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Small vessel cerebrovascular disease

Lixia Zong, Ming Yao, Jun Ni, Lixin Zhou, Jing Yuan, Bin Peng, Yi-Cheng Zhu, Liying Cui
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested the potential interactions between cerebrovascular diseases and impaired renal function. However, the relationship between renal function and white matter hyperintensity (WMH), marker of cerebral small vessel disease, in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) remains unknown. METHODS: We consecutively enrolled 1632 subjects with AIS or TIA who underwent brain MRI for this analysis. The severity of WMH in both of periventricular (PVH) and deep subcortical white matter (SDWMH) was evaluated using Fazekas scale...
October 6, 2016: BMC Neurology
Paul G Ince, Thais Minett, Gill Forster, Carol Brayne, Stephen B Wharton
INTRODUCTION: Microinfarcts, small ischaemic foci common in ageing brain, are associated with dementia and gait dysfunction. We determined their relationship to dementia, mobility and cerebrovascular disease in an older population-representative brain donor cohort. These data on microinfarcts were evaluated in relation to pathological assessments of clinically significant cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). METHODS: Microinfarcts were assessed in the MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (n=331)...
September 24, 2016: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Adonis Sfera, Carolina Osorio, Luzmin Inderias, Michael Cummings
BACKGROUND: Exposed to antipsychotic drugs (APDs), older individuals with dementing illness are at risk of cerebrovascular adverse effects (CVAE), including sudden death. Transient microvascular dysfunctions are known to occur in younger persons exposed to APDs; however, they seldom progress to CVAE, suggesting that APDs alone are insufficient for engendering this untoward effect. It is, therefore, believed that a preexistent microvascular damage is necessary for CVAE to take place, but the exact nature of this lesion remains unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Wei Ling Lau, Branko N Huisa, Mark Fisher
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for the development of cerebrovascular disease, particularly small vessel disease which can manifest in a variety of phenotypes ranging from lacunes to microbleeds. Small vessel disease likely contributes to cognitive dysfunction in the CKD population. Non-traditional risk factors for vascular injury in uremia include loss of calcification inhibitors, hyperphosphatemia, increased blood pressure variability, elastinolysis, platelet dysfunction, and chronic inflammation...
September 14, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
Saima Hilal, Emiel Sikking, Muhammad Amin Shaik, Qun Lin Chan, Susanne J van Veluw, Henri Vrooman, Ching-Yu Cheng, Charumathi Sabanayagam, Carol Y Cheung, Tien Yin Wong, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Geert Jan Biessels, Christopher Chen, Mohammad Kamran Ikram
OBJECTIVE: We examined the risk factors of cortical cerebral microinfarcts (CMIs) on 3T MRI and their association with cognitive impairment. METHODS: Participants (aged 60 years and older) from the multiethnic Epidemiology of Dementia In Singapore Study underwent detailed neuropsychological testing and 3T brain MRI. Cortical CMIs were graded using a previously validated protocol. Cognitive impairment was categorized into cognitive impairment, no dementia (CIND)-mild, CIND-moderate, and dementia...
September 2, 2016: Neurology
Masaki Takao, Nobuyoshi Hirose, Yasumichi Arai, Ban Mihara, Masaru Mimura
Supercentenarians (aged 110 years old or more) are extremely rare in the world population (the number of living supercentenarians is estimated as 47 in the world), and details about their neuropathological information are limited. Based on previous studies, centenarians (aged 100-109 years old) exhibit several types of neuropathological changes, such as Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body disease pathology, primary age-related tauopathy, TDP-43 pathology, and hippocampal sclerosis. In the present study, we provide results from neuropathological analyses of four supercentenarian autopsy cases using conventional and immunohistochemical analysis for neurodegenerative disorders...
2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Printha Wijesinghe, S K Shankar, T C Yasha, Catherine Gorrie, Dhammika Amaratunga, Sanjayah Hulathduwa, K Sunil Kumara, Kamani Samarasinghe, Yoo-Hun Suh, Harry W M Steinbusch, K Ranil D De Silva
BACKGROUND: Evidence from various consortia on vascular contributions has been inconsistent in determining the etiology of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: To investigate vascular risk factors and cerebrovascular pathologies associated in manifestation of AD-related neuropathological changes of an elderly population. METHODS: Postmortem brain samples from 76 elderly subjects (≥50 years) were used to study genetic polymorphisms, intracranial atherosclerosis of the circle of Willis (IASCW), and microscopic infarcts in deep white matters...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Yin Liu, Jun Liu, Huanghui Liu, Yunjie Liao, Lu Cao, Bin Ye, Wei Wang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate focal iron deposition level in the brain in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease and its correlation with cerebral small vessel disease imaging markers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-four patients with first-ever transient ischemic attack (median age: 69 years; 30 males and 44 females) and 77 patients with positive ischemic stroke history (median age: 72 years; 43 males and 34 females) were studied retrospectively...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Peng Miao, Zhixia Wu, Miao Li, Yuanyuan Ji, Bohua Xie, Xiaojie Lin, Guo-Yuan Yang
Imaging brain microvasculature is important in plasticity studies of cerebrovascular diseases. Applying contrast agents, traditional μCT and μMRI methods gain imaging contrast for vasculature. The aim of this study is to develop a synchrotron radiation X-ray inline phase-contrast tomography (SRXPCT) method for imaging the intact mouse brain (micro)vasculature in high resolution (~3.7 μm) without contrast agent. A specific preparation protocol was proposed to enhance the phase contrast of brain vasculature by using density difference over gas-tissue interface...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Łukasz Smoliński, Anna Członkowska
Small-caliber cerebral vessels change their diameters in response to alterations of key metabolite concentrations such as carbon dioxide or oxygen. This phenomenon, termed the cerebral vasomotor reactivity (CVMR), is the basis for blood flow regulation in the brain in accordance with its metabolic status. Typically, CVMR is determined as the amount of change in cerebral blood flow in response to a vasodilating stimulus, which can be measured by various neuroimaging methods or by transcranial Doppler. It has been shown that CVMR is impaired in cerebrovascular diseases, but there is also evidence of a similar dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders...
August 5, 2016: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Caleb E Finch, Sara Shams
Alzheimer disease (AD) research has mainly focused on neurodegenerative processes associated with the classic neuropathologic markers of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Additionally, cerebrovascular contributions to dementia are increasingly recognized, particularly from cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). Remarkably, in AD brains, the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ɛ4 allele shows male excess for cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), a marker of SVD, which is opposite to the female excess of plaques and tangles...
September 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
A Silva-Pinto, A Costa, R Serrão, A Sarmento, P Abreu
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to provide insights into the contributions of HIV infection stage, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and vascular risk factors to the occurrence of ischaemic stroke in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: We performed a case-control study of HIV-infected patients followed in our clinic. We compared patients hospitalized between January 2006 and June 2014 with an ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack to age- and gender-matched controls without stroke...
August 18, 2016: HIV Medicine
Sara Shams, Juha Martola, Andreas Charidimou, Lena Cavallin, Tobias Granberg, Mana Shams, Yngve Forslin, Peter Aspelin, Maria Kristoffersen-Wiberg, Lars-Olof Wahlund
OBJECTIVE: To gain further insight into cortical superficial siderosis (cSS), a new hemorrhagic neuroimaging marker of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), and to investigate the clinical, neuroimaging, genetic, and CSF biomarker profile of cSS in a large, consecutive memory clinic series. METHODS: We included 1,504 memory clinic patients undergoing dementia investigation including a brain MRI in our center. Routine CSF biomarker analysis was performed in 1,039 patients and APOE genotyping in 520 patients...
September 13, 2016: Neurology
Hyung-Suk Lee, Hye Lim Lee, Ho-Seong Han, Minju Yeo, Ji Seon Kim, Sung-Hyun Lee, Sang-Soo Lee, Dong-Ick Shin
Ankle brachial index (ABI) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) are widely used noninvasive modalities to evaluate atherosclerosis. Recently, evidence has increased supporting the use of ABI and baPWV as markers of cerebrovascular disease. This study sought to examine the relationship between ABI and baPWV with ischemic stroke. This study also aimed to determine which pathogenic mechanism, large artery disease (LAD) or small vessel disease (SVD), is related to ABI or baPWV. Retrospectively, 121 patients with ischemic stroke and 38 subjects with no obvious ischemic stroke history were recruited...
July 2016: Journal of Biomedical Research
(no author information available yet)
Dementia is a global problem and major target for health care providers. Although up to 45% of cases are primarily or partly due to cerebrovascular disease, little is known of these mechanisms or treatments because most dementia research still focuses on pure Alzheimer's disease. An improved understanding of the vascular contributions to neurodegeneration and dementia, particularly by small vessel disease, is hampered by imprecise data, including the incidence and prevalence of symptomatic and clinically "silent" cerebrovascular disease, long-term outcomes (cognitive, stroke, or functional), and risk factors...
August 1, 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Carmen Capone, Fabrice Dabertrand, Celine Baron-Menguy, Athena Chalaris, Lamia Ghezali, Valérie Domenga-Denier, Stefanie Schmidt, Clément Huneau, Stefan Rose-John, Mark T Nelson, Anne Joutel
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a leading cause of stroke and dementia. CADASIL, an inherited SVD, alters cerebral artery function, compromising blood flow to the working brain. TIMP3 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3) accumulation in the vascular extracellular matrix in CADASIL is a key contributor to cerebrovascular dysfunction. However, the linkage between elevated TIMP3 and compromised cerebral blood flow (CBF) remains unknown. Here, we show that TIMP3 acts through inhibition of the metalloprotease ADAM17 and HB-EGF to regulate cerebral arterial tone and blood flow responses...
2016: ELife
T Michael De Silva, Dale A Kinzenbaw, Mary L Modrick, Lindsey D Reinhardt, Frank M Faraci
Rho kinase (ROCK) has been implicated in physiological and pathophysiological processes, including regulation of vascular function. ROCK signaling is thought to be a critical contributor to cardiovascular disease, including hypertension and effects of angiotensin II (Ang II). Two isoforms of ROCK (1 and 2) have been identified and are expressed in vascular cells. In this study, we examined the importance of ROCK2 in relation to vessel function using several models and a novel inhibitor of ROCK2. First, incubation of carotid arteries with the direct RhoA activator CN-03 or Ang II impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation by ≈40% to 50% (P<0...
September 2016: Hypertension
Ravi Maheswaran, Tim Pearson, Sean D Beevers, Michael J Campbell, Charles D Wolfe
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Few studies have examined the association between air pollutants and ischemic stroke subtypes. We examined acute effects of outdoor air pollutants (PM10, NO2, O3, CO, SO2) on subtypes and severity of incident ischemic stroke and investigated if pre-existing risk factors increased susceptibility. METHODS: We used a time stratified case-crossover study and stroke cases from the South London Stroke Register set up to capture all incident cases of first ever stroke occurring amongst residents in a geographically defined area...
2016: PloS One
Eric Jouvent, Laurent Puy, Hugues Chabriat
Cerebrovascular pathologies expose patients to both ischemic and hemorrhagic risks. Given the progressive aging of populations, more and more patients will experience both types of events during their lifetime. The generalization of brain magnetic resonance imaging as a first-line imaging modality for evaluating patients with cerebrovascular diseases has led to the need to manage new types of imaging information about the cerebral tissue, such as the presence, location, and number of cerebral microhemorrhages (CMs)...
August 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
C Moran, R J Tapp, A D Hughes, C G Magnussen, L Blizzard, T G Phan, R Beare, N Witt, A Venn, G Münch, B C Amaratunge, V Srikanth
It is uncertain whether small vessel disease underlies the relationship between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and brain atrophy. We aimed to study whether retinal vascular architecture, as a proxy for cerebral small vessel disease, may modify or mediate the associations of T2DM with brain volumes. In this cross-sectional study using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans and retinal photographs in 451 people with and without T2DM, we measured brain volumes, geometric measures of retinal vascular architecture, clinical retinopathy, and MRI cerebrovascular lesions...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
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