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Small vessel cerebrovascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351872/low-cortical-iron-and-high-entorhinal-cortex-volume-promote-cognitive-functioning-in-the-oldest-old
#1
Jiri M G van Bergen, Xu Li, Frances C Quevenco, Anton F Gietl, Valerie Treyer, Sandra E Leh, Rafael Meyer, Alfred Buck, Philipp A Kaufmann, Roger M Nitsch, Peter C M van Zijl, Christoph Hock, Paul G Unschuld
The aging brain is characterized by an increased presence of neurodegenerative and vascular pathologies. However, there is substantial variation regarding the relationship between an individual's pathological burden and resulting cognitive impairment. To identify correlates of preserved cognitive functioning at highest age, the relationship between β-amyloid plaque load, presence of small vessel cerebrovascular disease (SVCD), iron-burden, and brain atrophy was investigated. Eighty cognitively unimpaired participants (44 oldest-old, aged 85-96 years; 36 younger-old, aged 55-80 years) were scanned by integrated positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging for assessing beta regional amyloid plaque load (18F-flutemetamol), white matter hyperintensities as an indicator of SVCD (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery-magnetic resonance imaging), and iron load (quantitative susceptibility mapping)...
December 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351598/smooth-muscle-cells-of-intracranial-vessels-from-development-to-disease
#2
Juhana Frösen, Anne Joutel
Cerebrovascular diseases that cause ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke with subsequent loss of life or functional capacity due to damage of the brain tissue are among the leading causes of human suffering and economic burden inflicted by diseases in the developed world. Diseases affecting intracranial vessels are significant contributors to ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. Brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVM), which are a collection of abnormal blood vessels connecting arteries to veins, are the most common cause of intracranial hemorrhage in children and young adults...
January 16, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328963/the-effect-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-on-cognition-is-mediated-by-cortical-atrophy
#3
Batool Rizvi, Atul Narkhede, Briana S Last, Mariana Budge, Giuseppe Tosto, Jennifer J Manly, Nicole Schupf, Richard Mayeux, Adam M Brickman
White matter hyperintensities (WMH) have been linked to cognitive dysfunction and dementia, although the reasons are unclear. One possibility is that WMH promote neurodegeneration, which, in turn, affects cognition. We examined whether cortical thickness, a marker of neurodegeneration, mediates the relationship between WMH and cognition among 519 older adults. Using conditional process analysis modeling techniques, we examined the association between WMH volume and global cognition and tested whether cortical thickness mediates this relationship statistically...
December 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310864/brain-amyloid-burden-and-cerebrovascular-disease-are-synergistically-associated-with-neurometabolism-in-cognitively-unimpaired-older-adults
#4
Simon J Schreiner, Thomas Kirchner, Atul Narkhede, Michael Wyss, Jiri M G Van Bergen, Stephanie C Steininger, Anton Gietl, Sandra E Leh, Valerie Treyer, Alfred Buck, Klaas P Pruessmann, Roger M Nitsch, Christoph Hock, Anke Henning, Adam M Brickman, Paul G Unschuld
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of cognitive dysfunction in older adults. The pathological hallmarks of AD such as beta amyloid (Aβ) aggregation and neurometabolic change, as indicated by altered myo-inositol (mI) and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels, typically precede the onset of cognitive dysfunction by years. Furthermore, cerebrovascular disease occurs early in AD, but the interplay between vascular and neurometabolic brain change is largely unknown. Thirty cognitively normal older adults (age = 70 ± 5...
December 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300374/clinical-history-and-management-recommendations-of-the-smooth-muscle-dysfunction-syndrome-due-to-acta2-arginine-179-alterations
#5
Ellen S Regalado, Lauren Mellor-Crummey, Julie De Backer, Alan C Braverman, Lesley Ades, Susan Benedict, Timothy J Bradley, M Elizabeth Brickner, Kathryn C Chatfield, Anne Child, Cori Feist, Kathryn W Holmes, Glen Iannucci, Birgit Lorenz, Paul Mark, Takayuki Morisaki, Hiroko Morisaki, Shaine A Morris, Anna L Mitchell, John R Ostergaard, Julie Richer, Denver Sallee, Sherene Shalhub, Mustafa Tekin, Anthony Estrera, Patricia Musolino, Anji Yetman, Reed Pyeritz, Dianna M Milewicz
PurposeSmooth muscle dysfunction syndrome (SMDS) due to heterozygous ACTA2 arginine 179 alterations is characterized by patent ductus arteriosus, vasculopathy (aneurysm and occlusive lesions), pulmonary arterial hypertension, and other complications in smooth muscle-dependent organs. We sought to define the clinical history of SMDS to develop recommendations for evaluation and management.MethodsMedical records of 33 patients with SMDS (median age 12 years) were abstracted and analyzed.ResultsAll patients had congenital mydriasis and related pupillary abnormalities at birth and presented in infancy with a patent ductus arteriosus or aortopulmonary window...
January 4, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284603/cerebrovascular-manifestations-of-neurosarcoidosis-an-underrecognized-aspect-of-the-imaging-spectrum
#6
REVIEW
G Bathla, P Watal, S Gupta, P Nagpal, S Mohan, T Moritani
Involvement of the central nervous system by sarcoidosis, also referred to as neurosarcoidosis, is seen clinically in about 5% of patients with systemic disease. CNS involvement most frequently affects the leptomeninges and cranial nerves, though the ventricular system, brain parenchyma, and pachymeninges may also be involved. Even though the involvement of the intracranial vascular structures is well-known on postmortem studies, there is scant literature on imaging manifestations secondary to the vessel wall involvement, being confined mostly to isolated case reports and small series...
December 28, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232251/are-the-brain-s-vascular-and-alzheimer-pathologies-additive-or-interactive
#7
Rebecca Koncz, Perminder Sachdev
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) commonly co-occur. Whether CVD promotes the progression of Alzheimer's disease pathology remains a source of great interest. Recent technological developments have enabled us to examine their inter-relationship using quantifiable, biomarker-based approaches. We provide an overview of advances in understanding the relationship between vascular and Alzheimer's disease pathologies, with particular emphasis on β-amyloid and tau as measured by positron emission tomography and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentration, and magnetic resonance imaging markers of small vessel disease (SVD)...
December 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220869/non-obese-fatty-liver-disease-is-associated-with-lacunar-infarct
#8
Min-Sun Kwak, Kyung Won Kim, Hyobin Seo, Goh-Eun Chung, Jeong Yoon Yim, Donghee Kim
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Lacunar infarct, a small subcortical ischemic lesion, is a known risk factor for future cognitive impairment, dementia, and stroke. We evaluated the relationship between fatty liver disease(FLD) and lacunar infarct in a healthy general population. METHODS: Subjects who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) and abdominal ultrasonography(US) during health check-ups from 2007-2009 were included. FLD was diagnosed by US. Subjects with a history of cerebrovascular disease, radiological findings consistent with cerebrovascular stenosis, or cerebral small vessel disease were excluded...
December 8, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158187/white-matter-structural-integrity-and-trans-cranial-doppler-blood-flow-pulsatility-in-normal-aging
#9
Roman Fleysher, Michael L Lipton, Olga Noskin, Tatjana Rundek, Richard Lipton, Carol A Derby
Cerebrovascular diseases underlie many forms of age-related cognitive impairment and the mechanism linking the two is hypothesized to involve adverse changes in white matter (WM) integrity. Despite being systemic, small vessel disease does not uniformly affect WM. We performed voxel-wise analysis of MRI images to examine the association between fractional anisotropy (FA) - a diffusion tensor measure of WM structural integrity - and pulsatility index (PI) - a transcranial Doppler ultrasound measure of abnormal arterial flow - in adults over the age of 70 years who were free of stroke and dementia...
November 17, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149834/cystatin-c-in-cerebrovascular-disorders
#10
Yaru Zhang, Li Sun
Cystatin C (CysC), a cysteine protease inhibitor, has been widely proven to be a highly sensitive biomarker to predict the kidney function. The similarity of the renal and cerebral small vessels has awakened a surge of studies suggesting that CysC plays a key role in various cerebrovascular disorders. This review focuses on four major mechanisms of CysC in a variety of cerebrovascular diseases. (1)The property of the CysC Leu-68-Gln (L68Q) variant to aggregate and the property of the wild type CysC protein to co-aggregate with Amyloid-β (Aβ); (2)The disruption of equilibrium between CysC and related cysteine proteases; (3)The function of CysC as an inflammatory inducing factor; (4)The ability of CysC to induce autophagy...
November 15, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116947/cerebrovascular-steal-phenomenon-and-electroconvulsive-therapy-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Ana Hategan, Calvin H Hirsch
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a safe and effective treatment for major depressive disorder, but cerebrovascular and cardiovascular complications, although rare, remain the most concerning. This is particularly notable in those with preexisting cerebrovascular disease, which impacts dynamic cerebral autoregulation. In these patients, the increased blood flow to the seizing portions of the brain induced by ECT potentially can reduce cerebral blood flow to ischemic areas, possibly causing adverse neurological events...
November 8, 2017: Journal of ECT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084064/new-insights-into-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-and-vascular-cognitive-impairment-from-mri
#12
Eric E Smith, Andrew E Beaudin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review recent MRI research that addresses two important challenges in cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) research: early diagnosis, and linking SVD with cognitive impairment. First, we review studies of MRI measurements of blood flow and blood-brain barrier integrity. Second, we review MRI studies identifying neuroimaging correlates of SVD-related cognitive dysfunction, focusing on brain connectivity and white matter microarchitecture. This research is placed in context through discussion of recent recommendations for management of incidentally discovered SVD, and neuroimaging biomarker use in clinical trials...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066902/effects-of-sevoflurane-versus-propofol-on-cerebrovascular-reactivity-to-carbon-dioxide-during-laparoscopic-surgery
#13
Chunyi Wang, Cheng Ni, Gang Li, Yan Li, Liyuan Tao, Nan Li, Jun Wang, Xiangyang Guo
PURPOSE: Cerebrovascular reactivity to carbon dioxide (CVR-CO2) reflects cerebrovascular reserve capacity, which is important in many brain disorders, including cerebrovascular and Alzheimer's diseases. Meanwhile, there is a relationship between CVR-CO2 and cognitive function. Therefore, the study is aimed at investigating the effects of sevoflurane versus propofol on CVR-CO2 during laparoscopic surgery, as well as the role of CVR-CO2 on cognitive function during perioperative period...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061396/increased-level-of-procalcitonin-is-associated-with-total-mri-burden-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-in-patients-with-ischemic-stroke
#14
Guangzong Li, Chen Zhu, Jing Li, Xiangming Wang, Qingbin Zhang, Hongjia Zheng, Cheng Zhan
BACKGROUND: Procalcitonin (PCT) has been found to be associated with subclinical cerebrovascular damage. The relationship between PCT levels and cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD), especially cSVD burden, has not been fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the association between PCT levels and cSVD in patients with first-ever acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). METHODS: Two hundred and seventy-eight consecutive patients were prospectively recruited during Jan 2016 to Jun 2017...
October 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040166/measurement-of-retinal-vessels-as-a-biomarker-of-cerebrovascular-ageing-in-older-hiv-positive-men-compared-to-controls
#15
Lewis Haddow, Rosanna Laverick, Irene Leung, Frank Post, Jaime Vera, Richard Gilson, Ian Williams, Marta Boffito, Caroline Sabin, Alan Winston, Tunde Peto
BACKGROUND: To compare retinal vascular measurements, biomarkers of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), in HIV positive men aged 50 years and above with similarly-aged HIV negative men and younger HIV positive men. METHODS: We recruited white, non-diabetic men to a cross-sectional substudy of a larger cohort including three demographically-matched groups. Optic disc centred 45° colour fundus photographs were used to calculate central retinal arterial and venous calibre and the arterial-venous ratio (AVR)...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987197/neuropathology-of-cerebrovascular-diseases
#16
Isidro Ferrer, Noemi Vidal
The chapter describes the epidemiology of cerebrovascular diseases, anatomy of the cerebral blood vessels, pathophysiology of ischemia, hypoxia, hypoxemia, anemic hypoxia, histotoxic hypoxia, carbon monoxide damage, hyperoxid brain damage and decompression sickness, and selective cell and regional vulnerability; diseases of the blood vessels including atherosclerosis, hypertensive angiopathy, small vessel disease, inflammatory vascular diseases, cerebral amyloid angiopathies, CADASIL, CARASIL and other diseases that can lead to cerebrovascular occlusion; intracranial and intraspinal aneurysms and vascular malformations; hematologic disorders that can cause cerebral infarct or hemorrhage; brain ischemic damage; and spontaneous intracranial bleeding...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984315/pet-imaging-of-the-neurovascular-interface-in-cerebrovascular-disease
#17
REVIEW
Nicholas R Evans, Jason M Tarkin, John R Buscombe, Hugh S Markus, James H F Rudd, Elizabeth A Warburton
Cerebrovascular disease encompasses a range of pathologies that affect different components of the cerebral vasculature and brain parenchyma. Large artery atherosclerosis, acute cerebral ischaemia, and intracerebral small vessel disease all demonstrate altered metabolic processes that are key to their pathogenesis. Although structural imaging techniques such as MRI are the mainstay of clinical care and research in cerebrovascular disease, they have limited ability to detect these pathophysiological processes in vivo...
November 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974571/endothelial-mineralocorticoid-receptor-mediates-parenchymal-arteriole-and-posterior-cerebral-artery-remodeling-during-angiotensin-ii-induced-hypertension
#18
Janice M Diaz-Otero, Courtney Fisher, Kelsey Downs, M Elizabeth Moss, Iris Z Jaffe, William F Jackson, Anne M Dorrance
The brain is highly susceptible to injury caused by hypertension because the increased blood pressure causes artery remodeling that can limit cerebral perfusion. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism prevents hypertensive cerebral artery remodeling, but the vascular cell types involved have not been defined. In the periphery, the endothelial MR mediates hypertension-induced vascular injury, but cerebral and peripheral arteries are anatomically distinct; thus, these findings cannot be extrapolated to the brain...
December 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969386/genetic-variants-influencing-elevated-myeloperoxidase-levels-increase-risk-of-stroke
#19
Chia-Ling Phuah, Tushar Dave, Rainer Malik, Miriam R Raffeld, Alison M Ayres, Joshua N Goldstein, Anand Viswanathan, Steven M Greenberg, Jeremiasz M Jagiella, Björn M Hansen, Bo Norrving, Jordi Jimenez-Conde, Jaume Roquer, Alexander Pichler, Christian Enzinger, Joan Montaner, Israel Fernandez-Cadenas, Arne Lindgren, Agnieszka Slowik, Reinhold Schmidt, Alessandro Biffi, Natalia Rost, Carl D Langefeld, Hugh S Markus, Braxton D Mitchell, Brad B Worrall, Steven J Kittner, Daniel Woo, Martin Dichgans, Jonathan Rosand, Christopher D Anderson
Primary intracerebral haemorrhage and lacunar ischaemic stroke are acute manifestations of progressive cerebral microvascular disease. Current paradigms suggest atherosclerosis is a chronic, dynamic, inflammatory condition precipitated in response to endothelial injury from various environmental challenges. Myeloperoxidase plays a central role in initiation and progression of vascular inflammation, but prior studies linking myeloperoxidase with stroke risk have been inconclusive. We hypothesized that genetic determinants of myeloperoxidase levels influence the development of vascular instability, leading to increased primary intracerebral haemorrhage and lacunar stroke risk...
October 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939865/a-replication-study-of-genetic-risk-loci-for-ischemic-stroke-in-a-dutch-population-a-case-control-study
#20
Allard J Hauer, Sara L Pulit, Leonard H van den Berg, Paul I W de Bakker, Jan H Veldink, Ynte M Ruigrok
We aimed to replicate reported associations of 10 SNPs at eight distinct loci with overall ischemic stroke (IS) and its subtypes in an independent cohort of Dutch IS patients. We included 1,375 IS patients enrolled in a prospective multicenter hospital-based cohort in the Netherlands, and 1,533 population-level controls of Dutch descent. We tested these SNPs for association with overall IS and its subtypes (large artery atherosclerosis, small vessel disease and cardioembolic stroke (CE), as classified by TOAST) using an additive multivariable logistic regression model, adjusting for age and sex...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
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