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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944932/new-treatment-for-non-hodgkin-b-cell-lymphomas-with-a-special-focus-on-the-impact-of-junctional-adhesion-molecules
#1
Beat Albert Imhof, Thomas Matthes
Current therapeutic modalities used for B-cell lymphoma include chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and radiation therapy. Chemotherapy together with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies forms the cornerstone of therapy and has a curative, as well as a palliative, role in this disease. New treatment modalities targeting specific molecules on the surface of lymphoma cells or intracellular pathways regulating apoptosis, proliferation and cell division are intensively investigated. One such target is JAM-C, a molecule implicated in cell adhesion and in B cell migration and whose inhibition blocks B cells from reaching their supportive microenvironments in lymphoid organs...
September 25, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944501/synergistic-effects-of-interferon-beta-and-nivolumab-in-oral-mucosal-melanoma
#2
Takayuki Fusumae, Koji Kamiya, Binluen Chiang, Hirofumi Okada, Naomi Nakano, Takeo Maekawa, Mayumi Komine, Satoru Murata, Mamitaro Ohtsuki
Mucosal melanoma is a rare aggressive cancer with a very poor prognosis. Clinical and pathological characteristics of mucosal melanoma differ from those of cutaneous melanoma and there are no established management guidelines for mucosal melanoma. Complete surgical excision is one of the most effective treatments for localized lesions, while targeted therapies and immunotherapies, such as monoclonal antibodies that target cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated molecule-4, and the programmed death (PD)-1/PD-ligand 1 pathway inhibitors, are treatment options for unresectable or metastatic lesions...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943274/gene-therapy-induced-antigen-specific-tregs-inhibit-neuro-inflammation-and-reverse-disease-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Geoffrey D Keeler, Sandeep Kumar, Brett Palaschak, Emily L Silverberg, David M Markusic, Noah T Jones, Brad E Hoffman
The devastating neurodegenerative disease multiple sclerosis (MS) could substantially benefit from an adeno-associated virus (AAV) immunotherapy designed to restore a robust and durable antigen-specific tolerance. However, developing a sufficiently potent and lasting immune-regulatory therapy that can intervene in ongoing disease is a major challenge and has thus been elusive. We addressed this problem by developing a highly effective and robust tolerance-inducing in vivo gene therapy. Using a pre-clinical animal model, we designed a liver-targeting gene transfer vector that expresses full-length myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in hepatocytes...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940458/eaaci-guidelines-on-allergen-immunotherapy-allergic-rhinoconjunctivitis
#4
G Roberts, O Pfaar, C A Akdis, I J Ansotegui, S R Durham, R Gerth van Wijk, S Halken, D Larenas-Linnemann, R Pawankar, C Pitsios, A Sheikh, M Worm, S Arasi, M A Calderon, C Cingi, S Dhami, J L Fauquert, E Hamelmann, P Hellings, L Jacobsen, E F Knol, S Y Lin, P Maggina, R Mösges, H Oude Elberin, G B Pajno, E A Pastorello, M Penagos, G Rotiroti, C B Schmidt-Weber, F Timmermans, O Tsilochristou, E M Varga, J N Wilkinson, A Williams, L Zhang, I Agache, E Angier, M Fernandez-Rivas, M Jutel, S Lau, R van Ree, D Ryan, G Sturm, A Muraro
Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR) is an allergic disorder of the nose and eyes affecting about a fifth of the general population. Symptoms of AR can be controlled with allergen avoidance measures and pharmacotherapy. However, many patients continue to have ongoing symptoms and an impaired quality of life; pharmacotherapy may also induce some side-effects. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) represents the only currently available treatment that targets the underlying pathophysiology and it may have a disease modifying effect...
September 23, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940439/detection-of-abcb5-tumour-antigen-specific-cd8-t-cells-in-melanoma-patients-and-implications-for-immunotherapy
#5
Sylvia Borchers, Christoph Masslo, Christina Ann Müller, Anika Tahedl, Jennifer Volkind, Yvonne Nowak, Viktor Umansky, Jasmina Esterlechner, Markus Hermann Frank, Christoph Ganss, Mark Andreas Kluth, Jochen Utikal
ABCB5 has been identified as a tumour initiating cell marker and is expressed in various malignancies, including melanoma. Moreover, treatment with anti-ABCB5 monoclonal antibodies has been shown to inhibit tumour growth in xenotransplantation models. Therefore, ABCB5 represents a potential target for cancer immunotherapy. However, cellular immune responses against ABCB5 in humans have not been described so far. Here, we investigated whether ABCB5-reactive T cells are present in human melanoma patients and tested the applicability of ABCB5-derived peptides for experimental induction of human T cell responses...
September 23, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939757/pd-1-blockade-promotes-epitope-spreading-in-anticancer-cd8-t-cell-responses-by-preventing-fratricidal-death-of-subdominant-clones-to-relieve-immunodomination
#6
Arash Memarnejadian, Courtney E Meilleur, Christopher R Shaler, Khashayarsha Khazaie, Jack R Bennink, Todd D Schell, S M Mansour Haeryfar
The interactions between programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligands hamper tumor-specific CD8(+) T cell (TCD8) responses, and PD-1-based "checkpoint inhibitors" have shown promise in certain cancers, thus revitalizing interest in immunotherapy. PD-1-targeted therapies reverse TCD8 exhaustion/anergy. However, whether they alter the epitope breadth of TCD8 responses remains unclear. This is an important question because subdominant TCD8 are more likely than immunodominant clones to escape tolerance mechanisms and may contribute to protective anticancer immunity...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939663/hepatoma-intrinsic-ccrk-inhibition-diminishes-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cell-immunosuppression-and-enhances-immune-checkpoint-blockade-efficacy
#7
Jingying Zhou, Man Liu, Hanyong Sun, Yu Feng, Liangliang Xu, Anthony W H Chan, Joanna H Tong, John Wong, Charing Ching Ning Chong, Paul B S Lai, Hector Kwong-Sang Wang, Shun-Wa Tsang, Tyler Goodwin, Rihe Liu, Leaf Huang, Zhiwei Chen, Joseph Jy Sung, King Lau Chow, Ka Fai To, Alfred Sze-Lok Cheng
OBJECTIVE: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) contribute to tumour immunosuppressive microenvironment and immune-checkpoint blockade resistance. Emerging evidence highlights the pivotal functions of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) in tumour immunity. Here we elucidated the role of tumour-intrinsic CDK20, or cell cycle-related kinase (CCRK) on immunosuppression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). DESIGN: Immunosuppression of MDSCs derived from patients with HCC and relationship with CCRK were determined by flow cytometry, expression analyses and co-culture systems...
September 22, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938090/small-molecule-targets-in-immuno-oncology
#8
REVIEW
Dashyant Dhanak, James P Edwards, Ancho Nguyen, Peter J Tummino
Advances in understanding the role and molecular mechanisms underlying immune surveillance and control of (pre)malignancies is revolutionizing clinical practice in the treatment of cancer. Presently, multiple biologic drugs targeting the immune checkpoint proteins PD(L)1 or CTLA4 have been approved and/or are in advanced stages of clinical development for many cancers. In addition, combination therapy with these agents and other immunomodulators is being intensively explored with the aim of improving primary response rates or prolonging overall survival...
September 21, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935017/-role-of-hippo-signaling-pathway-in-lung-cancer
#9
Yuechao Liu, Ying Xing, Li Cai
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related mortality in the world, with more than 1 million deaths per year, accounting for about one fifth of all cancer deaths worldwide. Over the past years, lung cancer treatment has been based on surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapies, and immunotherapy, but the improvement is not very perfect. Therefore, it has become clear that additional therapeutic strategies are urgently required to provide an improved survival benefit for patients. In recent years, Hippo signaling pathway has become a popular direction in the field of cancer research...
September 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933579/innate-immune-cells-for-immunotherapy-of-autoimmune-and-cancer-disorders
#10
Carolina Schäfer, Gabriel Ascui, Carolina H Ribeiro, Mercedes López, Rafael Prados-Rosales, Pablo A González, Susan M Bueno, Claudia A Riedel, Andrés Baena, Alexis M Kalergis, Leandro J Carreño
Modulation of the immune system has been widely targeted for the treatment of several immune-related diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and cancer, due to its crucial role in these pathologies. Current available therapies focus mainly on symptomatic treatment and are often associated with undesirable secondary effects. For several years, remission of disease and subsequently recovery of immune homeostasis has been a major goal for immunotherapy. Most current immunotherapeutic strategies are aimed to inhibit or potentiate directly the adaptive immune response by modulating antibody production and B cell memory, as well as the effector potential and memory of T cells...
September 21, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932636/cd103-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-are-tumor-reactive-intraepithelial-cd8-t-cells-associated-with-prognostic-benefit-and-therapy-response-in-cervical-cancer
#11
Fenne L Komdeur, Thalina M Prins, Stephanie van de Wall, Annechien Plat, G Bea A Wisman, Harry Hollema, Toos Daemen, David N Church, Marco de Bruyn, Hans W Nijman
Human papilloma virus (HPV)-induced cervical cancer constitutively expresses viral E6/E7 oncoproteins and is an excellent target for T cell-based immunotherapy. However, not all tumor-infiltrating T cells confer equal benefit to patients, with epithelial T cells being superior to stromal T cells. To assess whether the epithelial T cell biomarker CD103 could specifically discriminate the beneficial antitumor T cells, association of CD103 with clinicopathological variables and outcome was analyzed in the TCGA cervical cancer data set (n = 304) and by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in an independent cohort (n = 460)...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932079/nano-albumin-bound-paclitaxel-in-pancreatic-cancer-current-evidences-and-future-directions
#12
REVIEW
Guido Giordano, Massimo Pancione, Nunzio Olivieri, Pietro Parcesepe, Marianna Velocci, Tania Di Raimo, Luigi Coppola, Giuseppe Toffoli, Mario Rosario D'Andrea
Pancreatic cancer (PDAC) is an aggressive and chemoresistant disease, representing the fourth cause of cancer related deaths in western countries. Majority of patients have unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic disease at time of diagnosis and the 5-year survival rate in these conditions is extremely low. For more than a decade gemcitabine has been the cornerstone of metastatic PDAC treatment, although survival benefit was very poor. PDAC cells are surrounded by an intense desmoplastic reaction that may create a barrier to the drugs penetration within the tumor...
August 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931514/melanoma-drugs-effective-as-adjuvants
#13
(no author information available yet)
BRAF-targeted strategies and PD-1-blocking immunotherapy are more effective adjuvant therapies than currently approved options for patients with high-risk resectable melanoma. However, choosing the best agent for patients with BRAF-mutated disease remains a challenge.
September 20, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931402/recent-advances-of-bispecific-antibodies-in-solid-tumors
#14
REVIEW
Shengnan Yu, Anping Li, Qian Liu, Xun Yuan, Hanxiao Xu, Dechao Jiao, Richard G Pestell, Xinwei Han, Kongming Wu
Cancer immunotherapy is the most exciting advancement in cancer therapy. Similar to immune checkpoint blockade and chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T), bispecific antibody (BsAb) is attracting more and more attention as a novel strategy of antitumor immunotherapy. BsAb not only offers an effective linkage between therapeutics (e.g., immune effector cells, radionuclides) and targets (e.g., tumor cells) but also simultaneously blocks two different oncogenic mediators. In recent decades, a variety of BsAb formats have been generated...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931331/an-overview-of-fda-approved-vaccines-their-innovators
#15
Rebekah H Griesenauer, Michael S Kinch
A survey of FDA-approved biologicals focused upon the development of immunotherapies over time to gain insight on the challenges and trends of vaccine development today. Areas covered: A total of 135 different immune-based therapies were broadly divided into passive or active immunotherapies. Whereas just over half of passive immunotherapies targeted infectious diseases, the vast majority of active immunotherapy products (vaccines) were directed against a handful of viral and bacterial pathogens. We also analyze changes in vaccine strategy, including the use of viable antigens and subunit approaches...
September 25, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930600/line-1-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#16
Nadine Houede, Pier Vincenzo Piazza, Philippe Pourquier
Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of death by cancer in men. Surgery or hormone deprivation usually contains the progression of the local forms of the disease. In metastatic situations, chemotherapy or second generation hormone therapies are used with an overall survival that never exceeds 36 months when tumors become resistant to castration. In the search for new alternatives, clinical trials with various classes of anticancer drugs have been performed, including chemotherapies, targeted therapies with kinase inhibitors, radium-223, or immunotherapies with somehow limited efficacy...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929820/high-dose-interleukin-2-il-2-for-the-treatment-of-melanoma-safety-considerations-and-future-directions
#17
Stephen Marabondo, Howard L Kaufman
In 1998, high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) was the first immunotherapy approved for the treatment of metastatic melanoma based on durable objective responses documented in a subset of patients but widespread utilization was limited by significant toxicity. Advances in targeted therapy and the emergence of T cell checkpoint inhibitors, which can generally be given in the ambulatory setting, have further limited consideration of IL-2 for melanoma patients and the role of IL-2 in the current landscape of melanoma treatment is uncertain...
September 20, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928270/the-evolving-role-of-the-rheumatologist-in-the-management-of-immune-related-adverse-events-iraes-caused-by-cancer-immunotherapy
#18
EDITORIAL
Leonard Calabrese, Xavier Mariette
The rapid introduction of immunotherapies for cancer-targeting immunological checkpoints has led to a new class of toxicities that appear to be of autoimmune and or autoinflammatory origin. These disorders are now referred to as immune-related adverse events (irAEs) and pose considerable challenges to patient care in terms of how to optimally manage these formidable toxicities while allowing effective antitumoural therapy to continue. While rheumatologists will naturally be called on to manage those irAEs of rheumatic origin, we believe there is a need and an opportunity for rheumatologists to participate as central figures in this evolving field, in large part because of our familiarity with multiorgan autoimmune disease and our expertise in crafting and utilising both traditional and biological immune-based therapies...
September 19, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927823/t-cell-therapies-for-human-polyomavirus-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Sarah I Davies, Pawel Muranski
Rapid restoration of virus-specific T immunity via adoptive transfer of ex vivo generated T cells has been proven as a powerful therapy for patients with advanced cancers and refractory viral infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). BK virus (BKV), John Cunningham virus (JCV), and Merkel cell carcinoma virus (MCV) are the members of the rapidly growing human polyomavirus (hPyV) family that commonly infects most healthy humans. These viruses have a clearly established potential for causing severe end-organ damage or malignant transformation, especially in individuals with weakened immunity who are unable to mount or regain endogenous T-cell responses as a result of underlying leukemia or iatrogenic immunosuppression in autoimmunity, bone marrow and solid organ transplant settings...
September 15, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927305/discovery-and-application-of-immune-biomarkers-for-hematological-malignancies
#20
Dimitrios Zafeiris, Jayakumar Vadakekolathu, Sarah Wagner, Alan Graham Pockley, Graham Roy Ball, Sergio Rutella
Hematological malignancies originate and progress in primary and secondary lymphoid organs, where they establish a uniquely immune-suppressive tumour microenvironment. Although high-throughput transcriptomic and proteomic approaches are being employed to interrogate immune surveillance and escape mechanisms in patients with solid tumours, and to identify actionable targets for immunotherapy, our knowledge of the immunological landscape of hematological malignancies, as well as our understanding of the molecular circuits that underpin the establishment of immune tolerance, is not comprehensive...
September 25, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
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