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Animal handling and welfare

Ingun Naeve, Maren Mommens, Augustine Arukwe, Elin Kjørsvik
Aiming to explore ultrasound technology as a noninvasive method for maturation monitoring, we compared ultrasound observations and measurements in female Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during the last year before ovulation with standard, invasive methods such as gonadosomatic index (GSI), gonad histology and sex hormone analysis. Ultrasound measurements of ovaries correlated strongly (R > 0.9, P < 0.01) with ovary weight and GSI, and could be used as a noninvasive tool for GSI estimation. Using ultrasound, we were able to identify females with advanced oocyte development and elevated sex hormone and GSI levels earlier than previously observed...
May 2018: Physiological Reports
James Andrew Oxley, Clare Frances Ellis, E Anne McBride, Wanda Denise McCormick
Rabbits are commonly kept in a variety of settings, including homes, laboratories, and veterinary clinics. Despite the popularity of keeping this prey species, little research has investigated current methods of handling. The aim of this study was to examine the experience of caregivers (owners and keepers) in using five handling methods commonly referred to in books written for companion animal (pet) owners and veterinary and/or laboratory personnel. An online survey was completed by 2644 respondents, representing all three of these groups, and breeders...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Caroline Neely, Christina Lane, Julio Torres, Jane Flinn
Environmental factors play a significant role in well-being of laboratory animals. Regulations and guidelines recommend, if not require, that stressors such as bright lighting, smells, and noises are eliminated or reduced to maximize animal well-being. A factor that is often overlooked is handling and how researchers interact with their animals. Researchers, lab assistants, and husbandry staff in animal facilities may use inconsistent handling methods when interacting with rodents, but humans should be considered a part of the animal's social environment...
2018: Behavioural Neurology
R O Moe, J Bohlin, A Flø, G Vasdal, H Erlandsen, E Guneriussen, E C Sjökvist, S M Stubsjøen
Footpad dermatitis is a condition that causes lesions on the plantar surface of the footpads in growing turkeys. Potential inflammatory processes and pain associated with increasing severity of footpad dermatitis raise animal welfare concerns. This study investigated whether the temperature of the plantar surface of the foot (the footpads and the entire plantar foot including interdigital membranes) assessed with infrared thermography reflects severity of mild footpad dermatitis as assessed with a Visual Analogue Scale in 80 turkey toms at 10 weeks of age...
April 17, 2018: Poultry Science
Yu Nakamura, Kaoru Suzuki
We evaluated a handling method using tunnels to tame laboratory mice (ICR) in the context of animal welfare and ease of handling. During 1-week acclimation to handling and subsequent 1-week oral administration (once per day), voluntary interaction with the experimenter was much greater in mice handled by a tunnel compared to those picked up by the tail. According to a rating of the ease of handling laboratory mice, a tunnel facilitated mouse handling during acclimation to handling and oral gavage of saline compared to tail handling...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Patrick Vudriko, James Okwee-Acai, Joseph Byaruhanga, Dickson Stuart Tayebwa, Samuel George Okech, Robert Tweyongyere, Eddie M Wampande, Anna Rose Ademun Okurut, Kenneth Mugabi, Jeanne Bukeka Muhindo, Jesca Lukanga Nakavuma, Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji, Xuenan Xuan, Hiroshi Suzuki
Tick acaricide failure is one of the leading challenges to cattle production in Uganda. To gain an understanding into the possible drivers of acaricide failure, this study characterized the current chemical tick control practices in the southwestern (Mbarara, Mitooma and Rukungiri districts) and northwestern (Adjumani district) regions of Uganda. A total of 85 farms participated in a survey that utilized a semi-structured questionnaire. Moreover, ticks were collected to determine the most common species on the farms...
March 15, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
A McLaren, K Kaseja, J Yates, S Mucha, N R Lambe, J Conington
Mastitis can prove expensive in sheep reared for meat production due to costs associated with treatment methods, poor lamb growth and premature culling of ewes. The most commonly used method to detect mastitis, in dairy systems, is somatic cell counts. However, in many meat-producing sheep flocks ewes are not routinely handled, thus regular milk sampling is not always possible. It is, therefore, worthwhile to investigate alternative phenotypes, such as those associated with udder conformation and methods of evaluating somatic cell counts in the milk, such as the California Mastitis Test...
March 26, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
David Fraser, Katherine E Koralesky, Geoff Urton
Animal protection law in Canada varies across the country. Federal animal protection law exists in the Criminal Code, in regulations for the transport of animals, and in regulations for humane handling and slaughter at abattoirs that are inspected by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Provincial animal protection laws often include provisions that i) describe a duty of care toward animals; ii) prohibit causing or permitting animal "distress;" iii) specify exemptions from prosecution; and iv) reference various national and other standards...
March 2018: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Motoki Nakamura, Thomas Haarmann-Stemmann, Jean Krutmann, Akimichi Morita
Increasing ethical concerns regarding animal experimentation have led to the development of various alternative methods based on the 3Rs (Refinement, Reduction and Replacement), first described by Russell and Burch in 1959. Cosmetic research and skin ageing research are particularly susceptible to concerns related to animal testing. In addition to animal welfare reasons, there are scientific and economic reasons to reduce and avoid animal experiments. Importantly, animal experiments may not reflect findings in humans mainly because of the differences in architectures and immune responses between animal skin and human skin...
February 25, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
K M Horback, T D Parsons
As the number of gestating sows reared in group housing increases, a better understanding of behavioral traits needed to negotiate these more complex social interactions promises to increase animal welfare and productivity. However, little is known about different behavioral strategies or coping styles in sows, and even less is understood about their ontogeny. To study the development of coping styles in adult gestating sows, 36 sows from the same sire line and same commercial maternal genetics were followed from birth through their second parity...
February 13, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Luigi Bertocchi, Francesca Fusi, Alessandra Angelucci, Luca Bolzoni, Stefano Pongolini, Rosa Maria Strano, Jessica Ginestreti, Giorgia Riuzzi, Paolo Moroni, Valentina Lorenzi
An expert opinion elicitation, based on a modified Delphi technique, was organized to collect the opinion of 16 Italian veterinarians with the aim of conducting a hazard and a welfare promoter characterization for defining and weighing a list of management and housing factors potentially associated with negative or positive welfare outcomes in dairy cows kept in loose housing systems. In addition, the 16 experts judged a set of animal-based measures in order to rate them by appropriateness and by the level of animal pain and suffering due to the welfare consequences they measure...
February 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Luigi Faucitano
At all times, prior to slaughter, pigs may experience stress from a range of handling practices, such as fasting, loading and transport, mixing, and interaction with humans. These factors can affect the welfare of pigs and carcass and meat quality, both individually and collectively. Preslaughter stress is both an animal welfare and a meat quality issue. Behavioral and physiological studies have revealed that poor handling practices at the farm, during transport and at the slaughter plant, have an adverse effect on pigs and may result in the loss of profits due to animal losses during transport and in lairage...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
M Marcet Rius, A Cozzi, C Bienboire-Frosini, E Teruel, C Chabaud, P Monneret, J Leclercq, C Lafont-Lecuelle, P Pageat
Numerous studies have shown that providing straw to pigs can reduce undesirable behaviours such as aggression, tail biting and stereotypy. The measurement of various neuromodulators can be helpful in assessing the development of positive behaviours and overall animal welfare. The oxytocin release is frequently linked to positive emotions and positive welfare. It has been suggested that oxytocin modulates the serotoninergic system. This study aims to investigate the potential effect of straw provision in pigs on peripheral levels of oxytocin and serotonin...
January 22, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Sergio Luis-Lima, Consolación García-Contreras, Marta Vázquez-Gómez, Susana Astiz, Fabiola Carrara, Flavio Gaspari, Natalia Negrín-Mena, Alejandro Jiménez-Sosa, Hugo Jiménez-Hernández, Antonio González-Bulnes, Esteban Porrini
There is no simple method to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in swine, an established model for studying renal disease. We developed a protocol to measure GFR in conscious swine by using the plasma clearance of iohexol. We used two groups, test and validation, with eight animals each. Ten milliliters of iohexol (6.47 g) was injected into the marginal auricular vein and blood samples (3 mL) were collected from the orbital sinus at different points after injection. GFR was determined using two models: two-compartment (CL2: all samples) and one-compartment (CL1: the last six samples)...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Caralyn Kemp, Harriet Thatcher, David Farningham, Claire Witham, Ann MacLarnon, Amanda Holmes, Stuart Semple, Emily J Bethell
There has been increased recognition of the 3Rs in laboratory animal management over the last decade, including improvements in animal handling and housing. For example, positive reinforcement is now more widely used to encourage primates to cooperate with husbandry procedures, and improved enclosure design allows housing in social groups with opportunity to escape and avoid other primates and humans. Both practices have become gold standards in captive primate care resulting in improved health and behavioural outcomes...
December 2017: Applied Animal Behaviour Science
Yasuhiko Matsumoto, Masaki Ishii, Kiminori Shimizu, Susumu Kawamoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu
The development of effective drugs against fungal diseases involves performing infection experiments in animals to evaluate candidate therapeutic compounds. Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic fungus that causes deep mycosis, resulting in respiratory illness and meningitis. Here we describe a silkworm system established to evaluate the safety and efficacy of therapeutic drugs against infection by Cryptococcus neoformans and the advantages of this system over other animal models. The silkworm assay system has two major advantages: 1) silkworms are less expensive to rear and their use is less problematic than that of mammals in terms of animal welfare, and 2) in vivo screenings for identifying candidate drugs can be easily performed using a large number of silkworms...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
Rudolf Preisinger
1. In commercial layer breeding, extensive gene pools are tested and selected for market requirements which must be anticipated at least 5 years ahead. Field results confirm a continuous positive genetic trend in egg output and better feed efficiency which can be converted into land savings. 2. Animal welfare and cage-free housing dominate future needs of the market. Nesting behaviour and minimal tendency to develop feather-pecking or cannibalism without beak treatment are key trait complexes. Stronger shells for longer production cycles without moulting have to be combined with better bones...
February 2018: British Poultry Science
Gareth E Zeiler, Leith C R Meyer
OBJECTIVE: To review the factors that contribute to morbidity and mortality of impala undergoing chemical capture, and discuss how they are potentially mitigated. DATABASES USED: PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar and Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital records. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Impala are an important species of antelope in Africa and are often captured during management procedures, veterinary interventions and research projects...
September 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Livia Benato, Jennifer Hammond
Involvement in canine and feline surgical neutering clinics is generally considered to be a key element of primary-care veterinary education, yet opportunities for veterinary students to develop their surgical skills with rabbit patients are uncommon. This is despite the fact that rabbits are currently estimated to be the third most popular companion animal species and the fact that the British Small Animal Veterinary Association (BSAVA) recommends that all non-breeding rabbits be neutered soon after they attain sexual maturity...
December 0: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Gabriella Gronqvist, Chris Rogers, Erica Gee, Audrey Martinez, Charlotte Bolwell
Many veterinary and undergraduate equine science students have little previous horse handling experience and a poor understanding of horse behaviour; yet horses are one of the most unsafe animals with which veterinary students must work. It is essential for veterinary and equine students to learn how to interpret horse behaviour in order to understand demeanour and levels of arousal, and to optimise their own safety and the horses' welfare. The study utilised a qualitative research approach to investigate veterinary science and veterinary technology and undergraduate equine science students' interpretation of expressive behaviours shown by horses...
August 15, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
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