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Endocrine disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548940/microbiota-gut-brain-axis-and-the-central-nervous-system
#1
REVIEW
Xiqun Zhu, Yong Han, Jing Du, Renzhong Liu, Ketao Jin, Wei Yi
The gut and brain form the gut-brain axis through bidirectional nervous, endocrine, and immune communications. Changes in one of the organs will affect the other organs. Disorders in the composition and quantity of gut microorganisms can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), thereby indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis. Due to the intricate interactions between the gut and the brain, gut symbiotic microorganisms are closely associated with various CNS diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis...
May 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543175/microrna-141-3p-targets-dapk1-and-inhibits-apoptosis-in-rat-ovarian-granulosa-cells
#2
Dandan Li, Duo Xu, Ying Xu, Lu Chen, Chunjin Li, Xiaowei Dai, Lili Zhang, Lianwen Zheng
The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex and heterogeneous endocrine disorder. MicroRNAs negatively regulate the expression of target genes at posttranscriptional level by binding to the 3' untranslated region of target genes. Our previous study showed that miR-141-3p was dramatically decreased in the ovaries of rat PCOS models. In this study, we aimed to characterize the target of miR-141-3p in rat ovarian granulosa cells. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay showed that cell viability was dramatically increased when miR-141-3p was overexpressed but was decreased when miR-141-3p was interfered...
May 22, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539892/the-cross-education-phenomenon-brain-and-beyond
#3
Ashlee M Hendy, Séverine Lamon
Objectives: Unilateral resistance training produces strength gains in the untrained homologous muscle group, an effect termed "cross-education." The observed strength transfer has traditionally been considered a phenomenon of the nervous system, with few studies examining the contribution of factors beyond the brain and spinal cord. In this hypothesis and theory article, we aim to discuss further evidence for structural and functional adaptations occurring within the nervous, muscle, and endocrine systems in response to unilateral resistance training...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538401/atrial-fibrillation-was-changed-into-sinus-bradycardia-in-a-ros1-positive-advanced-lung-adenocarcinoma-patient-who-achieved-durable-response-to-crizotinib-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
Lan Liu, Jing Wu, Wei Zhao, Mei-Juan Huang
RATIONAL: The c-ros oncogene 1 receptor tyrosine kinase (ROS1)-rearrangements represent a new and rare genetic subtype of non-small-cell lung cancer. In recent years, the use of crizotinib in ROS1-rearranged lung cancer exhibits significant clinical efficacy. Crizotinib is generally well tolerated and the most frequent adverse events include visual disorders, gastrointestinal disturbances, cardiac, and endocrine abnormalities. From a cardiac perspective, crizotinib is associated with 2 main cardiac effects, QT interval prolongation and bradycardia...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537653/a-novel-treatment-for-subclinical-hyperthyroidism-a-pilot-study-on-the-beneficial-effects-of-l-carnitine-and-selenium
#5
M Nordio
OBJECTIVE: The definition itself of subclinical hyperthyroidism (SHyper) and, therefore, the therapeutic approach to patients with SHyper still remains undefined and controversial. Therefore, the interest of finding a novel and alternative therapy for SHyper has caught the attention. An observational pilot study was performed to assess the effects of l-carnitine and selenium in the management of SHyper symptoms and endocrine profile in patients affected by this disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with TSH levels between 0...
May 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535943/pragmatic-approach-to-intersex-including-genital-ambiguity-in-the-newborn
#6
Kanthi Bangalore Krishna, Christopher P Houk, Peter A Lee
The evaluation and management of a newborn with ambiguous genitalia must be undertaken as quickly as possible and with great sensitivity for the child's family. Where possible, a comprehensive team approach with a pediatric urologist, endocrinologist, geneticist, neonatologist, and child psychiatrist/psychologist should work closely with the family to establish the diagnosis and determine gender. Although the preferred gender assignment is not always clear, a thorough examination of endocrine function, karyotype, and potential for fertility should guide the determination...
May 20, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533295/comparative-pathogenesis-of-autoimmune-diabetes-in-humans-nod-mice-and-canines-has-a-valuable-animal-model-of-type-1-diabetes-been-overlooked
#7
Allison L O'Kell, Clive Wasserfall, Brian Catchpole, Lucy J Davison, Rebecka S Hess, Jake A Kushner, Mark A Atkinson
Despite decades of research in humans and mouse models of disease, substantial gaps remain in our understanding of pathogenic mechanisms underlying the development of type 1 diabetes. Furthermore, translation of therapies from preclinical efforts capable of delaying or halting β-cell destruction has been limited. Hence, a pressing need exists to identify alternative animal models that reflect human disease. Canine insulin deficiency diabetes is, in some cases, considered to follow autoimmune pathogenesis, similar to NOD mice and humans, characterized by hyperglycemia requiring lifelong exogenous insulin therapy...
June 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527034/simultaneous-determination-of-selected-hormones-endocrine-disruptor-compounds-and-pesticides-in-water-medium-at-trace-levels-by-gc-ms-after-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction
#8
Dotse Selali Chormey, Çağdaş Büyükpınar, Fatma Turak, Okan Tarık Komesli, Sezgin Bakırdere
The need to enhance food safety has led to major advancements in pesticide productions, and though many benefits have been gained, environmental contamination has also risen from these chemicals that tend to persist in the environment. Some pesticides, together with other chemicals commonly called endocrine disruptor compounds, block the receptor sites of hormones or mimic displaced hormones, leading to imbalanced hormonal levels that result in health disorders and diseases. These chemicals occur at trace levels and are not directly detected by conventional analytical methods...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526959/adjuvant-tamoxifen-but-not-aromatase-inhibitor-therapy-decreases-serum-levels-of-the-wnt-inhibitor-dickkopf-1-while-not-affecting-sclerostin-in-breast-cancer-patients
#9
Andy Göbel, Jan D Kuhlmann, Theresa Link, Pauline Wimberger, Andrew J Browne, Martina Rauner, Lorenz C Hofbauer, Tilman D Rachner
PURPOSE: Endocrine therapies, including tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors, are indispensable for the treatment of patients with estrogen receptor (ER)- and/or progesterone-positive breast cancer. Whereas tamoxifen displays partial ER agonistic effects in bone, aromatase inhibitors increase bone resorption and fracture risk. The Wnt inhibitors dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) and sclerostin negatively impact bone formation and are considered targets for the treatment of bone disorders. However, the effect of endocrine therapies on serum DKK-1 and sclerostin levels in patients with primary breast cancer remains elusive...
May 19, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526280/an-overview-of-medical-risk-factors-for-childhood-psychosis-implications-for-research-and-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Marianna Giannitelli, Angèle Consoli, Marie Raffin, Renaud Jardri, Douglas F Levinson, David Cohen, Claudine Laurent-Levinson
OBJECTIVE: Psychotic disorders in childhood and early adolescence often progress to chronic schizophrenia, but in many cases there are diagnosable medical and genetic causes or risk factors. We reviewed our clinical experience and the relevant literature to identify these factors and to define their clinical features, appropriate work-up and treatment. METHOD: We reviewed the results of comprehensive medical evaluations of 160 psychotic children and adolescents in our center...
May 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524168/endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-and-the-regulation-of-energy-balance
#11
REVIEW
Angel Nadal, Ivan Quesada, Eva Tudurí, Rubén Nogueiras, Paloma Alonso-Magdalena
Energy balance involves the adjustment of food intake, energy expenditure and body fat reserves through homeostatic pathways. These pathways include a multitude of biochemical reactions, as well as hormonal cues. Dysfunction of this homeostatic control system results in common metabolism-related pathologies, which include obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism-disrupting chemicals (MDCs) are a particular class of endocrine-disrupting chemicals that affect energy homeostasis. MDCs affect multiple endocrine mechanisms and thus different cell types that are implicated in metabolic control...
May 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522293/direct-action-of-adiponectin-ameliorates-increased-androgen-synthesis-and-reduces-insulin-receptor-expression-in-the-polycystic-ovary
#12
Anusha Singh, Puran Bora, Amitabh Krishna
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine and metabolic disorder of reproductive age females, leading to infertility. Despite extensive research, the exact pathophysiology and treatment are lacking. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the direct role of adiponectin either alone or together with luteinizing hormone (LH) on sex hormone synthesis and changes in insulin receptor (IR) in the ovary of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-treated PCOS-mice. Immunohistochemical study showed decreased expression of adiponectin receptor (AdipoR1) in PCOS-ovary which correlated with increased synthesis of androgen and decreased expression of IR...
May 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521190/simultaneous-determination-of-bisphenol-a-and-estrogens-in-hair-samples-by-liquid-chromatography-electrospray-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#13
Chaelin Lee, Chong Hyeak Kim, Sunghwan Kim, Sung-Hee Cho
Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disrupter, is widely used to make chemicals for polycarbonate, plastics, beverage containers, epoxy resins, and cash register receipts. BPA is one of the known xenoestrogens, which have weak estrogenic activity and cause obesity, diabetes, breast cancer, and reproductive disorders. Even though the concentration level of metabolomes in hair is usually lower than that in urine and blood, there are several reasons why we chose to use hair samples. First, the sampling procedure of hairs is simple...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520591/stem-cell-therapy-and-its-potential-role-in-pituitary-disorders
#14
Montserrat Lara-Velazquez, Oluwaseun O Akinduro, Ronald Reimer, Whitney W Woodmansee, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The pituitary gland is one of the key components of the endocrine system. Congenital or acquired alterations can mediate destruction of cells in the gland leading to hormonal dysfunction. Even though pharmacological treatment for pituitary disorders is available, exogenous hormone replacement is neither curative nor sustainable. Thus, alternative therapies to optimize management and improve quality of life are desired. RECENT FINDINGS: An alternative modality to re-establish pituitary function is to promote endocrine cell regeneration through stem cells that can be obtained from the pituitary parenchyma or pluripotent cells...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511371/study-of-serum-total-psa-and-free-psa-as-an-oncological-marker-in-breast-tumour
#15
Elteza Tahjiba Jahir, Runi Devi, Bibhuti Bhushan Borthakur
INTRODUCTION: Breast Cancer (BC) cases are rising alarmingly all over the world and India is not an exception. This rising trend is due to an increased age at first child birth, decreased breast feeding, and the changing lifestyle mostly in urban India. With the advent of more sensitive methodologies and research works in this field, it has been suggested that Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer besides other established tumour markers...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509114/implicating-the-potential-role-of-orexin-in-hypertension
#16
REVIEW
Monika Rani, Raghuvansh Kumar, Pawan Krishan
Orexins (orexin A and orexin B), neuropeptides of hypothalamic origin also known as hypocretins, have been well documented for regulating the different physiological functions including feeding, sleep wakefulness, stress, and reward. However, from the past few years, orexins have evolved as an emerging biomarker for various endocrine disorders including diabetes mellitus and obesity which ultimately leads to various cardiovascular risk factors. Orexins exist in two isoforms orexin A and orexin B and exert their effect by acting on the G protein-coupled receptors orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) and orexin 2 receptor (OX2R)...
May 16, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508616/ultrasound-elastography-in-pediatric-congenital-hypothyroid-patients
#17
Mehmet Akif Sarıca, Tahir Dalkıran, Mehmet Sait Menzilcioğlu, Mahmut Duymuş, Nursel Yurttutan
OBJECTIVES: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is most frequently encountered in newborns as an endocrine disorder characterized by thyroid hormone deficiency, and is one of the most common reasons for preventable mental retardation. This prospective study was designed to detect the pediatric occurrences of CH followed as euthyroid, with no anomalies detected via US on the gray scale, in comparison with a pediatric group with normal levels. METHODS: A total of 42 apparently healthy children with no thyroid disorder (Group 1) and 54 euthyroid CH (Group 2) using thyroid hormone were included in this study...
September 2016: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508600/endocrine-disorders-developing-after-surgical-intervention-of-craniopharyngioma-in-children
#18
Kyrillus S Shohdy, Wegdan Rashad
Craniopharyngiomas, albeit their benign nature, can cause severe damage to visual, hypothalamic, endocrine and neurologic functions which make their total resection an inevitable approach to save the patient's life. However, significant therapy-related long term complications make those traditional treatment options debatable and hazardous. This review will focus on the various complications that affect the childrens' quality of life considerably such as, diabetes insipidus, precocious puberty and hypothalamic obesity...
March 2017: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508370/a-proteomic-evaluation-of-sympathetic-activity-biomarkers-of-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis-by-western-blotting-technique-following-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Hale Zerrin Toklu, Yasemin Sakarya, Nihal Tümer
Endocrine disorders and autonomic dysfunction are common paradigms following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis following TBI may result in impaired vasopressor response, energy imbalance, fatigue, depression, or neurological disorders. Autonomic dysfunction is a common disorder following TBI. The sympathetic activity markers on HPA axis can be measured by Western blot protein analysis. Tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine beta hydroxylase are the key enzymes for the synthesis of norepinephrine; and neuropeptide Y (NPY) is the peptide that is co-stored and co-released with norepinephrine...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507197/muscle-adipose-tissue-cross-talk
#20
Kristin I Stanford, Laurie J Goodyear
Exercise training results in adaptations to both skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue (WAT) and protects against metabolic disorders including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Exercise-induced adaptations include an altered profile of secreted proteins, both myokines (from skeletal muscle) and adipokines (from adipose tissue). These secreted proteins may act in an endocrine manner to facilitate tissue-to-tissue communication and "cross talk," likely working together to improve overall metabolic health. Some studies suggest that contracting skeletal muscles release myokines that may function to alter the phenotype of WAT, including WAT "beiging," in which there is increased expression of beige marker genes and increased presence of multilocular cells within the WAT...
May 15, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
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