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Circadian rhythm

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352256/time-management-in-a-co-housed-social-rodent-species-arvicanthis-niloticus
#1
Alexandra Castillo-Ruiz, Premananda Indic, William J Schwartz
Sociality has beneficial effects on fitness, and timing the activities of animals may be critical. Social cues could influence daily rhythmic activities via direct effects on the circadian clock or on processes that bypass it (masking), but these possibilities remain incompletely addressed. We investigated the effects of social cues on the circadian body temperature (Tb) rhythms in pairs of co-housed and isolated grass rats, Arvicanthis niloticus (a social species), in constant darkness (DD). Cohabitation did not induce synchronization of circadian Tb rhythms...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351477/mathematical-analysis-of-circadian-disruption-and-metabolic-re-entrainment-of-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-the-intertwining-entraining-roles-of-light-and-feeding
#2
Seul-A Bae, Ioannis P Androulakis
The circadian rhythms influence the metabolic activity from molecular level to tissue, organ, and host level. Disruption of the circadian rhythms manifest to the host's health as metabolic syndromes including obesity, diabetes, and elevated plasma glucose, eventually leading to cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the mechanism behind the relationship between circadian rhythms and metabolism. To start answering this question, we propose a semi-mechanistic mathematical model to study the effect of circadian disruption on hepatic gluconeogenesis in humans...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351432/diurnal-pattern-in-skin-na-and-water-content-is-associated-with-salt-sensitive-hypertension-in-etb-receptor-deficient-rats
#3
Joshua S Speed, Kelly A Hyndman, Malgorzata Kasztan, Jermaine G Johnston, Kaehler J Roth, Jens M Titze, David M Pollock
Impairment in the ability of the skin to properly store Na+ non-osmotically (without water) has recently been hypothesized as contributing to salt-sensitive hypertension. Our lab has shown that endothelial production of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is crucial to skin Na+ handling. Further, it is well established that loss of ETB receptor function impairs Na+ excretion by the kidney. Thus we hypothesized that rats lacking functional ETB receptors (ETB def) will have a reduced capacity of the skin to store Na+ during chronic high salt (HS) intake...
December 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351091/circadian-rhythms-disturbances-in-alzheimer-disease-current-concepts-diagnosis-and-management
#4
Ángela Milán-Tomás, Colin M Shapiro
The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the research regarding circadian rhythms in Alzheimer disease (AD). Furthermore, this paper explores the role of melatonin in the pathogenesis of AD and the limitation of trials addressing circadian rhythms disturbances in the AD population. A literature search using Medline with PubMed and Embase was carried out identifying papers focusing on circadian rhythms in AD. Sleep disorders and especially circadian rhythm disturbances are very common in the elderly population but definitely more pronounced in patients with AD...
January 18, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348553/night-eating-model-shows-time-specific-depression-like-behavior-in-the-forced-swimming-test
#5
Atsushi Haraguchi, Miyabi Fukuzawa, Shiho Iwami, Yutaro Nishimura, Hiroaki Motohashi, Yu Tahara, Shigenobu Shibata
The circadian clock system is associated with feeding and mood. Patients with night eating syndrome (NES) delay their eating rhythm and their mood declines during the evening and night, manifesting as time-specific depression. Therefore, we hypothesized that the NES feeding pattern might cause time-specific depression. We established new NES model by restricted feeding with high-fat diet during the inactive period under normal-fat diet ad libitum. The FST (forced swimming test) immobility time in the NES model group was prolonged only after lights-on, corresponding to evening and early night for humans...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346572/analysis-of-experience-regulated-transcriptome-and-imprintome-during-critical-periods-of-mouse-visual-system-development-reveals-spatiotemporal-dynamics
#6
Chi-Lin Hsu, Chih-Hsuan Chou, Shih-Chuan Huang, Chia-Yi Lin, Meng-Ying Lin, Chun-Che Tung, Chun-Yen Lin, Ivan Pochou Lai, Yan-Fang Zou, Neil A Youngson, Shau-Ping Lin, Chang-Hao Yang, Shih-Kuo Chen, Susan Shur-Fen Gau, Hsien-Sung Huang
Visual system development is light-experience dependent, which strongly implicates epigenetic mechanisms in light-regulated maturation. Among many epigenetic processes, genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism through which monoallelic gene expression occurs in a parent-of-origin-specific manner. It is unknown if genomic imprinting contributes to visual system development. We profiled the transcriptome and imprintome during critical periods of mouse visual system development under normal- and dark-rearing conditions using B6/CAST F1 hybrid mice...
January 15, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346266/the-relationship-between-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-melatonin-during-fetal-development
#7
REVIEW
Yunho Jin, Jeonghyun Choi, Jinyoung Won, Yonggeun Hong
The aim of this review is to clarify the interrelationship between melatonin and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during fetal development. ASD refers to a diverse range of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits, impaired communication, and stereotyped or repetitive behaviors. Melatonin, which is secreted by the pineal gland, has well-established neuroprotective and circadian entraining effects. During pregnancy, the hormone crosses the placenta into the fetal circulation and transmits photoperiodic information to the fetus allowing the establishment of normal sleep patterns and circadian rhythms that are essential for normal neurodevelopment...
January 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344005/biological-clocks-their-relevance-to-immune-allergic-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Roberto Paganelli, Claudia Petrarca, Mario Di Gioacchino
The 2017 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, awarded for the discoveries made in the past 15 years on the genetic and molecular mechanisms regulating many physiological functions, has renewed the attention to the importance of circadian rhythms. These originate from a central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the brain, photoentrained via direct connection with melanopsin containing, intrinsically light-sensitive retinal ganglion cells, and it projects to periphery, thus creating an inner circadian rhythm...
2018: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343740/modifiable-lifestyle-behaviors-but-not-a-genetic-risk-score-associate-with-metabolic-syndrome-in-evening-chronotypes
#9
Beatriz Vera, Hassan S Dashti, Purificación Gómez-Abellán, Antonio M Hernández-Martínez, Alberto Esteban, Frank A J L Scheer, Richa Saxena, Marta Garaulet
Evening chronotype associates with health complications possibly via lifestyle factors, while the contribution of genetics is unknown. The aim was to study the relative contributions of genetics, lifestyle, and circadian-related physiological characteristics in metabolic risk of evening chronotype. In order to capture a biological contribution to chronotype, a genetic-risk-score (GRS), comprised of 15 chronotype-related variants, was tested. Moreover, a wide range of behavioral and emotional eating factors was studied within the same population...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342874/rodent-models-of-alcoholic-liver-disease-role-of-binge-ethanol-administration
#10
REVIEW
Shubha Ghosh Dastidar, Jeffrey B Warner, Dennis R Warner, Craig J McClain, Irina A Kirpich
Both chronic and acute (binge) alcohol drinking are important health and economic concerns worldwide and prominent risk factors for the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). There are no FDA-approved medications to prevent or to treat any stage of ALD. Therefore, discovery of novel therapeutic strategies remains a critical need for patients with ALD. Relevant experimental animal models that simulate human drinking patterns and mimic the spectrum and severity of alcohol-induced liver pathology in humans are critical to our ability to identify new mechanisms and therapeutic targets...
January 13, 2018: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341860/risk-management-of-free-radicals-involved-in-air-travel-syndromes-by-antioxidants
#11
Jeum-Nam Kim, Byung-Mu Lee
Frequent air travelers and airplane pilots may develop various types of illnesses. The environmental risk factors associated with air travel syndromes (ATS) or air travel-related adverse health outcomes raised concerns and need to be assessed in the context of risk management and public health. Accordingly, the aim of the present review was to determine ATS, risk factors, and mechanisms underlying ATS using scientific data and information obtained from Medline, Toxline, and regulatory agencies. Additional information was also extracted from websites of organizations, such as the International Air Transport Association (IATA), International Association for Medical Assistance to Travelers (IAMAT), and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339832/clock%C3%AE-19-mutation-modifies-the-manner-of-synchrony-among-oscillation-neurons-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#12
Mitsugu Sujino, Takeshi Asakawa, Mamoru Nagano, Satoshi Koinuma, Koh-Hei Masumoto, Yasufumi Shigeyoshi
In mammals, the principal circadian oscillator exists in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). In the SCN, CLOCK works as an essential component of molecular circadian oscillation, and ClockΔ19 mutant mice show unique characteristics of circadian rhythms such as extended free running periods, amplitude attenuation, and high-magnitude phase-resetting responses. Here we investigated what modifications occur in the spatiotemporal organization of clock gene expression in the SCN of ClockΔ19 mutants...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339751/jmjc-domain-proteins-modulate-circadian-behaviors-and-sleep-in-drosophila
#13
Nevine A Shalaby, Jorge H Pinzon, Anjana S Narayanan, Eugene Jennifer Jin, Morgan P Ritz, Rachel J Dove, Heike Wolfenberg, Aylin R Rodan, Michael Buszczak, Adrian Rothenfluh
Jumonji (JmjC) domain proteins are known regulators of gene expression and chromatin organization by way of histone demethylation. Chromatin modification and remodeling provides a means to modulate the activity of large numbers of genes, but the importance of this class of predicted histone-modifying enzymes for different aspects of post-developmental processes remains poorly understood. Here we test the function of all 11 non-lethal members in the regulation of circadian rhythms and sleep. We find loss of every Drosophila JmjC gene affects different aspects of circadian behavior and sleep in a specific manner...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338682/soybean-mads-box-gene-gmagl1-promotes-flowering-via-the-photoperiod-pathway
#14
Xuanrui Zeng, Hailun Liu, Hongyang Du, Sujing Wang, Wenming Yang, Yingjun Chi, Jiao Wang, Fang Huang, Deyue Yu
BACKGROUND: The MADS-box transcription factors are an ancient family of genes that regulate numerous physiological and biochemical processes in plants and facilitate the development of floral organs. However, the functions of most of these transcription factors in soybean remain unknown. RESULTS: In this work, a MADS-box gene, GmAGL1, was overexpressed in soybean. Phenotypic analysis showed that GmAGL1 overexpression not only resulted in early maturation but also promoted flowering and affected petal development...
January 16, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337434/light-and-darkness
#15
EDITORIAL
Pontus B Persson, Anja B Persson
Life on earth follows cyclic processes, of which the diurnal cycle of the sun rising and setting is one of the most evident. The rotation of the earth dictates the waking and resting cycles of numerous life forms on earth. While we can safely assume that our earliest human ancestors will have recognized, sometimes feared or even worshipped the cyclic nature of Life on Earth, the knowledge that almost "all multicellular organisms, including humans, utilize a similar mechanism to control circadian rhythms" [1], has only very recently warranted a Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine...
January 16, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337407/insufficient-sleep-syndrome-an-unrecognized-but-important-clinical-entity
#16
Jun Kohyama, Yuki Anzai, Makoto Ono, Ai Kishino, Keita Tamanuki, Kazuma Takada, Kento Inoue, Maho Horiuchi, Yoshiho Hatai
BACKGROUND: In the Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Centre, a sleep clinic for adults and children was established in August 2012. As few sleep clinics are available in Japan that are specifically for children, this clinic provides the opportunity to provide data on child patients who have been suffering from sleep problems and who visited the sleep clinic. METHODS: Records of patients who visited the sleep clinic at the Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Centre at the age of 20 years or younger on their first visit were retrospectively examined, and their initial and final diagnoses were examined...
January 16, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337261/heart-rate-variability-alters-cardiac-repolarization-and-electromechanical-dynamics
#17
Vrishti M Phadumdeo, Seth H Weinberg
Heart rate continuously varies due to autonomic regulation, stochasticity in pacemaking, and circadian rhythm, collectively termed heart rate variability (HRV), during normal physiological conditions. Low HRV is clinically associated with an elevated risk of cardiac arrhythmias. Alternans, a beat-to-beat alternation in action potential duration (APD) and/or intracellular calcium (Ca) transient, is a well-known risk factor associated with cardiac arrhythmias that is typically studied under conditions of a constant pacing rate, i...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331582/inositol-polyphosphates-contribute-to-cellular-circadian-rhythms-implications-for-understanding-lithium-s-molecular-mechanism
#18
Heather Wei, Dominic Landgraf, George Wang, Michael J McCarthy
Most living organisms maintain cell autonomous circadian clocks that synchronize critical biological functions with daily environmental cycles. In mammals, the circadian clock is regulated by inputs from signaling pathways including glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). The drug lithium has actions on GSK3, and also on inositol metabolism. While it is suspected that lithium's inhibition of GSK3 causes rhythm changes, it is not known if inositol polyphosphates can also affect the circadian clock. We examined whether the signaling molecule inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) has effects on circadian rhythms...
January 10, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331507/adropin-an-endocrine-link-between-the-biological-clock-and-cholesterol-homeostasis
#19
Sarbani Ghoshal, Joseph R Stevens, Cyrielle Billon, Clemence Girardet, Sadichha Sitaula, Arthur S Leon, D C Rao, James S Skinner, Tuomo Rankinen, Claude Bouchard, Marinelle V Nuñez, Kimber L Stanhope, Deborah A Howatt, Alan Daugherty, Jinsong Zhang, Matthew Schuelke, Edward P Weiss, Alisha R Coffey, Brian J Bennett, Praveen Sethupathy, Thomas P Burris, Peter J Havel, Andrew A Butler
OBJECTIVE: Identify determinants of plasma adropin concentrations, a secreted peptide translated from the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene linked to metabolic control and vascular function. METHODS: Associations between plasma adropin concentrations, demographics (sex, age, BMI) and circulating biomarkers of lipid and glucose metabolism were assessed in plasma obtained after an overnight fast in humans. The regulation of adropin expression was then assessed in silico, in cultured human cells, and in animal models...
December 30, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331244/perception-of-faunal-circadian-rhythms-depends-on-sampling-technique
#20
Raül Triay-Portella, Aitor Escribano, José G Pajuelo, Fernando Tuya
Ecologists aim at disentangling how species vary in abundance through spatial and temporal scales, using a range of sampling techniques. Here, we investigated the circadian rhythm of seagrass-associated decapod crustaceans through three sampling techniques. Specifically, we compared the abundance, biomass and structure of seagrass-associated decapod assemblages between the day and night using a hand net, an airlift pump and baited traps. At night, the hand-net consistently collected a larger total abundance and biomass of decapods, what resulted in significant diel differences, which were detected for the total biomass, but not for the total abundance, when decapods were sampled through an airlift pump...
January 5, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
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