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Endocrine disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105733/vitamin-d-supplementation-for-sickle-cell-disease
#1
REVIEW
Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe, Adinegara Bl Abas, Nan Nitra Than, Han Ni, Jaspal Singh, Abdul Razzak Bin Mohd Said, Ifeyinwa Osunkwo
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is a genetic chronic haemolytic and pro-inflammatory disorder. The clinical manifestations of sickle cell disease result from the presence of mutations on the beta globin genes that generate an abnormal haemoglobin product (called haemoglobin S) within the red blood cell. Sickle cell disease can lead to many complications such as acute chest syndrome, stroke, acute and chronic bone complications (including painful vaso-occlusive crisis, osteomyelitis, osteonecrosis and osteoporosis)...
January 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105333/animal-models-for-the-study-of-primary-and-secondary-hypertension-in-humans
#2
Hiu Yu Lin, Yee Ting Lee, Yin Wah Chan, Gary Tse
Hypertension is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is defined as systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP/DBP) >140 and 90 mmHg, respectively. Individuals with an SBP between 120 and 139, or DBP between 80 and 89 mmHg, are said to exhibit pre-hypertension. Hypertension can have primary or secondary causes. Primary or essential hypertension is a multifactorial disease caused by interacting environmental and polygenic factors. Secondary causes are renovascular hypertension, renal disease, endocrine disorders and other medical conditions...
December 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101307/review-and-recommendations-on-management-of-adult-female-thalassemia-patients-with-hypogonadism-based-on-literature-review-and-experience-of-icet-a-network-specialists
#3
REVIEW
Vincenzo De Sanctis, Ashraf T Soliman, Heba Elsedfy, Alice Albu, Soad Al Jaouni, Salvatore Anastasi, Maria Grazia Bisconte, Duran Canatan, Soteroula Christou, Shahina Daar, Salvatore Di Maio, Mohamed El Kholy, Doaa Khater, Mohamed Elshinawy, Yurdanur Kilinc, Roberto Mattei, Hala H Mosli, Alessandra Quota, Maria Grazia Roberti, Praveen Sobti, Saif Al Yaarubi, Saveria Canpisi, Christos Kattamis
BACKGROUND: Multi-transfused thalassemia major (TM) patients frequently develop severe endocrine complications, mainly due to iron overload, anemia, and chronic liver disease, which require prompt diagnosis, treatment and follow-up by specialists. The most common endocrine complication documented is hypogonadotropic hypogonadism which increases with age and associated comorbidities. It is thus important for physicians to have a clear understanding of the pathophysiology and management of this disorder...
2017: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096541/the-mucosal-immune-system-master-regulator-of-bidirectional-gut-brain-communications
#4
REVIEW
Nick Powell, Marjorie M Walker, Nicholas J Talley
Communication between the brain and gut is not one-way, but a bidirectional highway whereby reciprocal signals between the two organ systems are exchanged to coordinate function. The messengers of this complex dialogue include neural, metabolic, endocrine and immune mediators responsive to diverse environmental cues, including nutrients and components of the intestinal microbiota (microbiota-gut-brain axis). We are now starting to understand how perturbation of these systems affects transition between health and disease...
January 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093507/mosaic-expression-of-atrx-in-the-central-nervous-system-causes-memory-deficits
#5
Renee J Tamming, Jennifer R Siu, Yan Jiang, Marco A M Prado, Frank Beier, Nathalie G Bérubé
The rapid modulation of chromatin organization is thought to play a critical role in cognitive processes such as memory consolidation. This is supported in part by the dysregulation of many chromatin remodeling proteins in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. A key example is ATRX, an X-linked gene commonly mutated in individuals with syndromic and non-syndromic intellectual disability (ID). The consequences of Atrx inactivation on learning and memory have been difficult to evaluate due to the early lethality of hemizygous-null animals...
January 12, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093219/a-mixed-glucocorticoid-mineralocorticoid-receptor-modulator-dampens-endocrine-and-hippocampal-stress-responsivity-in-male-rats
#6
Elizabeth T Nguyen, Joshua Streicher, Sarah Berman, Jody L Caldwell, Valentina Ghisays, Christina M Estrada, Aynara C Wulsin, Matia B Solomon
Aberrant glucocorticoid secretion is implicated in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders (i.e., depression, anxiety). Glucocorticoids exert biological effects via mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptors. Previous data from our laboratory indicate that GR antagonism/modulation (i.e., mifepristone, CORT 108297) regulate endocrine, behavioral, and central stress responses. Because of the dynamic interplay between MR and GR on HPA axis regulation and emotionality, compounds targeting both receptors are of interest for stress-related pathology...
January 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081510/gestational-and-lactational-exposure-to-di-isobutyl-phthalate-via-diet-in-maternal-mice-decreases-testosterone-levels-in-male-offspring
#7
Xiaoyang Wang, Nan Sheng, Ruina Cui, Hongxia Zhang, Jianshe Wang, Jiayin Dai
Phthalates are a large family of ubiquitous environmental chemicals suspected of being endocrine disruptors, with exposure to these chemicals during prenatal and postnatal development possibly resulting in reproductive disorders. Di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP) is widely used in consumer and industrial products, and although its exposure in the general population has increased in recent years, the mechanisms behind DiBP-induced reproductive disorders in male offspring remain unclear. Here, pregnant mice were exposed to 0 or 450 mg/kg bw/day DiBP via diet from gestation day (GD) 0 to GD21...
January 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078856/decreased-immunoreactivity-of-visfatin-in-the-pancreas-and-liver-of-rats-with-renovascular-hypertension
#8
Ż Piotrowska, I Janiuk, A Lewandowska, I Kasacka
Hypertension is one of the major endocrine and metabolic disorders, in which visfatin plays a significant role. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunoreactivity of visfatin in pancreas and liver of “two kidney, one clip” (2K1C) renovascular hypertension model in rats. The studies were carried out on the pancreas and liver of rats. After a 6-week period of the renal artery clipping procedure, 2K1C rats developed a stable hypertension. Paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (for general histological examination) and processed for immunolocalization of visfatin...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078850/acupuncture-in-endocrine-disorders-a-critical-appraisal
#9
Y Z Deng, L B Li, L G Xu, D Zhou, L J Wei, Y Liu
Acupuncture is an integral part of ancient Chinese medical practice. The technique has been used extensively in pain relief and is being tried for many other chronic conditions. Industrial development and affluence lead to the increase in the prevalence of many endocrine disorders such as diabetes, obesity, and polycystic ovarian disease. The rising prevalence of the endocrine morbidity is observed in both the developing and developed nations. The management of these disorders involves major lifestyle modification coupled with a long-term drug intake...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077754/double-blinded-randomised-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial-of-individualised-homeopathic-treatment-of-hyperthyroid-cats
#10
A L Bodey, C J Almond, M A Holmes
Feline hyperthyroidism is a common endocrine disorder in older cats for which homeopathic treatment has been advocated. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomised trial was performed to look for evidence of efficacy for the use of individualised homeopathy in the treatment of this disease. Using a case definition of a concentration of the thyroid hormone T4 >66 nmol/l, cats were randomised into two treatment arms. Either a placebo or a homeopathic treatment was given to each cat blindly. After 21 days, the T4 levels, weight (Wt) and heart rate (HR) were compared with pretreatment values...
January 11, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074218/-autoimmune-diseases-of-the-thyroid-gland
#11
S Allelein, J Feldkamp, M Schott
Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland are considered to be the most frequent cause of thyroid gland disorders. Autoimmune thyroid diseases consist of two subgroups: autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) and Graves' disease. The AIT is the most common human autoimmune disease. Infiltration of the thyroid gland with cytotoxic T‑cells can lead to an initial thyrotoxicosis und during the course to hypothyroidism due to destruction of the thyroid gland. Substitution with Levothyroxine is indicated for manifest hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism with increased thyroid antibodies with the intention of normalizing the serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)...
January 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072956/-clinical-and-immunological-analysis-of-the-patient-with-autoimmunity-due-to-germline-stat3-gain-of-function-mutation
#12
Y Ding, Y Zhang, Y P Wang, H Y Zhao, X M Chen, X H Xue, X M Bai, Y F An, Z Y Zhang, X M Tang, X D Zhao
Objective: To investigate the clinical and immunological laboratory features and gene mutation in a female patient who carried a germline gain-of-function mutation in STAT3. Method: A patient with lymphadenopathy and pancytopenia, visited the Department of Rheumatology and Immunology of Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University in May 2016. The clinical and laboratory characteristics, results of immunophenotyping and exome sequencing were analyzed retrospectively and related literature was reviewed...
January 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070801/a-comparison-of-sexual-function-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos-whose-mothers-had-pcos-during-their-pregnancy-period-with-those-without-pcos
#13
Mahsa Noroozzadeh, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani, Mahnaz Bahri Khomami, Fereidoun Azizi
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women during reproductive ages. Clinical symptoms associated with PCOS, such as hirsutism, acne, alopecia, obesity, and infertility, may lead to emotional morbidity and then impaired sexual function in those affected. During intrauterine development, the fetus may program the development of diseases during adulthood. In this study, we aimed to examine sexual function in women with PCOS, exposed to maternal androgen excess during their prenatal life compared to non-exposed PCOS patients...
January 9, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070798/does-vitamin-d-play-a-role-in-autoimmune-endocrine-disorders-a-proof-of-concept
#14
REVIEW
Barbara Altieri, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Luigi Barrea, Chantal Mathieu, Carla V Vallone, Luca Mascitelli, Giorgia Bizzaro, Vincenzo M Altieri, Giacomo Tirabassi, Giancarlo Balercia, Silvia Savastano, Nicola Bizzaro, Cristina L Ronchi, Annamaria Colao, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Silvia Della Casa
In the last few years, more attention has been given to the "non-calcemic" effect of vitamin D. Several observational studies and meta-analyses demonstrated an association between circulating levels of vitamin D and outcome of many common diseases, including endocrine diseases, chronic diseases, cancer progression, and autoimmune diseases. In particular, cells of the immune system (B cells, T cells, and antigen presenting cells), due to the expression of 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), are able to synthesize the active metabolite of vitamin D, which shows immunomodulatory properties...
January 9, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070760/the-generation-r-study-design-and-cohort-update-2017
#15
Marjolein N Kooijman, Claudia J Kruithof, Cornelia M van Duijn, Liesbeth Duijts, Oscar H Franco, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Johan C de Jongste, Caroline C W Klaver, Aad van der Lugt, Johan P Mackenbach, Henriëtte A Moll, Robin P Peeters, Hein Raat, Edmond H H M Rings, Fernando Rivadeneira, Marc P van der Schroeff, Eric A P Steegers, Henning Tiemeier, André G Uitterlinden, Frank C Verhulst, Eppo Wolvius, Janine F Felix, Vincent W V Jaddoe
The Generation R Study is a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until adulthood. The study is designed to identify early environmental and genetic causes and causal pathways leading to normal and abnormal growth, development and health from fetal life, childhood and young adulthood. This multidisciplinary study focuses on several health outcomes including behaviour and cognition, body composition, eye development, growth, hearing, heart and vascular development, infectious disease and immunity, oral health and facial growth, respiratory health, allergy and skin disorders of children and their parents...
December 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070481/lung-adenocarcinoma-and-adrenocortical-carcinoma-in-a-patient-with-multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-type-1
#16
Nobumasa Ohara, Masanori Kaneko, Masahiro Ikeda, Fumio Ishizaki, Kazuya Suzuki, Ryo Maruyama, Takeshi Komeyama, Kazuhiro Sato, Kenichi Togashi, Hiroyuki Usuda, Yuto Yamazaki, Hironobu Sasano, Kenzo Kaneko, Kyuzi Kamoi
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by heterozygous germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene MEN1, which encodes a nuclear protein, menin. MEN1 is characterized by the combined occurrence of tumors involving the pituitary gland, pancreatic islets, and parathyroid glands. Additionally, patients with MEN1 often exhibit adrenal tumors. Although most MEN1-associated tumors are benign, malignant lesions arising in these endocrine organs have been reported. Additionally, malignant diseases of non-endocrine organs concomitant with MEN1 have also been reported...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068486/the-changing-epidemiology-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#17
Kristen Lyall, Lisa Croen, Julie Daniels, M Daniele Fallin, Christine Ladd-Acosta, Brian K Lee, Bo Y Park, Nathaniel W Snyder, Diana Schendel, Heather E Volk, Gayle C Windham, Craig Newschaffer
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition with lifelong impacts. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to ASD etiology, which remains incompletely understood. Research on ASD epidemiology has made significant advances in the past decade. Current prevalence is estimated to be at least 1.5% in developed countries, with recent increases primarily among those without comorbid intellectual disability. Genetic studies have identified a number of rare de novo mutations and gained footing in the areas of polygenic risk, epigenetics, and gene-by-environment interaction...
December 21, 2016: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063509/function-of-obestatin-in-the-digestive-system
#18
REVIEW
Yue-Xian Xing, Liu Yang, Hong-Yu Kuang, Xin-Yuan Gao, Hao-Ling Liu
Physical health has a direct relationship with digestive function. Any abnormalities in the link may cause malnutrition, endocrine disorders, and the decline of organ functions. Obestatin, a biologically active peptide, is encoded by the ghrelin gene. Most studies suggest that obestatin is a pleiotropic peptide, which acts by suppressing the motility of the gastrointestinal tract, regulating the secretion of insulin, reducing inflammation and apoptosis, and promoting proliferation. These characteristics suggest that obestatin may represent an efficient way to prevent the occurrence and development of some digestive diseases...
February 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056748/pro-inflammation-cytokines-new-potential-therapeutic-targets-for-obesity-related-bone-disorders
#19
Tian Tian Wang, Chenglin Qi He, Xi Jie Yu
Obesity was traditionally thought as a positive regulator on the strength of bone. With the in-depth study, obesity is considered as a major risk factor for osteoporosis. Some pro-inflammation cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are the factors that fat uses to negatively regulate bone metabolism. Obese people and animals show a higher level of serum TNF-α and IL-6, which are produced by macrophages derived from adipose tissue. These pro-inflammation cytokines regulate the proliferation and apoptosis of adipocyte, promote lipolysis, inhibit lipid synthesis and decrease blood lipids through autocrine and paracrine way...
January 4, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054988/recent-update-on-the-role-of-chinese-material-medica-and-formulations-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#20
REVIEW
Sandeep Vasant More, In-Su Kim, Dong-Kug Choi
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent endocrine disorders, affecting populations worldwide. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most frequent microvascular complication of diabetes in patients aged 20 and over. Major complications of DR include intraocular neovascularization, inter-retinal edema, hemorrhage, exudates and microaneurysms. Therefore, timely medical attention and prevention are required. At present, laser-assisted therapy and other operational procedures are the most common treatment for DR...
January 4, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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