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Endocrine disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742520/growth-and-pubertal-patterns-in-young-survivors-of-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#1
Sarah Elitzur, Revital Houri-Shtrecher, Michal Yackobovitz-Gavan, Galia Avrahami, Shlomit Barzilai, Gil Gilad, Yael Lebenthal, Moshe Phillip, Batia Stark, Isaac Yaniv, Shlomit Shalitin
BACKGROUND: Survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) may experience endocrine dysfunction. This study evaluated growth and pubertal patterns in survivors of childhood ALL. METHODS: Longitudinal assessment of anthropometric measurements and pubertal status was performed in a retrospective cohort of survivors (n=183). Median age at last endocrine visit was 16.1 years (range 8.2-27.6); median follow-up time was 8.7 years (range 3-21.4). RESULTS: Treatment with chemotherapy+prophylactic cranial radiation (pCRT, n=29) was associated with lower mean height standard deviation score (SDS) than chemotherapy alone (n=154) (p=0...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740534/primary-hyperparathyroidism-associated-to-thrombocytopenia-an-issue-to-consider
#2
Steven De Keukeleire, Kristoff Muylle, Georgios Tsoumalis, Stefan Vermeulen, Dirk Vogelaers
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is probably the most common endocrine disorder of the parathyroid glands, causing hypercalcemia. It is diagnosed often in persons with elevated serum calcium levels. However, hematological manifestations, such as thrombocytopenia are less known. In this case we describe the possible association of PHPT with reversible thrombocytopenia after parathyroidectomy. This hematological abnormality can be included in the spectrum of possible causes, including seemingly non-specific symptoms, in the decision tree towards surgical assessment...
January 2017: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740527/molecular-genetics-in-primary-hyperparathyroidism-the-role-of-genetic-tests-in-differential-diagnosis-disease-prevention-strategy-and-therapeutic-planning-a-2017-update
#3
REVIEW
Francesca Marini, Luisella Cianferotti, Francesca Giusti, Maria Luisa Brandi
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is one of the most frequent endocrine disease in developed countries. It mainly occurs as sporadic cases (about 90-95% of cases), while only the remaining 5-10% is represented by familial inherited parathyroid disorders due to causative mutations in specific target genes. Clinical variability among the different familial parathyroid syndromes is generally linked to the specific mutated gene and it can predispose subjects to different manifestations of parathyroid pathology, various degrees of PHPT severity, persistence and/or after-surgery recurrences...
January 2017: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735675/treatment-of-narcolepsy-and-other-organic-hypersomnias-in-children
#4
REVIEW
Suresh Kotagal
The comprehensive management of chronic disorders such as hypersomnias of childhood requires combining life-style changes with rational pharmacotherapy that is based on treating the symptoms that are most bothersome, the age, comorbidities, and metabolic and endocrine status of the patient. The excessive sleepiness of narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia is best treated with dextroamphetamine or methylphenidate preparations or modafinil/armodafinil. Cataplexy treatment requires sodium oxybate, tricyclic agents, selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors...
June 20, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735644/fasting-as-possible-complementary-approach-for-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-hope-or-hype
#5
Benito Chiofalo, Antonio Simone Laganà, Vittorio Palmara, Roberta Granese, Giacomo Corrado, Emanuela Mancini, Salvatore Giovanni Vitale, Helena Ban Frangež, Eda Vrtačnik-Bokal, Onofrio Triolo
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine system disorder among women of reproductive age. In several cases, PCOS women show infertility or subfertility and other metabolic alteration, such as insulin resistance (InsR), dyslipidaemia, hyperinsulinemia and obesity. Despite the aetiology of the syndrome is still far from be elucidated, it could be considered the result of concurrent endocrine modifications, lifestyle factors and genetic background. In particular, accumulating evidence suggests that InsR and compensatory hyperinsulinemia play a pivotal pathogenic role in the hyperandrogenism of many PCOS phenotypes, which in turn have a clear detrimental effect on chronic anovulation...
August 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733891/consequences-of-bisphenol-a-perinatal-exposure-on-immune-responses-and-gut-barrier-function-in-mice
#6
Yann Malaisé, Sandrine Ménard, Christel Cartier, Corinne Lencina, Caroline Sommer, Eric Gaultier, Eric Houdeau, Laurence Guzylack-Piriou
The potent immunomodulatory effect of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A during development and consequences during life span are of increasing concern. Particular interests have been raised from animal studies regarding the risk of developing food intolerance and infection. We aimed to identify immune disorders in mice triggered by perinatal exposure to bisphenol A. Gravid mice were orally exposed to bisphenol (50 μg/kg body weight/day) from day 15 of pregnancy until weaning. Gut barrier function, local and systemic immunity were assessed in adult female offspring...
July 21, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733877/expanding-the-spectrum-of-colonic-manifestations-in-tuberous-sclerosis-l-cell-neuroendocrine-tumor-arising-in-the-background-of-rectal-pecoma
#7
David L Kolin, Kai Duan, Bo Ngan, J Ted Gerstle, Monika K Krzyzanowska, Gino R Somers, Ozgur Mete
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous condition that predisposes to numerous proliferative lesions, including perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas), such as lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and angiomyolipomas, and rare neuroendocrine neoplasms. We describe herein a TSC2-harboring tuberous sclerosis patient manifesting with a synchronous well-differentiated L-cell rectal neuroendocrine tumor and leiomyomatosis-like LAM of the rectum. The background large bowel wall was thickened by confluent nodular areas comprising vessels and spindle-to-epithelioid cells, which are immunoreactive for myoid (smooth muscle actin, muscle specific actin, and desmin) and melanocytic markers (HMB45, Melan-A, microphthalmia transcription factor, and CD117)...
July 21, 2017: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733716/osteosarcopenia-where-bone-muscle-and-fat-collide
#8
REVIEW
H P Hirschfeld, R Kinsella, G Duque
As the world's population ages, the prevalence of chronic diseases increases. Sarcopenia and osteoporosis are two conditions that are associated with aging, with similar risk factors that include genetics, endocrine function, and mechanical factors. Additionally, bone and muscle closely interact with each other not only anatomically, but also chemically and metabolically. Fat infiltration, a phenomenon observed in age-related bone and muscle loss, is highly prevalent and more severe in sarcopenic and osteoporotic subjects...
July 22, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729012/evidence-that-children-born-at-early-term-37-38-6-7-weeks-are-at-increased-risk-for-diabetes-and-obesity-related-disorders
#9
Dorit Paz Levy, Eyal Sheiner, Tamar Wainstock, Ruslan Sergienko, Daniella Landau, Asnat Walfisch
BACKGROUND: Prematurity is known to be associated with high rates of endocrine and metabolic complications in the offspring. Early term (37 0/7-38 6/7 weeks' gestation) born offspring were also shown to exhibit long term morbidity resembling that of late preterm, in several health categories. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether early term delivery impacts on the long-term endocrine and metabolic health of the offspring. STUDY DESIGN: A population-based cohort analysis was performed, including all term singleton deliveries occurring during 1991-2013 at a single regional tertiary medical center...
July 17, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724177/natural-molecules-for-the-therapy-of-hyperandrogenism-and-metabolic-disorders-in-pcos
#10
V Cappelli, M C Musacchio, A Bulfoni, G Morgante, V De Leo
OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy of women of reproductive age and a complex endocrine condition, due to its heterogeneity and uncertainty about its etiology. However, PCOS is also associated with other metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and diabetes. There are few medications that are approved for the most common symptoms of PCOS, leading to the off-label use of medications that were approved for other indications...
June 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723348/central-serotonin-attenuates-lps-induced-systemic-inflammation
#11
Clarissa M D Mota, Caroline Rodrigues-Santos, Rodrigo A R Fernández, Ruither O G Carolino, José Antunes-Rodrigues, Janete A Anselmo-Franci, Luiz G S Branco
Serotonin (5-HT) is a neuromodulator involved in several central-mediated mechanisms, such as endocrine processes, behavior, and sleep. Dysfunction of the serotonergic system is mainly linked to psychiatric disorders, but emerging evidence suggests that immune system activation may also alter brain 5-HT signaling. However, whether central 5-HT modulates systemic inflammation (SI) remains unknown. For this purpose, male Wistar rats (280-350 g, 8-9 weeks) were submitted to the experimental protocols beginning between 9 and 10 AM with the performance of injections...
July 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721156/obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-hormones-a-novel-insight
#12
Marek Ruchała, Barbara Bromińska, Ewa Cyrańska-Chyrek, Barbara Kuźnar-Kamińska, Magdalena Kostrzewska, Halina Batura-Gabryel
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a disorder characterized by repetitive collapse of the upper respiratory tract during sleep, occurs in about 4% of middle-aged men and 2% of women. The incidence of the disorder is rising due to an increase in obesity and ageing of the population. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea are at elevated risk of some endocrinal and metabolic disorders, which may lead to serious consequences including shortening of life expectancy. The recognition and understanding of interactions between local upper airway dysfunction and its endocrinal consequences is therefore vital...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720389/exposure-to-pesticide-as-a-risk-factor-for-depression-a-population-based-longitudinal-study-in-korea
#13
Sang-Baek Koh, Tae Hui Kim, Seongho Min, Kyungsuk Lee, Dae Ryong Kang, Jung Ran Choi
BACKGROUND: Exposure to pesticides is associated with mental disorders, including depression, especially among occupationally exposed populations, such as farmers. The results of experimental studies ascribed the negative effects of pesticides on mental health to their neurotoxic and endocrine-disrupting activities. PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the association between the risk of depression and high- or low-level exposure to pesticides in a rural population...
July 15, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710390/conformational-transitions-of-the-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-receptor-a-human-class-b-gpcr
#14
Chenyi Liao, Xiaochuan Zhao, Matthias Brewer, Victor May, Jianing Li
The G protein-coupled pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptor (PAC1R) is a potential therapeutic target for endocrine, metabolic and stress-related disorders. However, many questions regarding the protein structure and dynamics of PAC1R remain largely unanswered. Using microsecond-long simulations, we examined the open and closed PAC1R conformations interconnected within an ensemble of transitional states. The open-to-closed transition can be initiated by "unzipping" the extracellular domain and the transmembrane domain, mediated by a unique segment within the β3-β4 loop...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709115/development-and-validation-of-the-korea-dementia-comorbidity-index-kdci-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study-from-2002-to-2013
#15
Jae-Hyun Kim, Ki-Bong Yoo, Yunhwan Lee
This study develop and validate a simple and accessible measure of comorbidity, named the Korean Dementia Comorbidity index (KDCI), to assist in predicting the onset of dementia. This study used the National Health Insurance Service-Cohort Sample Database from 2002 to 2013 (n=23,856). Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate incident dementia (International Classification of Disease, 10th edition (ICD-10) codes: F00-F03, G30, G311), with a hazard ratio higher than 1.05 for each comorbid condition being assigned a score...
September 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706407/incidence-of-oral-lichen-planus-in-perimenopausal-women-a-cross-sectional-study-in-western-uttar-pradesh-population
#16
Ravi Prakash Sasankoti Mohan, Akanksha Gupta, Nagaraju Kamarthi, Sangeeta Malik, Sumit Goel, Swati Gupta
BACKGROUND: Hormonal fluctuations during menopause lead to endocrine changes in women, especially in their sex steroid hormone production. Studies have documented the role of estrogen and progesterone (Pg) on autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis. Lichen planus (LP), an autoimmune disorder, seen frequently in perimenopausal women, may also get affected by sex steroid hormones, but no direct relationship has been established yet...
April 2017: Journal of Mid-life Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704095/sarcopenia-an-endocrine-disorder
#17
Alexis McKee, John E Morley, Alvin M Matsumoto, Aaron Vinik
Sarcopenia is defined as low muscle function (walking speed or grip strength) in the presence of low muscle mass. A simple screening test - the SARC-F - is available to identify persons with sarcopenia. The major endocrine causes of sarcopenia are diabetes mellitus and male hypogonadism. Other causes are decreased physical activity, loss of motor neuron units, weight loss, inflammatory cytokines, reduced blood flow to muscles, very low 25(OH) vitamin D levels and decreased growth hormone and IGF-1. Treatment for sarcopenia includes resistance and aerobic exercise, leucine enriched essential amino acids, and vitamin D...
July 13, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702961/cutaneous-manifestations-in-steinert%C3%A2-s-disease-apropos-of-four-clinical-cases
#18
F Cona, J Lotti, M Fioranelli, M G Roccia, T Lotti, C Guarneri
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (MD1) (OMIM 160900, Steinert disease) is the most common muscular disease, with an estimated worldwide prevalence ranging from 0.5 to 18/10,000 (1). MD1 is an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder that affects skeletal and smooth muscles as well as eyes, heart, endocrine system, and central nervous system. Available data on skin and adnexal involvement that has been demonstrated as a hallmark of the neurological disease are still poor. The aim of this case report-based, mini review on MD1 and skin is to highlight the importance of such superficial signs to be easily detected in the physical examination, and to evaluate the occurrence of these cutaneous manifestations in presence of various degrees of the disease and gene mutations...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696848/an-interventionist-s-guide-to-endocrine-consultations
#19
Eric J Monroe, Benjamin W Carney, Christopher R Ingraham, Guy E Johnson, Karim Valji
Endocrinopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders often resulting from pathologic sources of hormone production. When the clinical scenario, laboratory testing, and noninvasive imaging fail to aid confident identification of the source of hormone excess, endocrine venous sampling may localize obscure lesions to guide subsequent treatment. Knowledge of basic hormone signaling pathways, common pathophysiologic disruptions of these pathways, and serologic evaluation fosters informed conversations with referring physicians and effective patient selection...
July 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694773/loud-noise-exposure-produces-dna-neurotransmitter-and-morphological-damage-within-specific-brain-areas
#20
Giada Frenzilli, Larisa Ryskalin, Michela Ferrucci, Emanuela Cantafora, Silvia Chelazzi, Filippo S Giorgi, Paola Lenzi, Vittoria Scarcelli, Alessandro Frati, Francesca Biagioni, Stefano Gambardella, Alessandra Falleni, Francesco Fornai
Exposure to loud noise is a major environmental threat to public health. Loud noise exposure, apart from affecting the inner ear, is deleterious for cardiovascular, endocrine and nervous systems and it is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study we investigated DNA, neurotransmitters and immune-histochemical alterations induced by exposure to loud noise in three major brain areas (cerebellum, hippocampus, striatum) of Wistar rats. Rats were exposed to loud noise (100 dBA) for 12 h. The effects of noise on DNA integrity in all three brain areas were evaluated by using Comet assay...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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