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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790839/how-to-monitor-the-breathing-of-laboratory-rodents-a-review-of-the-current-methods
#1
Julien Grimaud, Venkatesh N Murthy
Accurately measuring respiration in laboratory rodents is essential for many fields of research, including olfactory neuroscience, social behavior, learning and memory, and respiratory physiology. However, choosing the right technique to monitor respiration can be tricky, given the many criteria to take into account: reliability, precision, and invasiveness, to name a few. This review aims to assist experimenters in choosing the technique that will best fit their needs, by surveying the available tools, discussing their strengths and weaknesses, and offering suggestions for future improvements...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787792/age-dependent-alterations-in-expression-and-co-localization-of-pax6-and-ras-gap-in-brain-of-aging-mice
#2
Khushboo Srivastava, Ratnakar Tripathi, Rajnikant Mishra
As the brain ages, the survival and plasticity of neurons and glia are compromised. The data-mining and in silico studies suggest interactions of Pax6 with Ras and binding sites in Ras-GAP promoter. The Pax6 also shows age-dependent alterations. Therefore, it is presumed that Pax6 may be associated with the Ras-GAP, a synaptic protein, either directly or indirectly in brain. The expression, co-localization and interaction of Pax6 and Ras-GAP in different regions of brain of mice during aging were investigated through immunofluorescence assay, co-immunoprecipitation and western blotting, respectively...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782953/electrodermal-reactivity-to-emotional-stimuli-in-healthy-subjects-and-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness
#3
Jacques Luauté, Anne Dubois, Lizette Heine, Chloé Guironnet, Ariane Juliat, Valérie Gaveau, Barbara Tillmann, Fabien Perrin
OBJECTIVES: After a coma, one major challenge is the detection of awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness. In some patients, the only manifestation indicative of awareness is an appropriate emotional response. Preferred music is a powerful medium to elicit emotions and auto-biographical memory. Furthermore, music has been shown to improve cognitive functions both in healthy subjects and patients with neurological impairment. We hypothesized that signs of awareness could be enhanced in some patients with disorders of consciousness under appropriate emotional stimulation such as preferred music and also probably preferred odors...
May 18, 2018: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779874/a-gabaergic-feedback-shapes-dopaminergic-input-on-the-drosophila-mushroom-body-to-promote-appetitive-long-term-memory
#4
Alice Pavlowsky, Johann Schor, Pierre-Yves Plaçais, Thomas Preat
Memory consolidation is a crucial step for long-term memory (LTM) storage. However, we still lack a clear picture of how memory consolidation is regulated at the neuronal circuit level. Here, we took advantage of the well-described anatomy of the Drosophila olfactory memory center, the mushroom body (MB), to address this question in the context of appetitive LTM. The MB lobes, which are made by the fascicled axons of the MB intrinsic neurons, are organized into discrete anatomical modules, each covered by the terminals of a defined type of dopaminergic neuron (DAN) and the dendrites of a corresponding type of MB output neuron (MBON)...
May 9, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776994/first-demonstration-of-olfactory-learning-and-long-term-memory-in-honey-bee-queens
#5
Zhiwen Gong, Ken Tan, James C Nieh
As the primary source of colony reproduction, social insect queens play a vital role. However, the cognitive abilities of queens are not well understood, although queen learning and memory are essential in multiple species such as honey bees, in which virgin queens must leave the nest and then successful learn to navigate back over repeated nuptial flights. Honey bee queen learning has never been previously demonstrated. We therefore tested olfactory learning in queens and workers and examined the role of DNA methylation, which plays a key role in long term memory formation...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776015/delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-potentiates-fear-memory-salience-through-functional-modulation-of-mesolimbic-dopaminergic-activity-states
#6
Aurelie Fitoussi, Jordan Zunder, Huibing Tan, Steven R Laviolette
Chronic or acute exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive compound in cannabis, has been associated with numerous neuropsychiatric side-effects, including dysregulation of emotional processing and associative memory formation. Clinical and pre-clinical evidence suggests that the effects of THC are due to the ability to modulate mesolimbic dopamine (DA) activity states in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which THC modulates mesolimbic DA function and emotional processing are not well understood...
May 18, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771571/effect-of-weak-combined-static-and-extremely-low-frequency-alternating-magnetic-fields-on-spatial-memory-and-brain-amyloid-%C3%AE-in-two-animal-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Natalia V Bobkova, Vadim V Novikov, Natalia I Medvinskaya, Irina Y Aleksandrova, Inna V Nesterova, Eugenii E Fesenko
Subchronic effect of a weak combined magnetic field (MF), produced by superimposing a constant component, 42 µT and an alternating MF of 0.08 µT, which was the sum of two frequencies of 4.38 and 4.88 Hz, was studied in olfactory bulbectomized (OBE) and transgenic Tg (APPswe, PSEN1) mice, which were used as animal models of sporadic and heritable Alzheimer's disease (AD) accordingly. Spatial memory was tested in a Morris water maze on the following day after completion of training trials with the hidden platform removed...
May 17, 2018: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767353/influences-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-temporal-lobe-resection-on-olfaction
#8
Richard L Doty, Isabelle Tourbier, Jessica K Neff, Jonathan Silas, Bruce Turetsky, Paul Moberg, Taehoon Kim, John Pluta, Jaqueline French, Ashwini D Sharan, Michael J Sperling, Natasha Mirza, Anthony Risser, Gordon Baltuch, John A Detre
Although temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and resection (TLR) impact olfactory eloquent brain structures, their influences on olfaction remain enigmatic. We sought to more definitively assess the influences of TLE and TLR on olfaction using three well-validated olfactory tests and measuring  the tests' associations with the volume of numerous temporal lobe brain structures. The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test and an odor detection threshold test were administered to 71 TLE patients and 71 age- and sex-matched controls; 69 TLE patients and controls received an odor discrimination/memory test...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763790/the-language-of-smell-connecting-linguistic-and-psychophysical-properties-of-odor-descriptors
#9
Georgios Iatropoulos, Pawel Herman, Anders Lansner, Jussi Karlgren, Maria Larsson, Jonas K Olofsson
The olfactory sense is a particularly challenging domain for cognitive science investigations of perception, memory, and language. Although many studies show that odors often are difficult to describe verbally, little is known about the associations between olfactory percepts and the words that describe them. Quantitative models of how odor experiences are described in natural language are therefore needed to understand how odors are perceived and communicated. In this study, we develop a computational method to characterize the olfaction-related semantic content of words in a large text corpus of internet sites in English...
May 12, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762752/variability-and-coupling-of-olfactory-identification-and-episodic-memory-in-older-adults
#10
Jamie E Knight, David A Bennett, Andrea M Piccinin
Objectives: To determine whether assessment-to-assessment fluctuations in episodic memory (EM) reflect fluctuations in olfaction over time. Methods: Within-person coupled variation in EM and the Brief Smell Identification Test (BSIT) was examined in 565 participants aged 58-106 with autopsy data from the Rush Memory and Aging Project. A growth model for up to 15 years of EM data, with BSIT as time-varying covariate, was estimated accounting for main effects of sex, education, ε4 allele, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, BSIT and time-varying BSIT, as well as the interaction between AD pathology and time-varying BSIT...
May 14, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755329/assessment-of-appetitive-behavior-in-honey-bee-dance-followers
#11
Mariel A Moauro, M Sol Balbuena, Walter M Farina
Honey bees transfer different informational components of the discovered feeding source to their nestmates during the waggle dance. To decode the multicomponent information of this complex behavior, dance followers have to attend to the most relevant signal elements while filtering out less relevant ones. To achieve that, dance followers should present improved abilities to acquire information compared with those bees not engaged in this behavior. Through proboscis extension response assays, sensory and cognitive abilities were tested in follower and non-follower bees...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742029/nitric-oxide-augments-single-persistent-na-channel-currents-via-the-cgmp-pkg-signaling-pathway-in-kenyon-cells-isolated-from-the-cricket-mushroom-bodies
#12
Mariko Ikeda, Masami Yoshino
The nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic GMP signaling pathway has been suggested to be important in the formation of olfactory memory in insects. However, the molecular targets of the NO signaling cascade in the central neurons associated with olfactory learning and memory have not been fully analyzed. In this study, we investigated the effects of NO donors on single voltage-dependent Na+ channels in intrinsic neurons, called Kenyon cells, in the mushroom bodies in the brain of the cricket. Step depolarization on cell-attached patch membranes induces single-channel currents with fast-activating and -inactivating brief openings at the beginning of the voltage steps followed by more persistently recurring brief openings all along the 150-ms pulses...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736907/multisensory-integration-processing-during-olfactory-visual-stimulation-an-fmri-graph-theoretical-network-analysis
#13
Isabelle Ripp, Anna-Nora Zur Nieden, Sonja Blankenagel, Nicolai Franzmeier, Johan N Lundström, Jessica Freiherr
In this study, we aimed to understand how whole-brain neural networks compute sensory information integration based on the olfactory and visual system. Task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data was obtained during unimodal and bimodal sensory stimulation. Based on the identification of multisensory integration processing (MIP) specific hub-like network nodes analyzed with network-based statistics using region-of-interest based connectivity matrices, we conclude the following brain areas to be important for processing the presented bimodal sensory information: right precuneus connected contralaterally to the supramarginal gyrus for memory-related imagery and phonology retrieval, and the left middle occipital gyrus connected ipsilaterally to the inferior frontal gyrus via the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus including functional aspects of working memory...
May 7, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731675/odor-enrichment-increases-hippocampal-neuron-numbers-in-mouse
#14
Zoltán Rusznák, Gulgun Sengul, George Paxinos, Woojin Scott Kim, YuHong Fu
The hippocampus and olfactory bulb incorporate new neurons migrating from neurogenic regions in the brain. Hippocampal atrophy is evident in numerous neurodegenerative disorders, and altered hippocampal neurogenesis is an early pathological event in Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesized that hippocampal neurogenesis is affected by olfactory stimuli through the neural pathway of olfaction-related memory. In this study, we exposed mice to novel pleasant odors for three weeks and then assessed the number of neurons, non-neuronal cells (mainly glia) and proliferating cells in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb, using the isotropic fractionator method...
April 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729260/nutritional-value-and-taste-play-different-roles-in-learning-and-memory-in-the-honey-bee-apis-mellifera
#15
Julie A Mustard, Valerie Alvarez, Sofy Barocio, Jamie Mathews, Alexander Stoker, Kashif Malik
Honey bees will learn to respond to an odor when their antennae are stimulated with sucrose, even if they are not fed during the conditioning phase. However, if they are not fed, the memory of this association is significantly reduced 24 h after conditioning. These results suggest that stimulation of proboscis with sucrose and/or the nutritional quality of the reward plays an important role in establishing a long lasting memory. Three sugars, xylose, sorbitol and mannitol, are used to investigate the relationship among learning, sensory perception and nutritional value...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719497/adar3-is-involved-in-learning-and-memory-in-mice
#16
Dessislava Mladenova, Guy Barry, Lyndsey M Konen, Sandy S Pineda, Boris Guennewig, Lotta Avesson, Raphael Zinn, Nicole Schonrock, Maina Bitar, Nicky Jonkhout, Lauren Crumlish, Dominik C Kaczorowski, Andrew Gong, Mark Pinese, Gloria R Franco, Carl R Walkley, Bryce Vissel, John S Mattick
The amount of regulatory RNA encoded in the genome and the extent of RNA editing by the post-transcriptional deamination of adenosine to inosine (A-I) have increased with developmental complexity and may be an important factor in the cognitive evolution of animals. The newest member of the A-I editing family of ADAR proteins, the vertebrate-specific ADAR3, is highly expressed in the brain, but its functional significance is unknown. In vitro studies have suggested that ADAR3 acts as a negative regulator of A-I RNA editing but the scope and underlying mechanisms are also unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704609/complex-learning-induced-modifications-in-synaptic-inhibition-mechanisms-and-functional-significance
#17
REVIEW
Iris Reuveni, Longnian Lin, Edi Barkai
Following training in a difficult olfactory-discrimination (OD) task rats acquire the capability to perform the task easily, with little effort. This new acquired skill, of 'learning how to learn' is termed 'rule learning'. At the single cell level, rule learning in manifested in long-term enhancement of intrinsic neuronal excitability of piriform cortex (PC) pyramidal neurons, and in excitatory synaptic connections between these neuros to maintained cortical stability, such long-lasting increase in excitability must be accompanied by paralleled increase in inhibitory processes that would prevent hyper-excitable activation...
April 25, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693770/histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-treatment-restores-memory-related-gene-expression-and-learning-ability-in-neonicotinoid-treated-apis-mellifera
#18
Y-T Hu, C-K Tang, C-P Wu, P-C Wu, E-C Yang, C-C Tai, Y-L Wu
Apis mellifera plays crucial roles in maintaining the balance of global ecosystems and stability of agricultural systems by helping pollination of flowering plants, including many crops. In recent years, this balance has been disrupted greatly by some pesticides, which results in great losses of honeybees worldwide. Previous studies have found that pesticide-caused memory loss might be one of the major reasons for colony loss. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) are chemical compounds that inhibit the activity of histone deacetylases and are known to cause hyperacetylation of histone cores and influence gene expression...
April 25, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679290/the-role-of-sparsely-distributed-representations-in-familiarity-recognition-of-verbal-and-olfactory-materials
#19
Sverker Sikström, Johan Hellman, Mats Dahl, Georg Stenberg, Marcus Johansson
We present the generalized signal detection theory (GSDT), where familiarity is described by a sparse binomial distribution of binary node activity rather than by normal distribution of familiarity. Items are presented in a distributed representation, where each node receives either noise only, or signal and noise. An old response (i.e., a "yes" response) is made if at least one node receives signal plus noise that is larger than the activation threshold, and item variability is determined by the distribution of activated nodes as the threshold is varied...
April 20, 2018: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674380/odor-discrimination-learning-in-the-indian-greater-short-nosed-fruit-bat-cynopterus-sphinx-differential-expression-of-egr-1-c-fos-and-pp-1-in-the-olfactory-bulb-amygdala-and-hippocampus
#20
Murugan Mukilan, Wieslaw Bogdanowicz, Ganapathy Marimuthu, Koilmani Emmanuvel Rajan
Activity-dependent expression of immediate-early genes (IEGs) is induced by exposure to odor. The present study was designed to investigate whether there is differential expression of IEGs ( Egr-1 , C-fos ) in the brain region mediating olfactory memory in the Indian greater short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx We assumed that differential expression of IEGs in different brain regions may orchestrate a preference odor (PO) and aversive odor (AO) memory in C. sphinx We used preferred (0.8% wt/wt of cinnamon powder) and aversive (0...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
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