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Animal handling and welfare

M H Romero, L F Uribe-Velásquez, J A Sánchez, A A Rayas-Amor, G C Miranda-de la Lama
The aim of the study was to determine the effects of abattoir type (conventional abattoir -CA- versus modern abattoir -MA-) on stress parameters and risk factors for high muscle pH in Colombia. A total of 522 Zebu young bulls were studied in two groups: 285 at CA, and 237 at MA. Blood samples were taken to measure cortisol, glucose, lactate, creatine kinase, β-hydroxybutyrate, total protein, albumin, creatinine, urea, haematocrit, leukocytes and N/L ratio. Cattle were monitored during the unloading, lairage, handling and stunning...
October 11, 2016: Meat Science
G E Simon, B R Hoar, C B Tucker
Epidemiological studies can be used to identify risk factors for livestock welfare concerns but have not been conducted in the cow-calf sector for this purpose. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationships of 1) herd-level management, facilities, and producer perspectives with cattle health and behavior and stockperson handling and 2) stockperson handling on cattle behavior at the individual cow level. Cow ( = 3,065) health and behavior and stockperson handling during a routine procedure (e...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
G E Simon, B R Hoar, C B Tucker
Assessment programs are one way beef producers communicate information about animal welfare to retailers and the public. Programs that monitor cattle through the production cycle (e.g., the Global Animal Partnership) or at individual stages (e.g., slaughter; the North American Meat Institute) exist, but to date, there is no assessment program addressing welfare specifically in the cow-calf sector. The objectives of this study were to measure cow-calf health and handling welfare outcomes and gather management, facility, and producer perspective information to 1) describe current practices and 2) inform assessment design...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Angélica da Silva Vasconcellos, Zsófia Virányi, Friederike Range, César Ades, Jördis Kristin Scheidegger, Erich Möstl, Kurt Kotrschal
The welfare of animals in captivity is of considerable societal concern. A major source of stress, especially for wild animals, is the lack of control over their environment, which includes not being able to avoid contact with human beings. Paradoxically, some studies have shown that interactions with human beings may improve the welfare of wild animals in captivity. Here, we investigated the behavioural (behaviours indicative of cooperation or stress) and physiological (variations in salivary cortisol concentrations) effects of the increasingly used practice of training wild animals as a way to facilitate handling and/or as behavioural enrichment...
2016: PloS One
Juliane Friedrich, Bodo Brand, Katharina Luise Graunke, Jan Langbein, Manfred Schwerin, Siriluck Ponsuksili
Temperament affects ease of handling, animal welfare, and economically important production traits in cattle. The use of gene expression profiles as molecular traits provides a novel means of gaining insight into behavioural genetics. In this study, differences in adrenocortical expression profiles between 60 F2 cows (Charolais × German Holstein) of distinct temperament types were analysed. The cows were assessed in a novel-human test at an age of 90 days. Most of the adrenal cortex transcripts which were differentially expressed (FDR <0...
September 1, 2016: Behavior Genetics
A G Bradbury, G J E Dickens
Many rabbits show fear behaviours when lifted off the ground. Estimates from owner surveys suggest that around 60% of pet rabbits struggle when lifted and fear-related aggression is common. This article integrates information from both laboratory and pet rabbit studies to formulate a list of recommendations for appropriate handling of rabbits. Reduction of the frequency of the stressor can be achieved by educating owners on alternative management practices to reduce the need to carry their rabbits. However, in some situations, it is unavoidable that a rabbit is lifted...
October 2016: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Silvia Martínez-Miró, Fernando Tecles, Marina Ramón, Damián Escribano, Fuensanta Hernández, Josefa Madrid, Juan Orengo, Silvia Martínez-Subiela, Xavier Manteca, José Joaquín Cerón
BACKGROUND: In recent decades there has been a growing concern about animal stress on intensive pig farms due to the undesirable consequences that stress produces in the normal physiology of pigs and its effects on their welfare and general productive performance. This review analyses the most important types of stress (social, environmental, metabolic, immunological and due to human handling), and their biological consequences for pigs. The physio-pathological changes associated with stress are described, as well as the negative effects of stress on pig production...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Z A Aghwan, A U Bello, A A Abubakar, J C Imlan, A Q Sazili
Traditional halal slaughter and other forms of religious slaughter are still an issue of debate. Opposing arguments related to pre-slaughter handling, stress and pain associated with restraint, whether the incision is painful or not, and the onset of unconsciousness have been put forward, but no consensus has been achieved. There is a need to strike a balance between halal bleeding in the light of science and animal welfare. There is a paucity of scientific data with respect to animal welfare, particularly the use of restraining devices, animal handling, and efficient halal bleeding...
November 2016: Meat Science
S Ranjbar, A R Rabiee, A Gunn, J K House
Lameness is a significant welfare concern for dairy farmers and a major contributing economic loss to the dairy industry. Information is limited on environmental and managerial risk factors associated with lameness in Australian dairy herds. The objective of this study was to explore and quantify the environmental and management risk factors associated with lameness in pasture-based dairy herds. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 63 pasture-based dairy herds between 2011 and 2014, where all lactating cows were locomotion scored (scale 1-4) during a single visit...
September 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Brenda J Stevens, Eva M Frantz, Jillian M Orlando, Emily Griffith, Lyndy B Harden, Margaret E Gruen, Barbara L Sherman
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of a single dose of trazodone for reducing anxiety in cats during transport to a veterinary hospital and facilitating handling during veterinary examination. DESIGN Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study. ANIMALS 10 healthy client-owned cats (2 to 12 years of age) with a history of anxiety during transport or veterinary examination. PROCEDURES Each cat was randomly assigned to first receive trazodone hydrochloride (50 mg) or a placebo PO. The assigned treatment was administered, and each cat was placed in a carrier and transported by car to a veterinary clinic, where it received a structured veterinary examination...
July 15, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Luiza Seixas, Cristiano Barros de Melo, Candice Bergmann Tanure, Vanessa Peripolli, Concepta McManus
The objective of this study was to evaluate heat tolerance of 26 Santa Ines and Morada Nova adult sheep in the Federal District of Brazil, using thermographic, climatic, blood, physical, physiological parameters and heat tolerance indices. The analyses included analyses of variance, correlation, and principal components with a significance level of 5%. The environmental indices, in general, indicate a situation of thermal discomfort for the animals during the afternoon. Breed significantly influenced (p<0...
June 6, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Beth Ann Ventura, Marina A G von Keyserlingk, Hannah Wittman, Daniel M Weary
Citizens' concerns about farm animal welfare are often dismissed on the assumption that they are not well informed about farming practices. We conducted exploratory surveys of interested citizens (n = 50) before and after a self-guided tour of a 500-head dairy farm. 'Before' survey questions explored perceptions, concerns, and values about dairy cattle farming and welfare, in addition to a short knowledge-based quiz on dairy cattle husbandry. An 'after' survey explored the extent to which these constructs shifted after the tour...
2016: PloS One
Stine Billeschou Christiansen, Annemarie Thuri Kristensen, Jesper Lassen, Peter Sandøe
BACKGROUND: When companion animals become seriously ill clients may have doubts about treatment choices, if any, and turn to veterinarians for help. But how should veterinarians reply? Influence on clients' decision-making may or may not be acceptable-depending on one's attitude to principles such as 'paternalism', 'respect for autonomy' and 'shared decision-making'. This study takes as a starting point a situation where the animal is chronically ill, or aged, with potentially reduced animal welfare and client quality of life, and thus where clients need to consider treatment options or euthanasia...
2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Gerardo Caja, Andreia Castro-Costa, Christopher H Knight
Current trends in the global milk market and the recent abolition of milk quotas have accelerated the trend of the European dairy industry towards larger farm sizes and higher-yielding animals. Dairy cows remain in focus, but there is a growing interest in other dairy species, whose milk is often directed to traditional and protected designation of origin and gourmet dairy products. The challenge for dairy farms in general is to achieve the best possible standards of animal health and welfare, together with high lactational performance and minimal environmental impact...
May 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
S Støier, H D Larsen, M D Aaslyng, L Lykke
Animal welfare is receiving increasing attention from the authorities, the public and NGOs. For this reason, the improvement of animal welfare and animal handling systems is of the utmost importance for the meat industry. Technological developments have led to more animal friendly systems that handle animals on the day of slaughter, and these developments will be even more important as consideration for animal welfare and sustainability is no longer just a trend but a licence to operate. Improvement of animal welfare also leads to a higher value of the carcasses due to higher product quality, less cut-off caused by fewer injuries, and reduced working load, which leads to increased business opportunities...
October 2016: Meat Science
Kunal Pratap, Vijay Pal Singh
There is a current need for a change in the attitudes of researchers toward the care and use of experimental animals in India. This could be achieved through improvements in the provision of training, to further the integration of the Three Rs concept into scientific research and into the regulations of the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA). A survey was performed after participants undertook the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations (FELASA) Category C-based course on Laboratory Animal Science (in 2013 and 2015)...
March 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
Luz E Tavera-Mendoza, Myles Brown
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer diagnosed in women, and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women in North America. The use of laboratory mice in research is an essential tool for the study of breast cancer biology and for pre-clinical therapeutic development. While subcutaneous flank injections of cancer cells are widely used for studying breast cancer biology and for exploring novel therapies, orthotopic xenografting of tumors into the mouse mammary gland allow for the study of breast cancers in a biologically relevant microenvironment...
March 17, 2016: Laboratory Animals
Ralph R J Thompson, Elizabeth S Paul, Andrew N Radford, Julia Purser, Michael Mendl
Fish are increasingly popular subjects in behavioural and neurobiological research. It is therefore important that they are housed and handled appropriately to ensure good welfare and reliable scientific findings, and that species-appropriate behavioural tests (e.g. of cognitive/affective states) are developed. Routine handling of captive animals may cause physiological stress responses that lead to anxiety-like states (e.g. increased perception of danger). In fish, these may be particularly pronounced when handling during tank-to-tank transfer involves removal from water into air...
June 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
A Marco-Ramell, A M de Almeida, S Cristobal, P Rodrigues, P Roncada, A Bassols
Stress and welfare are important factors in animal production in the context of growing production optimization and scrutiny by the general public. In a context in which animal and human health are intertwined aspects of the one-health concept it is of utmost importance to define the markers of stress and welfare. These are important tools for producers, retailers, regulatory agents and ultimately consumers to effectively monitor and assess the welfare state of production animals. Proteomics is the science that studies the proteins existing in a given tissue or fluid...
June 21, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Emma M Baxter, Johan Mulligan, Sarah A Hall, Jo E Donbavand, Rupert Palme, Emad Aldujaili, Adroaldo J Zanella, Cathy M Dwyer
Dairy animals are subjected to a number of potential stressors throughout their lives, including daily interactions with humans. The quality of these interactions may have direct consequences for the animal undergoing the experience, but if such events occur during gestation it may also affect the developing fetus. This study examined the effects of differential handling during mid-gestation in 40 twin-bearing Saanen×Toggenburg primiparous goats. Between days 80 and 115 of gestation (gestation=150 days), goats were subjected to aversive (AVS, n=13), gentle (GEN, n=13) or minimal (M, n=14) handling protocols for 10 minute periods twice daily...
April 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
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