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olfactory memory

A Porzia, C Cavaliere, E Begvarfaj, S Masieri, F Mainiero
The mucosal immune system located in correspondence to the olfactory organs in adult humans is not well identifiable but has proven important in establishing an effective immune response against inhaled antigens, including the generation of Helper 1 (TH1)- and TH2-cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), plasma cells (PCs) and memory B cells. It is constituted by a diffused network of cells of epithelial and immune origin, as well as organized lymphoid tissue, where each component has a role in the initiation and maintenance of a long-lasting immune response, which is evoked not only in the oral and nasal cavities but also in the respiratory, intestinal and genito-urinary tracts...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Daniel Ramirez-Gordillo, Ming Ma, Diego Restrepo
Neuromodulators such as noradrenaline appear to play a crucial role in learning and memory. The goal of this study was to determine the role of norepinephrine in representation of odorant identity and value by olfactory bulb oscillations in an olfactory learning task. We wanted to determine whether the different bandwidths of olfactory bulb oscillations encode information involved in associating the odor with the value, and whether norepinephrine is involved in modulating this association. To this end mice expressing halorhodopsin under the dopamine-beta-hydrolase (DBH) promoter received an optetrode implant targeted to the olfactory bulb...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Xuchen Zhang, Qian Li, Lianzhang Wang, Zhong-Jian Liu, Yi Zhong
Active forgetting explains the intrinsic instability of a labile memory lasting for hours. However, how such memory maintains stability against unwanted disruption is not completely understood. Here, we report a learning-activated active protection mechanism that enables labile memory to resist disruptive sensory experiences in Drosophila. Aversive olfactory conditioning activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) transiently in the mushroom-body γ lobe, where labile-aversive memory is stored. This increased MAPK activity significantly prolongs labile memory retention and enhances its resistance to disruption induced by heat shock, electric shock, or odor reactivation...
March 7, 2018: Neuron
Petr Zach, Petra Zimmelová, Jana Mrzílková, Martina Kutová
We present here significant difference in the evocation capability between sensory memories (visual, taste, and olfactory) throughout certain categories of the population. As object for this memory recall we selected French fries that are simple and generally known. From daily life we may intuitively feel that there is much better recall of the visual and auditory memory compared to the taste and olfactory ones. Our results in young (age 12-21 years) mostly females and some males show low capacity for smell and taste memory recall compared to far greater visual memory recall...
2018: BioMed Research International
Dinghui Yu, Ying Tan, Molee Chakraborty, Seth Tomchik, Ronald L Davis
The evolutionarily conserved Elongator Complex associates with RNA polymerase II for transcriptional elongation. Elp3 is the catalytic subunit, contains histone acetyltransferase activity, and is associated with neurodegeneration in humans. Elp1 is a scaffolding subunit and when mutated causes familial dysautonomia. Here, we show that elp3 and elp1 are required for aversive long-term olfactory memory in Drosophila RNAi knockdown of elp3 in adult mushroom bodies impairs long-term memory (LTM) without affecting earlier forms of memory...
April 2018: Learning & Memory
Guang-Zhe Huang, Mutsuo Taniguchi, Ye-Bo Zhou, Jing-Ji Zhang, Fumino Okutani, Yoshihiro Murata, Masahiro Yamaguchi, Hideto Kaba
The formation of mate recognition memory in mice is associated with neural changes at the reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses between glutamatergic mitral cell (MC) projection neurons and GABAergic granule cell (GC) interneurons in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). Although noradrenaline (NA) plays a critical role in the formation of the memory, the mechanism by which it exerts this effect remains unclear. Here we used extracellular field potential and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings to assess the actions of bath-applied NA (10 µM) on the glutamatergic transmission and its plasticity at the MC-to-GC synapse in the AOB...
April 2018: Learning & Memory
Sonum Jagetia, Adrianna J Milton, Lucas A Stetzik, Samantha Liu, Kavya Pai, Keiko Arakawa, Nathalie Mandairon, Daniel W Wesson
Animals choose between sensory stimuli, a highly complex behavior which includes detection, discrimination, preference, and memory processes. Rodents are reported to display robust preferences for some odors, for instance, in the context of choosing among possible mates or food items. In contrast to the apparent robustness of responses toward these and other "ethologically relevant" odors, little is known about the robustness of behaviors toward odors which have no overt role in the rodent ecological niche, so-called "nonethologically relevant" odors...
March 1, 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
Daisuke Yamazaki, Makoto Hiroi, Takashi Abe, Kazumichi Shimizu, Maki Minami-Ohtsubo, Yuko Maeyama, Junjiro Horiuchi, Tetsuya Tabata
During olfactory associative learning in Drosophila, odors activate specific subsets of intrinsic mushroom body (MB) neurons. Coincident exposure to either rewards or punishments is thought to activate extrinsic dopaminergic neurons, which modulate synaptic connections between odor-encoding MB neurons and MB output neurons to alter behaviors. However, here we identify two classes of intrinsic MB γ neurons based on cAMP response element (CRE)-dependent expression, γCRE-p and γCRE-n, which encode aversive and appetitive valences...
February 27, 2018: Cell Reports
Zhe Han, Xiaoxing Zhang, Jia Zhu, Yulei Chen, Chengyu T Li
Understanding neuronal mechanisms of learned behaviors requires efficient behavioral assays. We designed a high-throughput automatic training system (HATS) for olfactory behaviors in head-fixed mice. The hardware and software were constructed to enable automatic training with minimal human intervention. The integrated system was composed of customized 3D-printing supporting components, an odor-delivery unit with fast response, Arduino based hardware-controlling and data-acquisition unit. Furthermore, the customized software was designed to enable automatic training in all training phases, including lick-teaching, shaping and learning...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
G Gümüş, A A Agyemang, O Romantsik, R Sandgren, H Karlsson, M Gram, S Vallius, D Ley, D L A van den Hove, M Bruschettini
BACKGROUND: Behavioral testing provides an essential approach in further developing our understanding of brain structure and function. The aim of our study was to outline a more expanded approach to cognition- and anxiety-related behavior in the rabbit. METHODS: Twenty-one 70-day old rabbits (13 female, 8 male) were exposed to open field test, dark-light box test and object recognition testing with variations in inter-trial-interval, olfactory recognition and object location testing...
February 23, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Franziska Rieche, Katia Carmine-Simmen, Burkhard Poeck, Doris Kretzschmar, Roland Strauss
The β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a central role in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, its normal physiological functions are still unclear. APP is cleaved by various secretases whereby sequential processing by the β- and γ-secretases produces the β-amyloid peptide that is accumulating in plaques that typify AD. In addition, this produces secreted N-terminal sAPPβ fragments and the APP intracellular domain (AICD). Alternative cleavage by α-secretase results in slightly longer secreted sAPPα fragments and the identical AICD...
February 12, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Chia-Lin Wu, Ching-Ching Chang, Jie-Kai Wu, Meng-Hsuan Chiang, Chu-Huai Yang, Hsueh-Cheng Chiang
Glucose catabolism, also known as glycolysis, is important for energy generation and involves a sequence of enzymatic reactions that convert a glucose molecule into two pyruvate molecules. The glycolysis process generates adenosine triphosphate as a byproduct. In this study, we investigated whether glycolysis plays a role in maintaining neuronal functions in the Drosophila mushroom bodies (MBs), which are generally accepted to be an olfactory learning and memory center. Our data showed that individual knockdown of glycolytic enzymes in the MBs, including hexokinase (HexA), phosphofructokinase (Pfk), or pyruvate kinase (PyK), disrupts olfactory memory...
February 22, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Robin Fropf, Hong Zhou, Jerry C P Yin
Circadian regulation is a conserved phenomenon across the animal kingdom, and its disruption can have severe behavioral and physiological consequences. Core circadian clock proteins are likewise well conserved from Drosophila to humans. While the molecular clock interactions that regulate circadian rhythms have been extensively described, additional roles for clock genes during complex behaviors are less understood. Here, we show that mutations in the clock gene period result in differential time-of-day effects on acquisition and long-term memory of aversive olfactory conditioning...
February 20, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Pei-Tseng Lee, Guang Lin, Wen-Wen Lin, Fengqiu Diao, Benjamin H White, Hugo J Bellen
In Drosophila , long-term memory (LTM) requires the cAMP-dependent transcription factor CREBB, expressed in the mushroom bodies (MB) and phosphorylated by PKA. To identify other kinases required for memory formation, we integrated Trojan exons encoding T2A-GAL4 into genes encoding putative kinases and selected for genes expressed in MB. These lines were screened for learning/memory deficits using UAS-RNAi knockdown based on an olfactory aversive conditioning assay. We identified a novel, conserved kinase, Meng-Po ( MP , CG11221 , SBK1 in human), the loss of which severely affects 3 hr memory and 24 hr LTM, but not learning...
February 23, 2018: ELife
Grazyna Lietzau, William Davidsson, Claes-Göran Östenson, Fausto Chiazza, David Nathanson, Hiranya Pintana, Josefin Skogsberg, Thomas Klein, Thomas Nyström, Vladimer Darsalia, Cesare Patrone
Recent data suggest that olfactory deficits could represent an early marker and a pathogenic mechanism at the basis of cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, research is needed to further characterize olfactory deficits in diabetes, their relation to cognitive decline and underlying mechanisms.The aim of this study was to determine whether T2D impairs odour detection, olfactory memory as well as neuroplasticity in two major brain areas responsible for olfaction and odour coding: the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and the piriform cortex (PC), respectively...
February 23, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Luisa Torres, Sudie-Ann Robinson, Do-Geun Kim, Angela Yan, Thomas A Cleland, Margaret S Bynoe
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with cognitive decline and complete loss of basic functions. The ubiquitous apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infects up to one third of the world's population and is implicated in AD. METHODS: We infected C57BL/6 wild-type male and female mice with 10 T. gondii ME49 cysts and assessed whether infection led to behavioral and anatomical effects using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, Western blotting, cell culture assays, as well as an array of mouse behavior tests...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Juan P Grosso, Jesica A Barneto, Rodrigo A Velarde, Eduardo A Pagano, Jorge A Zavala, Walter M Farina
The effect of early experiences on the brain during a sensitive period exerts a long-lasting influence on the mature individual. Despite behavioral and neural plasticity caused by early experiences having been reported in the honeybee Apis mellifera , the presence of a sensitive period in which associative experiences lead to pronounced modifications in the adult nervous system is still unclear. Laboratory-reared bees were fed with scented food within specific temporal windows and were assessed for memory retention, in the regulation of gene expression related to the synaptic formation and in the olfactory perception of their antennae at 17 days of age...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Andrea Ciofalo, Marco De Vincentiis, Giannicola Iannella, Giampietro Zambetti, Paola Giacomello, Giancarlo Altissimi, Antonio Greco, Massimo Fusconi, Benedetta Pasquariello, Giuseppe Magliulo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate olfactory function and clinical-neurological characteristics in a group of patients with mild head trauma. METHODS: A total of 352 patients with MTBI underwent olfactory function evaluation. The site of head trauma, loss of consciousness <20 min, memory loss, subjective presence or absence of olfaction and other clinical, neurological and radiological aspects were evaluated and compared with the olfactory dysfunction. RESULTS: A total of 33...
February 15, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Laura J Speed, Asifa Majid
Do we mentally simulate olfactory information? We investigated mental simulation of odors and sounds in two experiments. Participants retained a word while they smelled an odor or heard a sound, then rated odor/sound intensity and recalled the word. Later odor/sound recognition was also tested, and pleasantness and familiarity judgments were collected. Word recall was slower when the sound and sound-word mismatched (e.g., bee sound with the word typhoon). Sound recognition was higher when sounds were paired with a match or near-match word (e...
February 14, 2018: Cognitive Science
Helena Gásdal Karstensen, Martin Vestergaard, William F C Baaré, Arnold Skimminge, Bjarki Djurhuus, Bjarki Ellefsen, Norbert Brüggemann, Camilla Klausen, Anne-Mette Leffers, Niels Tommerup, Hartwig R Siebner
The human sense of smell is closely associated with morphological differences of the fronto-limbic system, specifically the piriform cortex and medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC). Still it is unclear whether cortical volume in the core olfactory areas and connected brain regions are shaped differently in individuals who suffer from lifelong olfactory deprivation relative to healthy normosmic individuals. To address this question, we examined if regional variations in gray matter volume were associated with smell ability in seventeen individuals with isolated congenital olfactory impairment (COI) matched with sixteen normosmic controls...
February 13, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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