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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444848/biologically-meaningful-scents-a-framework-for-understanding-predator-prey-research-across-disciplines
#1
Michael H Parsons, Raimund Apfelbach, Peter B Banks, Elissa Z Cameron, Chris R Dickman, Anke S K Frank, Menna E Jones, Ian S McGregor, Stuart McLean, Dietland Müller-Schwarze, Elisa E Sparrow, Daniel T Blumstein
Fear of predation is a universal motivator. Because predators hunt using stealth and surprise, there is a widespread ability among prey to assess risk from chemical information - scents - in their environment. Consequently, scents often act as particularly strong modulators of memory and emotions. Recent advances in ecological research and analytical technology are leading to novel ways to use this chemical information to create effective attractants, repellents and anti-anxiolytic compounds for wildlife managers, conservation biologists and health practitioners...
April 26, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438578/global-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats-leads-to-amnesiadue-to-selective-neuronal-death-followed-by-astroglial-scar-formationin-the-ca1-layer
#2
Kevin Sadelli, Jean-Claude Stamegna, Stéphane D Girard, Nathalie Baril, Guy Escoffier, Maïna Brus, Antoine D Véron, Michel Khrestchatisky, François S Roman
Global Cerebral Ischemia (GCI) occurs following cardiac arrest or neonatal asphyxia and leads to harmful neurological consequences. In most cases, patients who survive cardiac arrest develop severe cognitive and motor impairments. This study focused on learning and memory deficits associated with brain neuroanatomical reorganization that appears after GCI. The four-vessel occlusion (4VO) model was performed to produce a transient GCI. Hippocampal lesions in ischemic rats were visualized using anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (aMRI)...
April 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434642/-late-life-depression-or-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease-which-tools-for-the-differential-diagnosis
#3
A-I Gasser, V Salamin, S Zumbach
INTRODUCTION: Depression and Alzheimer's disease are both very frequent in elderly people. Cognitive deficits are the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, but they are also common in depressed elderly people who often present cognitive deficits such as memory, attention and executive function problems. On the other hand, people with early Alzheimer's disease demonstrate emotional and behavioral disorders generally encountered in depression such as loss of energy, apathy, mood disorder, and irritability...
April 20, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433461/severely-impaired-adult-brain-neurogenesis-in-cyclin-d2-knock-out-mice-produces-very-limited-phenotypic-changes
#4
REVIEW
Robert K Filipkowski, Leszek Kaczmarek
The discovery of new neurons being produced in the brains of adult mammals (adult brain neurogenesis) began a quest to determine the function(s) of these cells. Major hypotheses in the field have assumed that these neurons play pivotal role, in particular, in learning and memory phenomena, mood control, and epileptogenesis. In our studies summarized herein, we used cyclin D2 knockout (KO) mice, as we have shown that cyclin D2 is the key factor in adult brain neurogenesis and thus its lack produces profound impairment of the process...
April 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430606/ketamine-administered-pregnant-rats-impair-learning-and-memory-in-offspring-via-the-creb-pathway
#5
Xinran Li, Cen Guo, Yanan Li, Lina Li, Yuxin Wang, Yiming Zhang, Yue Li, Yu Chen, Wenhan Liu, Li Gao
Ketamine has been reported to impair the capacity for learning and memory. This study examined whether these capacities were also altered in the offspring and investigated the role of the CREB signaling pathway in pregnant rats, subjected to ketamine-induced anesthesia. On the 14th day of gestation (P14), female rats were anesthetized for 3 h via intravenous ketamine injection (200 mg/Kg). Morris water maze task, contextual and cued fear conditioning, and olfactory tasks were executed between the 25th to 30th day after birth (B25-30) on rat pups, and rats were sacrificed on B30...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424894/the-integrity-of-the-nucleus-of-the-lateral-olfactory-tract-is-essential-for-the-normal-functioning-of-the-olfactory-system
#6
Ricardo P Vaz, Armando Cardoso, Susana I Sá, Pedro A Pereira, M Dulce Madeira
The nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract (nLOT) is a relatively small component of the cortical pallial amygdala, with peculiar neurogenic, neurochemical and connectivity patterns. Although it has been suggested that it might be involved in non-pheromonal olfactory-guided behaviors, particularly feeding, the functional implications of the nLOT have never been investigated. In view of this fact, we have tackled this subject by performing a series of behavioral tests and by quantifying biological and biochemical parameters in sexually naïve adult male rats that were submitted to bilateral excitotoxic lesions of the nLOT...
April 19, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416593/two-components-of-aversive-memory-in-drosophila-anesthesia-sensitive-and-anesthesia-resistant-memory-require-distinct-domains-within-the-rgk1-small-gtpase
#7
Satoshi Murakami, Maki Minami-Ohtsubo, Ryuichiro Nakato, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Tetsuya Tabata
For aversive olfactory memory in Drosophila, multiple components have been identified that exhibit different stabilities. These components have been defined by behavioral and genetic studies, and genes specifically required for a specific component have also been identified. Intermediate-term memory generated after single cycle conditioning is divided into anesthesia-sensitive memory (ASM) and anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM), with the latter being more stable. We determined that the ASM and ARM pathways converged on the Rgk1 small GTPase and that the N-terminal domain-deleted Rgk1 was sufficient for ASM formation, whereas the full-length form was required for ARM formation...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396840/suppression-of-a-single-pair-of-mushroom-body-output-neurons-in-drosophila-triggers-aversive-associations
#8
Yutaro Ueoka, Makoto Hiroi, Takashi Abe, Tetsuya Tabata
Memory includes the processes of acquisition, consolidation and retrieval. In the study of aversive olfactory memory in Drosophila melanogaster, flies are first exposed to an odor (conditioned stimulus, CS+) that is associated with an electric shock (unconditioned stimulus, US), then to another odor (CS-) without the US, before allowing the flies to choose to avoid one of the two odors. The center for memory formation is the mushroom body which consists of Kenyon cells (KCs), dopaminergic neurons (DANs) and mushroom body output neurons (MBONs)...
April 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380673/acyl-ghrelin-improves-cognition-synaptic-plasticity-deficits-and-neuroinflammation-following-amyloid-beta-a%C3%AE-1-40-administration-in-mice
#9
Vanessa V Santos, Romana Stark, Daniel Rial, Henrique B Silva, Jacqueline A Bayliss, Moyra B Lemus, Jeffrey S Davies, Rodrigo A Cunha, Rui Daniel Prediger, Zane B Andrews
Ghrelin is a metabolic hormone that has neuroprotective actions in a number of neurological conditions including Parkinson's disease (PD), stroke and traumatic brain injury. Acyl ghrelin treatment in vivo and in vitro also shows protective capacity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we used ghrelin knockout (KO) and their wildtype (WT) littermates to test whether or not endogenous ghrelin is protective in a mouse model of AD, in which human amyloid beta peptide (Aβ1-40 ) was injected into the lateral ventricles (icv)...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379939/re-evaluation-of-learned-information-in-drosophila
#10
Johannes Felsenberg, Oliver Barnstedt, Paola Cognigni, Suewei Lin, Scott Waddell
Animals constantly assess the reliability of learned information to optimize their behaviour. On retrieval, consolidated long-term memory can be neutralized by extinction if the learned prediction was inaccurate. Alternatively, retrieved memory can be maintained, following a period of reconsolidation during which it is labile. Although extinction and reconsolidation provide opportunities to alleviate problematic human memories, we lack a detailed mechanistic understanding of memory updating. Here we identify neural operations underpinning the re-evaluation of memory in Drosophila...
April 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370677/olfactory-evaluation-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-correlation-with-neurocognitive-performance-and-endothelial-function
#11
Alessandro Tonacci, Rosa M Bruno, Lorenzo Ghiadoni, Lorenza Pratali, Nicoletta Berardi, Gloria Tognoni, Simona Cintoli, Leda Volpi, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Rosa Sicari, Stefano Taddei, Lamberto Maffei, Eugenio Picano
Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is an intermediate condition between normal aging and dementia, associated with an increased risk of progression into the latter within months or years. Olfactory impairment, a well-known biomarker for neurodegeneration, might be present in the condition early, possibly representing a signal for future pathological onset. Our study aimed at evaluating olfactory function in MCI and healthy controls in relation to neurocognitive performance and endothelial function. A total of 85 individuals with MCI and 41 healthy controls, matched for age and gender, were recruited...
March 28, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325138/assessment-of-olfactory-memory-in-olfactory-dysfunction
#12
Kathrin Kollndorfer, Johanna Reichert, Josephine Braunsteiner, Veronika Schöpf
To assess all clinically relevant components of olfactory perception, examinations for olfactory sensitivity, discrimination, and identification are performed. Besides the standard perceptual test battery, episodic olfactory memory might offer additional information about olfactory abilities relative to these standard clinical tests. As both olfactory deficits and memory deficits are early symptoms in neurodegenerative disorders, olfactory memory may be of particular interest. However, to date little is known about episodic olfactory memory performance in patients with decreased olfactory function...
March 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315373/memory-for-objects-and-startle-responsivity-in-the-immediate-aftermath-of-exposure-to-the-trier-social-stress-test
#13
Nadja Herten, Dennis Pomrehn, Oliver T Wolf
Previously, we observed enhanced long-term memory for objects used (central objects) by committee members in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on the next day. In addition, startle responsivity was increased. However, response specificity to an odour involved in the stressful episode was lacking and recognition memory for the odour was poor. In the current experiments, immediate effects of the stressor on memory and startle responsivity were investigated. We hypothesised memory for central objects of the stressful episode and startle response specificity to an odour ambient during the TSST to be enhanced shortly after it, in contrast to the control condition (friendly TSST)...
March 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289233/volatile-secondary-metabolites-as-aposematic-olfactory-signals-and-defensive-weapons-in-aquatic-environments
#14
Giuseppe Giordano, Marianna Carbone, Maria Letizia Ciavatta, Eleonora Silvano, Margherita Gavagnin, Mary J Garson, Karen L Cheney, I Wayan Mudianta, Giovanni Fulvio Russo, Guido Villani, Laura Magliozzi, Gianluca Polese, Christian Zidorn, Adele Cutignano, Angelo Fontana, Michael T Ghiselin, Ernesto Mollo
Olfaction is considered a distance sense; hence, aquatic olfaction is thought to be mediated only by molecules dissolved in water. Here, we challenge this view by showing that shrimp and fish can recognize the presence of hydrophobic olfactory cues by a "tactile" form of chemoreception. We found that odiferous furanosesquiterpenes protect both the Mediterranean octocoral Maasella edwardsi and its specialist predator, the nudibranch gastropod Tritonia striata, from potential predators. Food treated with the terpenes elicited avoidance responses in the cooccurring shrimp Palaemon elegans Rejection was also induced in the shrimp by the memory recall of postingestive aversive effects (vomiting), evoked by repeatedly touching the food with chemosensory mouthparts...
March 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277941/drosophila-development-physiology-behavior-and-lifespan-are-influenced-by-altered-dietary-composition
#15
Kiel G Ormerod, Olivia K LePine, Prabhodh S Abbineni, Justin M Bridgeman, Jens R Coorssen, A Joffre Mercier, Glenn J Tattersall
Diet profoundly influences the behavior of animals across many phyla. Despite this, most laboratories using model organisms, such as Drosophila, use multiple, different, commercial or custom-made media for rearing their animals. In addition to measuring growth, fecundity and longevity, we used several behavioral and physiological assays to determine if and how altering food media influence wild-type (Canton S) Drosophila melanogaster, at larval, pupal, and adult stages. Comparing 2 commonly used commercial food media we observed several key developmental and morphological differences...
March 9, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264977/constant-light-desynchronizes-olfactory-versus-object-and-visuospatial-recognition-memory-performance
#16
Shu K E Tam, Sibah Hasan, Harry M C Choi, Laurence A Brown, Aarti Jagannath, Steven Hughes, Mark W Hankins, Russell G Foster, Vladyslav V Vyazovskiy, David M Bannerman, Stuart N Peirson
Circadian rhythms optimize physiology and behavior to the varying demands of the 24 h day. The master circadian clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus and it regulates circadian oscillators in tissues throughout the body to prevent internal desynchrony. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that, under standard 12 h:12 h light/dark (LD) cycles, object, visuospatial, and olfactory recognition performance in C57BL/6J mice is consistently better at midday relative to midnight...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259806/awake-long-term-intranasal-insulin-treatment-does-not-affect-object-memory-odor-discrimination-or-reversal-learning-in-mice
#17
Genevieve A Bell, Debra Ann Fadool
Intranasal insulin delivery is currently being used in clinical trials to test for improvement in human memory and cognition, and in particular, for lessening memory loss attributed to neurodegenerative diseases. Studies have reported the effects of short-term intranasal insulin treatment on various behaviors, but less have examined long-term effects. The olfactory bulb contains the highest density of insulin receptors in conjunction with the highest level of insulin transport within the brain. Previous research from our laboratory has demonstrated that acute insulin intranasal delivery (IND) enhanced both short- and long-term memory as well as increased two-odor discrimination in a two-choice paradigm...
March 2, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259065/interaction-between-age-and-perceptual-similarity-in-olfactory-discrimination-learning-in-f344-rats-relationships-with-spatial-learning
#18
Wendy M Yoder, Leslie S Gaynor, Sara N Burke, Barry Setlow, David W Smith, Jennifer L Bizon
Emerging evidence suggests that aging is associated with a reduced ability to distinguish perceptually similar stimuli in one's environment. As the ability to accurately perceive and encode sensory information is foundational for explicit memory, understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of discrimination impairments that emerge with advancing age could help elucidate the mechanisms of mnemonic decline. To this end, there is a need for preclinical approaches that robustly and reliably model age-associated perceptual discrimination deficits...
May 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245532/volume-and-density-of-microglomeruli-in-the-honey-bee-mushroom-bodies-do-not-predict-performance-on-a-foraging-task
#19
Byron N Van Nest, Ashley E Wagner, Glen S Marrs, Susan E Fahrbach
The mushroom bodies (MBs) are insect brain regions important for sensory integration, learning, and memory. In adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera), the volume of neuropil associated with the MBs is larger in experienced foragers compared with hive bees and less experienced foragers. In addition, the characteristic synaptic structures of the calycal neuropils, the microglomeruli, are larger but present at lower density in 35-day-old foragers relative to 1-day-old workers. Age- and experience-based changes in plasticity of the MBs are assumed to support performance of challenging tasks, but the behavioral consequences of brain plasticity in insects are rarely examined...
February 28, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240742/dna-methylation-mediates-neural-processing-after-odor-learning-in-the-honeybee
#20
Stephanie D Biergans, Charles Claudianos, Judith Reinhard, C Giovanni Galizia
DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) - epigenetic writers catalyzing the transfer of methyl-groups to cytosine (DNA methylation) - regulate different aspects of memory formation in many animal species. In honeybees, Dnmt activity is required to adjust the specificity of olfactory reward memories and bees' relearning capability. The physiological relevance of Dnmt-mediated DNA methylation in neural networks, however, remains unknown. Here, we investigated how Dnmt activity impacts neuroplasticity in the bees' primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL) an equivalent of the vertebrate olfactory bulb...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
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