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Circadian rhythm

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335007/a-class-of-circadian-long-non-coding-rnas-mark-enhancers-modulating-long-range-circadian-gene-regulation
#1
Zenghua Fan, Meng Zhao, Parth D Joshi, Ping Li, Yan Zhang, Weimin Guo, Yichi Xu, Haifang Wang, Zhihu Zhao, Jun Yan
Circadian rhythm exerts its influence on animal physiology and behavior by regulating gene expression at various levels. Here we systematically explored circadian long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in mouse liver and examined their circadian regulation. We found that a significant proportion of circadian lncRNAs are expressed at enhancer regions, mostly bound by two key circadian transcription factors, BMAL1 and REV-ERBα. These circadian lncRNAs showed similar circadian phases with their nearby genes. The extent of their nuclear localization is higher than protein coding genes but less than enhancer RNAs...
March 8, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333924/csl-encodes-a-leucine-rich-repeat-protein-implicated-in-red-violet-light-signaling-to-the-circadian-clock-in-chlamydomonas
#2
Ayumi Kinoshita, Yoshimi Niwa, Kiyoshi Onai, Takashi Yamano, Hideya Fukuzawa, Masahiro Ishiura, Takuya Matsuo
The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii shows various light responses in behavior and physiology. One such photoresponse is the circadian clock, which can be reset by external light signals to entrain its oscillation to daily environmental cycles. In a previous report, we suggested that a light-induced degradation of the clock protein ROC15 is a trigger to reset the circadian clock in Chlamydomonas. However, light signaling pathways of this process remained unclear. Here, we screened for mutants that show abnormal ROC15 diurnal rhythms, including the light-induced protein degradation at dawn, using a luciferase fusion reporter...
March 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333377/circadian-rhythms-in-adipose-tissue-physiology
#3
Jana-Thabea Kiehn, Anthony H Tsang, Isabel Heyde, Brinja Leinweber, Isa Kolbe, Alexei Leliavski, Anthony H Tsang
The different types of adipose tissues fulfill a wide range of biological functions-from energy storage to hormone secretion and thermogenesis-many of which show pronounced variations over the course of the day. Such 24-h rhythms in physiology and behavior are coordinated by endogenous circadian clocks found in all tissues and cells, including adipocytes. At the molecular level, these clocks are based on interlocked transcriptional-translational feedback loops comprised of a set of clock genes/proteins. Tissue-specific clock-controlled transcriptional programs translate time-of-day information into physiologically relevant signals...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333141/npas2-promotes-cell-survival-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-transactivating-cdc25a
#4
Peng Yuan, Jibin Li, Feng Zhou, Qichao Huang, Jiansheng Zhang, Xu Guo, Zhuomin Lyu, Hongxin Zhang, Jinliang Xing
Emerging evidences show that disruption of the circadian rhythm is associated with tumor initiation and progression. Neuronal PAS domain protein 2 (NPAS2), one of the core circadian molecules, has been proved to be a potential prognostic biomarker in colorectal and breast cancers. However, to date, the potential functional roles and molecular mechanisms by which NPAS2 affects cancer cell survival are greatly unclear, especially in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We first investigated the expression of NPAS2 and its clinical significance in HCC...
March 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332253/sex-and-ancestry-determine-the-free-running-circadian-period
#5
Charmane I Eastman, Victoria A Tomaka, Stephanie J Crowley
The endogenous, free-running circadian period (τ) determines the phase relationship that an organism assumes when entrained to the 24-h day. We found a shorter circadian period in African Americans compared to non-Hispanic European Americans (24.07 versus 24.33 h). We speculate that a short circadian period, closer to 24 h, was advantageous to humans living around the equator, but when humans migrated North out of Africa, where the photoperiod changes with seasons, natural selection favoured people with longer circadian periods...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332018/seasonal-loss-and-resumption-of-circadian-rhythms-in-hibernating-arctic-ground-squirrels
#6
Cory T Williams, Maya Radonich, Brian M Barnes, C Loren Buck
Circadian clocks are near universal among organisms and play a key role in coordinating physiological and metabolic functions to anticipate or coincide with predictable daily changes in the physical and social environment. However, whether circadian rhythms persist and are functionally important during hibernation in all mammals is currently unclear. We examined whether circadian rhythms of body temperature (T b) persist during multi-day, steady-state torpor and investigated the association between timing of animal emergence, exposure to light, and resumption of activity and T b rhythms in free-living and captive male arctic ground squirrels...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331994/daily-socs1-rhythms-alter-with-aging-differentially-in-peripheral-clocks-in-male-wistar-rats-therapeutic-effects-of-melatonin
#7
Ch Vinod, Anita Jagota
Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in synchronization with the peripheral clocks regulates the temporal oscillations leading to overt rhythms. Aging leads to attenuation of such circadian regulation, accompanied by increased inflammatory mediators prevalently the cytokines. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family of proteins such as SOCS 1, 3 and cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CIS) negatively regulate the cytokine signaling pathway. The role of SOCS1 in aging and circadian system is obscure. We therefore studied the daily rhythms of rSocs1 mRNA expression at Zeitgeber time (ZT) -0, 6, 12 and 18 in peripheral clocks such as liver, kidney, intestine and heart of 3, 12 and 24 months (m) old male Wistar rats...
March 22, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331201/synchrony-of-plant-cellular-circadian-clocks-with-heterogeneous-properties-under-light-dark-cycles
#8
Masaaki Okada, Tomoaki Muranaka, Shogo Ito, Tokitaka Oyama
Individual cells in a plant can work independently as circadian clocks, and their properties are the basis of various circadian phenomena. The behaviour of individual cellular clocks in Lemna gibba was orderly under 24-h light/dark cycles despite their heterogeneous free-running periods (FRPs). Here, we reveal the entrainment habits of heterogeneous cellular clocks using non-24-h light/dark cycles (T-cycles). The cellular rhythms of AtCCA1::LUC under T = 16 h cycles showed heterogeneous entrainment that was associated with their heterogeneous FRPs...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330876/electrocorticographic-dynamics-as-a-novel-biomarker-in-five-models-of-epileptogenesis
#9
Dan Z Milikovsky, Itai Weissberg, Lyna Solomon-Kamintsky, Kristina Lippmann, Osnat Schefenbauer, Federica Frigerio, Massimo Rizzi, Liron Sheintuch, Daniel Zelig, Jonathan Ofer, Annamaria Vezzani, Alon Friedman
Post injury epilepsy (PIE) is a devastating sequela of various brain insults. While recent studies offer novel insights into the mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis and discover potential preventive treatments, the lack of PIE biomarkers hinders the clinical implementation of such treatments. Here we explored the biomarker potential of different electrographic features in five models of PIE. Electrocorticographic or intrahippocampal recordings of epileptogenesis (from the insult to the first spontaneous seizure) from two laboratories were analyzed in 3 mouse and 2 rat PIE models...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330768/estrous-detection-by-monitoring-ventral-tail-base-surface-temperature-using-a-wearable-wireless-sensor-in-cattle
#10
Ryotaro Miura, Koji Yoshioka, Toru Miyamoto, Hirofumi Nogami, Hironao Okada, Toshihiro Itoh
In the present study, the ventral tail base surface temperature (ST) was monitored using a wearable wireless sensor for estrus detection in cattle. Relationships among ST, behavioral estrus expression, ovulation, and changes in hormone profiles during the estrous cycle were examined. Holstein Friesian or Japanese Black female cattle were used in summer (August-September), autumn (October-November) and winter (January-February; three animals per season). On Day 11 of the estrous cycle (Day 0=the day of ovulation), the sensor was attached to the surface of the ventral tail base and ST was measured every 2min until Day 11 of the next estrous cycle...
March 11, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330645/design-of-fixed-dose-combination-and-physicochemical-characterization-of-enteric-coated-bilayer-tablet-with-circadian-rhythmic-variations-containing-telmisartan-and-pravastatin-sodium
#11
Daoqi Luo, Joo Hee Kim, Chulhun Park, Euichaul Oh, Jun Bum Park, Jing-Hao Cui, Qing-Ri Cao, Beom-Jin Lee
The aim of this study was to investigate a fixed dose combination (FDC) of telmisartan (TEL) and pravastatin sodium (PRA) in enteric-coated bilayer tablets, which was designed for once-daily bedtime dose in order to match circadian rhythmic variations of hypertension and cholesterol synthesis and optimize the patient friendly dosing treatment. Due to the poor aqueous solubility of TEL, a ternary solid dispersions (SD) consisting of TEL, polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) and magnesium oxide (MgO) were designed to enhance its dissolution rate in intestinal fluid...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329091/association-between-sleep-timing-obesity-diabetes-the-hispanic-community-health-study-study-of-latinos-hchs-sol-cohort-study-sleep-timing-obesity-and-diabetes
#12
Kristen L Knutson, Donghong Wu, Sanjay R Patel, Jose S Loredo, Susan Redline, Jianwen Cai, Linda C Gallo, Yasmin Mossavar-Rahmani, Alberto R Ramos, Yanping Teng, Martha L Daviglus, Phyllis C Zee
Study Objectives: Recent studies implicate inadequate sleep duration and quality in metabolic disease. Fewer studies have examined the timing of sleep, which may be important because of its potential impact on circadian rhythms of metabolic function. We examined the association between sleep timing and metabolic risk among Hispanic/Latino adults. Methods.: Cross-sectional data from community-based study of 13,429 participants aged 18-74 years. People taking diabetes medications were excluded...
January 28, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328790/comparison-of-the-effects-of-quetiapine-xr-and-lithium-monotherapy-on-actigraphy-measured-circadian-parameters-in-patients-with-bipolar-ii-depression
#13
Jeong Yeon Hwang, Jae-Won Choi, Seung-Gul Kang, Su Hwan Hwang, Seog Ju Kim, Yu Jin Lee
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of quetiapine XR and lithium on actigraphy-measured circadian parameters in patients with bipolar II depression. METHODS/PROCEDURES: This was an 8-week, open-label, prospective, randomized comparative study. The assessments included the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score and actigraphic measures concerning the previous 7 days, collected at each visit (weeks 0 [baseline], 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8); the actigraphic data were analyzed with a cosinor analysis...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328532/cushing-s-syndrome-in-infancy-due-to-ectopic-acth-secretion-by-a-sacro-coccygeal-teratoma
#14
Marta Rydzewska, Maryna Krawczuk-Rybak, Adrianna Zajkowska, Natalia Jurczuk, Dariusz Polnik, Mieczysław Szalecki, Elżbieta Moszczyńska, Martin O Savage, Artur Bossowski
BACKGROUND: Adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing's syndrome in infancy is extremely rare. We describe the case of a sacro-coccygeal ectopic ACTH-secreting immature teratoma in an infant who also presented the triad of defects characteristic of Currarino syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: A girl was born with a large immature teratoma in the sacro-coccygeal region associated with anal atresia. At the age of 7 days, the concentration of α-fetoprotein (AFP) was above the age-specific normal range...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327443/correcting-delayed-circadian-phase-with-bright-light-therapy-predicts-improvement-in-adhd-symptoms-a-pilot-study
#15
Rachel E Fargason, Aaron D Fobian, Lauren M Hablitz, Jodi R Paul, Brittny A White, Karen L Cropsey, Karen L Gamble
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common condition with comorbid insomnia reported in >70% of children and adults. These patients demonstrate delays in sleep-wake rhythms, nocturnal rise in melatonin, and early morning rise in cortisol. Given that standard psychopharmacologic treatments for ADHD often do not completely control symptoms in participants with circadian rhythm delay, we sought to test whether bright light therapy (BLT) advances circadian rhythms and further reduces ADHD symptoms over standard treatments...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326910/circadian-rhythms-in-plasma-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-differ-in-men-and-women
#16
Sean W Cain, Anne-Marie Chang, Irma Vlasac, Archana Tare, Clare Anderson, Charles A Czeisler, Richa Saxena
The measurement of circulating levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed to be a marker of disease and an indicator of recovery. Thus, knowing the temporal pattern and influence of potential circadian rhythms is important. Although several studies have measured BDNF at different times of day, no studies have done so while controlling for potential masking influences such as sleep and activity. Further, no previous study has examined circadian rhythms within individuals. We examined circadian rhythms in plasma BDNF while minimizing masking from behavioral and environmental factors using a 30-h constant routine (CR) protocol...
February 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326909/resynchronization-dynamics-reveal-that-the-ventral-entrains-the-dorsal-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#17
Stephanie R Taylor, Thomas J Wang, Daniel Granados-Fuentes, Erik D Herzog
Although the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) has long been considered the master circadian clock in mammals, the topology of the connections that synchronize daily rhythms among SCN cells is not well understood. We combined experimental and computational methods to infer the directed interactions that mediate circadian synchrony between regions of the SCN. We analyzed PERIOD2 (PER2) expression from SCN slices during and after treatment with tetrodotoxin, allowing us to map connections as cells resynchronized their daily cycling following blockade and restoration of cell-cell communication...
February 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326116/comparison-of-wearable-activity-tracker-with-actigraphy-for-sleep-evaluation-and-circadian-rest-activity-rhythm-measurement-in-healthy-young-adults
#18
Hyun-Ah Lee, Heon-Jeong Lee, Joung-Ho Moon, Taek Lee, Min-Gwan Kim, Hoh In, Chul-Hyun Cho, Leen Kim
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of data obtained from a wearable activity tracker (Fitbit Charge HR) to medical research. This was performed by comparing the wearable activity tracker (Fitbit Charge HR) with actigraphy (Actiwatch 2) for sleep evaluation and circadian rest-activity rhythm measurement. METHODS: Sixteen healthy young adults (female participants, 62.5%; mean age, 22.8 years) wore the Fitbit Charge HR and the Actiwatch 2 on the same wrist; a sleep log was recorded over a 14-day period...
March 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325554/inscuteable-maintains-type-i-neuroblast-lineage-identity-via-numb-notch-signaling-in-the-drosophila-larval-brain
#19
Huanping An, Wanzhong Ge, Yongmei Xi, Xiaohang Yang
In the Drosophila larval brain, type I and type II neuroblasts (NBs) undergo a series of asymmetric divisions which give rise to distinct progeny lineages. The intermediate neural progenitors (INPs) exist only in type II NB lineages. In this study, we reveal a novel function of Inscuteable (Insc) that acts to maintain type I NB lineage identity. In insc type I NB clones of mosaic analyses with a repressible cell marker (MARCM), the formation of extra Deadpan (Dpn)(+) NB-like and GMC-like cells is observed. The lack of Insc leads to the defective localization and segregation of Numb during asymmetric cell division...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324298/circadian-disruption-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
REVIEW
Yumna Saeed, Sabra M Abbott
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasing in prevalence and has a significant impact on caregivers and the healthcare system. One of the many physiologic process affected by AD is the circadian system, with disruption reflected in abnormalities of the sleep-wake cycle. This interaction is bidirectional, with circadian and sleep disruption influencing disease progression. Understanding the bidirectional relationship between AD and circadian disruption may allow for earlier recognition of the potential to develop dementia as well as improved targeted approaches for therapy...
April 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
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