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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911497/neural-plasticity-across-the-lifespan
#1
REVIEW
Jonathan D Power, Bradley L Schlaggar
An essential feature of the brain is its capacity to change. Neuroscientists use the term 'plasticity' to describe the malleability of neuronal connectivity and circuitry. How does plasticity work? A review of current data suggests that plasticity encompasses many distinct phenomena, some of which operate across most or all of the lifespan, and others that operate exclusively in early development. This essay surveys some of the key concepts related to neural plasticity, beginning with how current patterns of neural activity (e...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911442/palmitoylation-of-caspase-6-by-hip14-regulates-its-activation
#2
Niels H Skotte, Shaun S Sanders, Roshni R Singaraja, Dagmar E Ehrnhoefer, Kuljeet Vaid, Xiaofan Qiu, Srinivasaragavan Kannan, Chandra Verma, Michael R Hayden
Caspase-6 (CASP6) has an important role in axonal degeneration during neuronal apoptosis and in the neurodegenerative diseases Alzheimer and Huntington disease. Decreasing CASP6 activity may help to restore neuronal function in these and other diseases such as stroke and ischemia, where increased CASP6 activity has been implicated. The key to finding approaches to decrease CASP6 activity is a deeper understanding of the mechanisms regulating CASP6 activation. We show that CASP6 is posttranslationally palmitoylated by the palmitoyl acyltransferase HIP14 and that the palmitoylation of CASP6 inhibits its activation...
December 2, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911441/sirt1-protects-the-heart-from-er-stress-induced-cell-death-through-eif2%C3%AE-deacetylation
#3
Alexandre Prola, Julie Pires Da Silva, Arnaud Guilbert, Lola Lecru, Jérôme Piquereau, Maxance Ribeiro, Philippe Mateo, Mélanie Gressette, Dominique Fortin, Céline Boursier, Cindy Gallerne, Anaïs Caillard, Jane-Lise Samuel, Hélène François, David A Sinclair, Pierre Eid, Renée Ventura-Clapier, Anne Garnier, Christophe Lemaire
Over the past decade, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has emerged as an important mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases including heart failure. Cardiac therapy based on ER stress modulation is viewed as a promising avenue toward effective therapies for the diseased heart. Here, we tested whether sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, participates in modulating ER stress response in the heart. Using cardiomyocytes and adult-inducible SIRT1 knockout mice, we demonstrate that SIRT1 inhibition or deficiency increases ER stress-induced cardiac injury, whereas activation of SIRT1 by the SIRT1-activating compound STAC-3 is protective...
December 2, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911420/-role-of-immunological-factors-in-the-development-of-myopic-choroidal-neovascularization
#4
A G Shchuko, N V Zaitseva, T N Yur'eva, E R Chernykh, I M Mikhalevich, A V Grigor'eva
AIM: To study the concentration of cytokines in the aqueous humor of the anterior chamber in patients with myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV) and to compare the results to their ophthalmic status. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 19 patients (19 eyes) with mCNV treated with intravitreal ranibizumab were included in the study. The control group consisted of 15 patients (15 eyes) with myopia who had cataract surgery. Age, sex, and refractive error distribution were similar to that in the study group...
2016: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911418/synthesis-and-characterization-of-fe-doped-aluminosilicate-nanotubes-with-enhanced-electron-conductive-properties
#5
Ehsan Shafia, Serena Esposito, Elnaz Bahadori, Marco Armandi, Maela Manzoli, Barbara Bonelli
The goal of the protocol is to synthesize Fe-doped aluminosilicate nanotubes of the imogolite type with the formula (OH)3Al2-xFexO3SiOH. Doping with Fe aims at lowering the band gap of imogolite, an insulator with the chemical formula (OH)3Al2O3SiOH, and at modifying its adsorption properties towards azo-dyes, an important class of organic pollutants of both wastewater and groundwater. Fe-doped nanotubes are obtained in two ways: by direct synthesis, where FeCl3 is added to an aqueous mixture of the Si and Al precursors, and by post-synthesis loading, where preformed nanotubes are put in contact with a FeCl3•6H2O aqueous solution...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911416/the-indirect-neuron-astrocyte-coculture-assay-an-in-vitro-set-up-for-the-detailed-investigation-of-neuron-glia-interactions
#6
Christine Gottschling, Egor Dzyubenko, Maren Geissler, Andreas Faissner
Proper neuronal development and function is the prerequisite of the developing and the adult brain. However, the mechanisms underlying the highly controlled formation and maintenance of complex neuronal networks are not completely understood thus far. The open questions concerning neurons in health and disease are diverse and reaching from understanding the basic development to investigating human related pathologies, e.g., Alzheimer's disease and Schizophrenia. The most detailed analysis of neurons can be performed in vitro...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911412/reproducible-arterial-denudation-injury-by-infrarenal-abdominal-aortic-clamping-in-a-murine-model
#7
Aditya S Shirali, Austin I McDonald, Julia J Mack, M Luisa Iruela-Arispe
Percutaneous vascular interventions uniformly result in arterial denudation injuries that subsequently lead to thrombosis and restenosis. These complications can be attributed to impairments in re-endothelialization within the wound margins. Yet, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of re-endothelialization remain to be defined. While several animal models to study re-endothelialization after arterial denudation are available, few are performed in the mouse because of surgical limitations. This undermines the opportunity to exploit transgenic mouse lines and investigate the contribution of specific genes to the process of re-endothelialization...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911390/a-method-for-extracting-pigments-from-squid-doryteuthis-pealeii
#8
Christopher W DiBona, Thomas L Williams, Sean R Dinneen, Stephanie F Jones Labadie, Leila F Deravi
Cephalopods can undergo rapid and adaptive changes in dermal coloration for sensing, communication, defense, and reproduction purposes. These capabilities are supported in part by the areal expansion and retraction of pigmented organs known as chromatophores. While it is known that the chromatophores contain a tethered network of pigmented granules, their structure-function properties have not been fully detailed. We describe a method for isolating the nanostructured granules in squid Doryteuthis pealeii chromatophores and demonstrate how their associated pigments can be extracted in acidic solvents...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911382/a-simple-mechanical-procedure-to-create-limbal-stem-cell-deficiency-in-mouse
#9
Neda Afsharkhamseh, Elham Ghahari, Medi Eslani, Ali R Djalilian
Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) is a state of malfunction or loss of limbal epithelial stem cells, after which the corneal epithelium is replaced with conjunctiva. Patients suffer from recurrent corneal defects, pain, inflammation, and loss of vision. Previously, a murine model of LSCD was described and compared to two other models. The goal was to produce a consistent mouse model of LSCD that both mimics the phenotype in humans and lasts long enough to make it possible to study the disease pathophysiology and to evaluate new treatments...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911370/integrated-compensatory-responses-in-a-human-model-of-hemorrhage
#10
Victor A Convertino, Carmen Hinojosa-Laborde, Gary W Muniz, Robert Carter
Hemorrhage is the leading cause of trauma-related deaths, partly because early diagnosis of the severity of blood loss is difficult. Assessment of hemorrhaging patients is difficult because current clinical tools provide measures of vital signs that remain stable during the early stages of bleeding due to compensatory mechanisms. Consequently, there is a need to understand and measure the total integration of mechanisms that compensate for reduced circulating blood volume and how they change during ongoing progressive hemorrhage...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911364/an-intramedullary-locking-nail-for-standardized-fixation-of-femur-osteotomies-to-analyze-normal-and-defective-bone-healing-in-mice
#11
Tina Histing, Michael D Menger, Tim Pohlemann, Romano Matthys, Tobias Fritz, Patric Garcia, Moritz Klein
Bone healing models are essential to the development of new therapeutic strategies for clinical fracture treatment. Furthermore, mouse models are becoming more commonly used in trauma research. They offer a large number of mutant strains and antibodies for the analysis of the molecular mechanisms behind the highly differentiated process of bone healing. To control the biomechanical environment, standardized and well-characterized osteosynthesis techniques are mandatory in mice. Here, we report on the design and use of an intramedullary nail to stabilize open femur osteotomies in mice...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911358/the-rodent-model-of-nonarteritic-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy-rnaion
#12
Yan Guo, Zara Mehrabian, Steven L Bernstein
Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is a focal ischemic lesion of the optic nerve that affects 1/700 individuals throughout their lifetime. NAION results in optic nerve edema, selective loss of the retinal ganglion cell neurons (RGCs) and atrophy of the optic nerve. A rodent model of NAION that expresses most NAION features and sequelae has been developed, which is applicable to both rats and mice. This model utilizes a focal laser application of 532 nm wavelength to illuminate a photoactive dye, Rose Bengal (RB), to cause capillary damage and leakage at the targeted anterior optic nerve (the laminar region)...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911345/computing-the-influences-of-different-intraocular-pressures-on-the-human-eye-components-using-computational-fluid-structure-interaction-model
#13
Alireza Karimi, Reza Razaghi, Mahdi Navidbakhsh, Toshihiro Sera, Susumu Kudo
BACKGROUND: Intraocular Pressure (IOP) is defined as the pressure of aqueous in the eye. It has been reported that the normal range of IOP should be within the 10-20 mmHg with an average of 15.50 mmHg among the ophthalmologists. Keratoconus is an anti-inflammatory eye disorder that debilitated cornea unable to reserve the normal structure contrary to the IOP in the eye. Consequently, the cornea would bulge outward and invoke a conical shape following by distorted vision. In addition, it is known that any alterations in the structure and composition of the lens and cornea would exceed a change of the eye ball as well as the mechanical and optical properties of the eye...
November 25, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911331/excitation-contraction-coupling-alterations-in-myopathies
#14
Isabelle Marty, Julien Fauré
During the complex series of events leading to muscle contraction, the initial electric signal coming from motor neurons is transformed into an increase in calcium concentration that triggers sliding of myofibrils. This process, referred to as excitation-contraction coupling, is reliant upon the calcium-release complex, which is restricted spatially to a sub-compartment of muscle cells ("the triad") and regulated precisely. Any dysfunction in the calcium-release complex leads to muscle impairment and myopathy...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911325/autonomic-nervous-system-dysfunctions-as-a-basis-for-a-predictive-model-of-risk-of%C3%A2-neurological-disorders-in-subjects-with%C3%A2-prior-history-of-traumatic-brain-injury-implications-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Lap Ho, Marc Legere, Tongbin Li, Samara Levine, Ke Hao, Breanna Valcarcel, Giulio M Pasinetti
Autonomic dysfunction is very common in patients with dementia, and its presence might also help in differential diagnosis among dementia subtypes. Various central nervous system structures affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are also implicated in the central autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation. For example, deficits in central cholinergic function in AD could likely lead to autonomic dysfunction. We recently developed a simple, readily applicable evaluation for monitoring ANS disturbances in response to traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911324/proteomics-analysis-of-blood-serums-from-alzheimer-s-disease-patients-using-itraq-labeling-technology
#16
Liming Shen, Liping Liao, Cheng Chen, Yi Guo, Dalin Song, Yong Wang, Youjiao Chen, Kaoyuan Zhang, Ming Ying, Shuiming Li, Qiong Liu, Jiazuan Ni
Alzheimer' disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia affecting up to 6% of the population over the age of 65. In order to discover differentially expressed proteins that might serve as potential biomarkers, the serums from AD patients and healthy controls were compared and analyzed using the proteomics approach of isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ). For the first time, AD biomarkers in serums are investigated in the Han Chinese population using iTRAQ labeled proteomics strategy...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911321/the-effects-of-meditation-on-grey-matter-atrophy-and-neurodegeneration-a%C3%A2-systematic-review
#17
Nicole Last, Emily Tufts, Leslie E Auger
The present systematic review is based on the premise that a variety of neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by grey matter atrophy in the brain and meditation may impact this. Given that age is a major risk factor for many of these progressive and neurodegenerative diseases and that the percentage of the population over the age of 65 is quickly increasing, there is an obvious need for prompt treatment and prevention advances in research. As there is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, many are seeking non-pharmacological treatment options in attempts to offset the disease-related cognitive and functional declines...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911310/cholinergic-modification-of-neurogenesis-and-gliosis-improves-the-memory-of%C3%A2-a%C3%AE-ppswe-psen1de9-alzheimer-s-disease-model-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#18
Takeshi Matsuda, Tatsuhiro Hisatsune
We previously reported that neuroinflammation contributes to the amnesia of AβPPswe/PSEN1dE9 Alzheimer's disease model mice fed a high-fat diet to induce type-2 diabetes (T2DM-AD mice), but the underlying mechanism for the memory decline remained unclear. Recent studies have suggested that cholinergic modulation is involved in neuroinflammatory cellular reactions including neurogenesis and gliosis, and in memory improvement. In this study, we administered a broad-spectrum cholinesterase inhibitor, rivastigmine (2 mg/kg/day, s...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911307/a-high-cholesterol-diet-increases-27-hydroxycholesterol-and-modifies-estrogen-receptor-expression-and-neurodegeneration-in-rabbit-hippocampus
#19
Sylwia W Brooks, Ava C Dykes, Bernard G Schreurs
Hypercholesterolemia has been implicated in numerous health problems from cardiovascular disease to neurodegeneration. High serum cholesterol levels in midlife have been associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) later in life which suggests that the pathways leading to AD pathology might be activated decades before the symptoms of the disease are detected. Cholesterol-fed animals, particularly cholesterol-fed rabbits, exhibit brain pathology similar to the changes found in brains of AD patients...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911298/a-24-week-multi-modality-exercise-program-improves-executive-control-in%C3%A2-older-adults-with-a-self-reported-cognitive-complaint-evidence-from%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-antisaccade-task
#20
Matthew Heath, Erin Shellington, Sam Titheridge, Dawn P Gill, Robert J Petrella
Exercise programs involving aerobic and resistance training (i.e., multiple-modality) have shown promise in improving cognition and executive control in older adults at risk, or experiencing, cognitive decline. It is, however, unclear whether cognitive training within a multiple-modality program elicits an additive benefit to executive/cognitive processes. This is an important question to resolve in order to identify optimal training programs that delay, or ameliorate, executive deficits in persons at risk for further cognitive decline...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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