees of the same parentage and age, on the proboscis extension reflex (PER) paradigm with only one antenna in use. The comparisons of gene expression between the left and right hemispheres were carried out using high throughput sequencing. Our research revealed that gene expression in the honeybee brain is also asymmetric, with more genes having higher expression in the right hemisphere than the left hemisphere...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sarah Griffiths, Tom Dening, Charlotte Beer, Victoria Tischler
This qualitative study explored a multisensory (including olfactory) intervention for people with dementia. Six themed boxes (e.g. Childhood) containing items chosen from the Boots archive designed to encourage conversation were used in weekly group sessions. Session participants were people with dementia and care staff from a local care home, a trained facilitator and archivists from Boots UK. Semi-structured interviews explored participants' experiences of the sessions. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis...
October 3, 2016: Dementia
Alefiya Dhilla Albers, Josephine Asafu-Adjei, Mary K Delaney, Kathleen E Kelly, Teresa Gomez-Isla, Deborah Blacker, Keith A Johnson, Reisa A Sperling, Bradley T Hyman, Rebecca A Betensky, Lloyd Hastings, Mark W Albers
OBJECTIVE: To relate a novel test of identifying and recalling odor percepts to biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) in well-characterized elderly individuals, ranging from cognitively normal to demented. METHODS: 183 participants (cognitively normal: n=70, subjective cognitive concerns: n=74, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): n=29, AD dementia: n=10) were administered novel olfactory tests: the Odor Percept IDentification (OPID) and the Percepts of Odor Episodic Memory (POEM) tests...
October 1, 2016: Annals of Neurology
Amélie Barthélémy, Amandine Mouchard, Marc Bouji, Kelly Blazy, Renaud Puigsegur, Anne-Sophie Villégier
The widespread mobile phone use raises concerns on the possible cerebral effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF). Reactive astrogliosis was reported in neuroanatomical structures of adaptive behaviors after a single RF EMF exposure at high specific absorption rate (SAR, 6 W/kg). Here, we aimed to assess if neuronal injury and functional impairments were related to high SAR-induced astrogliosis. In addition, the level of beta amyloid 1-40 (Aβ 1-40) peptide was explored as a possible toxicity marker...
September 30, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Danielle Panoz-Brown, Hannah E Corbin, Stefan J Dalecki, Meredith Gentry, Sydney Brotheridge, Christina M Sluka, Jie-En Wu, Jonathon D Crystal
Vivid episodic memories in people have been characterized as the replay of unique events in sequential order [1-3]. Animal models of episodic memory have successfully documented episodic memory of a single event (e.g., [4-8]). However, a fundamental feature of episodic memory in people is that it involves multiple events, and notably, episodic memory impairments in human diseases are not limited to a single event. Critically, it is not known whether animals remember many unique events using episodic memory...
September 17, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Magdalena Misiak, Rebeca Vergara Greeno, Beverly A Baptiste, Peter Sykora, Dong Liu, Stephanie Cordonnier, Evandro F Fang, Deborah L Croteau, Mark P Mattson, Vilhelm A Bohr
Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves the progressive degeneration of neurons critical for learning and memory. In addition, patients with AD typically exhibit impaired olfaction associated with neuronal degeneration in the olfactory bulb (OB). Because DNA base excision repair (BER) is reduced in brain cells during normal aging and AD, we determined whether inefficient BER due to reduced DNA polymerase-β (Polβ) levels renders OB neurons vulnerable to degeneration in the 3xTgAD mouse model of AD. We interrogated OB histopathology and olfactory function in wild-type and 3xTgAD mice with normal or reduced Polβ levels...
September 30, 2016: Aging Cell
Varun K Gupta, Ulrike Pech, Anuradha Bhukel, Andreas Fulterer, Anatoli Ender, Stephan F Mauermann, Till F M Andlauer, Emmanuel Antwi-Adjei, Christine Beuschel, Kerstin Thriene, Marta Maglione, Christine Quentin, René Bushow, Martin Schwärzel, Thorsten Mielke, Frank Madeo, Joern Dengjel, André Fiala, Stephan J Sigrist
Memories are assumed to be formed by sets of synapses changing their structural or functional performance. The efficacy of forming new memories declines with advancing age, but the synaptic changes underlying age-induced memory impairment remain poorly understood. Recently, we found spermidine feeding to specifically suppress age-dependent impairments in forming olfactory memories, providing a mean to search for synaptic changes involved in age-dependent memory impairment. Here, we show that a specific synaptic compartment, the presynaptic active zone (AZ), increases the size of its ultrastructural elaboration and releases significantly more synaptic vesicles with advancing age...
September 2016: PLoS Biology
Stephanie D Biergans, Charles Claudianos, Judith Reinhard, C G Galizia
The activity of the epigenetic writers DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) after olfactory reward conditioning is important for both stimulus-specific long-term memory (LTM) formation and extinction. It, however, remains unknown which components of memory formation Dnmts regulate (e.g., associative vs. non-associative) and in what context (e.g., varying training conditions). Here, we address these aspects in order to clarify the role of Dnmt-mediated DNA methylation in memory formation. We used a pharmacological Dnmt inhibitor and classical appetitive conditioning in the honeybee Apis mellifera, a well characterized model for classical conditioning...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Oriane Turrel, Aurélie Lampin-Saint-Amaux, Thomas Préat, Valérie Goguel
UNLABELLED: Neprilysins are type II metalloproteinases known to degrade and inactivate a number of small peptides. Neprilysins in particular are the major amyloid-β peptide-degrading enzymes. In mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, neprilysin overexpression improves learning and memory deficits, whereas neprilysin deficiency aggravates the behavioral phenotypes. However, whether these enzymes are involved in memory in nonpathological conditions is an open question. Drosophila melanogaster is a well suited model system with which to address this issue...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Li-Jie Jia, Pei Tang, Nicole R Brandon, Yan Luo, Buwei Yu, Yan Xu
How general anesthesia interferes with sensory processing to cause amnesia remains unclear. Here, we show that activation of a learning-associated immediate early gene in rat olfactory cortices is uninterrupted by propofol, an intravenous general anesthetic with putative actions on the inhibitory GABAA receptors. Once learned under anesthesia, a novel odor can no longer re-activate the same high-level transcription programming during subsequent conscious relearning. Behavioral tests indicate that the animals' ability to consciously relearn a pure odorant, first experienced under general anesthesia, is indeed compromised...
2016: Scientific Reports
Horst A Obenhaus, Andrei Rozov, Ilaria Bertocchi, Wannan Tang, Joachim Kirsch, Heinrich Betz, Rolf Sprengel
The causal interrogation of neuronal networks involved in specific behaviors requires the spatially and temporally controlled modulation of neuronal activity. For long-term manipulation of neuronal activity, chemogenetic tools provide a reasonable alternative to short-term optogenetic approaches. Here we show that virus mediated gene transfer of the ivermectin (IVM) activated glycine receptor mutant GlyRα1 (AG) can be used for the selective and reversible silencing of specific neuronal networks in mice. In the striatum, dorsal hippocampus, and olfactory bulb, GlyRα1 (AG) promoted IVM dependent effects in representative behavioral assays...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Yukihisa Matsumoto, Chihiro S Matsumoto, Toshihumi Takahashi, Makoto Mizunami
Age-related memory impairment (AMI) is a common feature and a debilitating phenotype of brain aging in many animals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying AMI are still largely unknown. The cricket Gryllus bimaculatus is a useful experimental animal for studying age-related changes in learning and memory capability; because the cricket has relatively short life-cycle and a high capability of olfactory learning and memory. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms underlying memory formation in crickets have been examined in detail...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Mohammad Haddadi, Samaneh Reiszadeh Jahromi, Upendra Nongthomba, T Shivanandappa, S R Ramesh
Oxidative stress is one of the major etiological factors implicated in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Since neurons are more sensitive to oxidative damage there is an increasing interest in developing novel antioxidant therapies, especially herbal preparations due to their safety profile and high efficiency. In this regard, the neuroprotective potential of a novel antioxidant compound, 4-hydroxyisophthalic acid (4-HIPA) isolated from aqueous extract of Decalepis hamiltonii roots was examined using transgenic Drosophila model of taupathy expressing wild-type and mutant forms of 2N4R isoform of human microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT)...
September 9, 2016: Neurochemistry International
Andrew G Moss, Christopher Miles, Jane V Elsley, Andrew J Johnson
The present study reports normative ratings for 200 food and non-food odors. One hundred participants rated odors across measures of verbalisability, perceived descriptive ability, context availability, pleasantness, irritability, intensity, familiarity, frequency, age of acquisition, and complexity. Analysis of the agreement between raters revealed that four dimensions, those of familiarity, intensity, pleasantness, and irritability, have the strongest utility as normative data. The ratings for the remaining dimensions exhibited reduced discriminability across the odor set and should therefore be used with caution...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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