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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528414/tissue-contaminant-burdens-in-san-francisco-estuary-white-sturgeon-acipenser-transmontanus-implications-for-population-recovery
#1
Deke T Gundersen, Steven C Zeug, Robert B Bringolf, Joseph Merz, Zachary Jackson, Molly A H Webb
The San Francisco Estuary (SFE) is heavily influenced by anthropogenic activities, including historic and chronic contaminant inputs. These contaminants can adversely affect SFE fish populations, particularly white sturgeon, because they are a benthic dwelling, long-lived species. We measured a suite of metals and organic contaminants in liver and gonad tissues of 25 male and 32 female white sturgeon as well as several physiological indicators of sturgeon health. Most sturgeon (68% of males and 83% of females) were estimated to be between 13 and 17 years of age...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526941/urinary-cadmium-and-cotinine-levels-and-hair-mercury-levels-in-czech-children-and-their-mothers-within-the-framework-of-the-cophes-democophes-projects
#2
Kateřina Forysová, Anna Pinkr-Grafnetterová, Marek Malý, Andrea Krsková, Jaroslav Mráz, Lucie Kašparová, Mája Čejchanová, Lenka Sochorová, Sylva Rödlová, Milena Černá
The COPHES/DEMOCOPHES twin project was performed in 2011-2012 in 17 European countries to harmonize all steps of the human biomonitoring survey. Urinary cadmium, cotinine, phthalate metabolites, and hair mercury were measured in children (N = 120, 6-11 years) and their mothers of reproductive age, living in urban or rural areas. Cadmium in mothers' and children's urine was detected at a geometric mean (GM) concentration 0.227 and 0.109 μg/L, respectively; 95th percentile (P95) was 0.655 and 0.280 μg/L in mothers and children, respectively...
May 19, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520775/sex-differences-in-neuromuscular-androgen-receptor-expression-and-sociosexual-behavior-in-a-sex-changing-fish
#3
Eric R Schuppe, Devaleena S Pradhan, Kevin Thonkulpitak, Cathleen Drilling, Michael Black, Matthew S Grober
Androgen signaling, via receptor binding, is critical for regulating the physiological and morphological foundations of male-typical reproductive behavior in vertebrates. Muscles essential for male courtship behavior and copulation are highly sensitive to androgens. Differences in the distribution and density of the androgen receptor (AR) are important for maintaining dimorphic musculature and thus may provide for anatomical identification of sexually selected traits. In Lythrypnus dalli, a bi-directional hermaphroditic teleost fish, both sexes produce agonistic approach displays, but reproductive behavior is sexually dimorphic...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515207/early-social-learning-triggers-neurogenomic-expression-changes-in-a-swordtail-fish
#4
Rongfeng Cui, Pablo J Delclos, Molly Schumer, Gil G Rosenthal
Mate choice can play a pivotal role in the nature and extent of reproductive isolation between species. Mating preferences are often dependent on an individual's social experience with adult phenotypes throughout development. We show that olfactory preference in a swordtail fish (Xiphophorus malinche) is affected by previous experience with adult olfactory signals. We compare transcriptome-wide gene expression levels of pooled sensory and brain tissues between three treatment groups that differ by social experience: females with no adult exposure, females exposed to conspecifics and females exposed to heterospecifics...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511899/signaling-pathways-to-and-from-the-hypophysial-pars-tuberalis-an-important-center-for-the-control-of-seasonal-rhythms
#5
REVIEW
Horst-Werner Korf
Seasonal (circannual) rhythms play an important role for the control of body functions (reproduction, metabolism, immune responses) in nearly all living organisms. Also humans are affected by the seasons with regard to immune responses and mental functions, the seasonal affective disorder being one of the most prominent examples. The hypophysial pars tuberalis (PT), an important interface between the hypophysial pars distalis and neuroendocrine centers in the brain, plays an essential role in the regulation of seasonal functions and may even be the seat of the circannual clock...
May 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511137/effects-of-ibuprofen-diclofenac-and-paracetamol-on-hatch-and-motor-behavior-in-developing-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#6
Liang Xia, Liang Zheng, Jun Liang Zhou
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) which are widely used as pain relief medicines are causing increasing environmental concern due to their incomplete removal in wastewater treatment plant and potential toxicity on endocrine, kidney and reproduction in teleost fish. This study focused on the effects of widely used ibuprofen, diclofenac and paracetamol on the hatch and motor ability of early-stage zebrafish, by exposing embryos to the target chemicals at 5, 50 and 500 μg/L starting from 6 h postfertilization (hpf)...
May 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500902/rna-sequencing-and-pathway-analysis-reveal-alteration-of-hepatic-steroid-biosynthesis-and-retinol-metabolism-by-tributyltin-exposure-in-male-rare-minnow-gobiocypris-rarus
#7
Jiliang Zhang, Chunnuan Zhang, Ping Sun, Maoxian Huang, Mingzhen Fan, Min Liu
Tributyltin (TBT) is widely spread in aquatic ecosystems. Although adverse effects of TBT on reproduction and lipogenesis are observed in fishes, the underlying mechanisms, especially in livers, are still scarce and inconclusive. Thus, RNA-sequencing runs were performed on the hepatic libraries of adult male rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) after TBT exposure for 60d. After differentially expressed genes were identified, enrichment analysis and validation by quantitative real-time PCR were conducted. The results showed that TBT up-regulated the profile of hepatic genes in the steroid biosynthesis pathway and down-regulated the profile of hepatic genes in the retinol metabolism pathway...
April 8, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494439/centromere-repositioning-in-cattle-bos-taurus-chromosome-17
#8
Lisa De Lorenzi, Alessandra Iannuzzi, Elena Rossi, Stefania Bonacina, Pietro Parma
Eukaryotic organisms have developed a structure, called centromere, able to preserve the integrity of the genome during cell division. A young bull from the Marchigiana breed, with a normal external phenotype, underwent routine cytogenetic analysis to enter the reproduction center. All metaphases analyzed showed an unusual biarmed chromosome of medium size despite a diploid set of chromosomes (2n = 60,XY). FISH analysis excluded a pericentric inversion or a reciprocal translocation, but highlighted a repositioning of the centromere in BTA17...
May 12, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481886/egg-production-patterns-of-two-invertebrate-species-in-rocky-subtidal-areas-under-different-fishing-regimes-along-the-coast-of-central-chile
#9
Marta Blanco, Andres Ospina-Álvarez, Catherine González, Miriam Fernández
Fishing is a major source of human impact, reducing density and size of a wide range of exploited species in comparison to areas exhibiting strong regulations (no-take and partially protected areas, including Territorial Use Rights for Fisheries, TURFs). Since size and density might have important consequences on reproduction, and therefore natural re-seeding, we monitored adult size, density and potential fecundity of the keyhole limpet (Fissurella latimarginata) and the red sea urchin (Loxechinus albus) in areas under two fishing regimes (TURFs and Open Access Areas, OAAs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477267/chromosomal-localization-of-wolbachia-inserts-in-the-genomes-of-two-subspecies-of-chorthippus-parallelus-forming-a-pyrenean-hybrid-zone
#10
Raquel Toribio-Fernández, José L Bella, Paloma Martínez-Rodríguez, Lisa J Funkhouser-Jones, Seth R Bordenstein, Miguel Pita
Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria of arthropods and nematodes that can manipulate the reproduction of various host organisms to facilitate their own maternal transmission. Moreover, Wolbachia's presence in host germ cells may contribute to the many cases of lateral gene transfer from Wolbachia to host genomes that have been described. A previous study in Chorthippus parallelus, a well-known orthopteroid forming a hybrid zone in the Pyrenees, identified Wolbachia sequences from two major supergroups in the genomes of infected and uninfected Chorthippus parallelus parallelus (Cpp) and Chorthippus parallelus erythropus (Cpe) subspecies...
May 5, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473760/persistent-effects-of-developmental-exposure-to-17%C3%AE-ethinylestradiol-on-the-zebrafish-danio-rerio-brain-transcriptome-and-behavior
#11
Tove Porseryd, Kristina Volkova, Nasim Reyhanian Caspillo, Thomas Källman, Patrik Dinnetz, Inger Porsh Hällström
The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is an endocrine disrupting compound of concern due to its persistence and widespread presence in the aquatic environment. Effects of developmental exposure to low concentrations of EE2 in fish on reproduction and behavior not only persisted to adulthood, but have also been observed to be transmitted to several generations of unexposed progeny. To investigate the possible biological mechanisms of the persistent anxiogenic phenotype, we exposed zebrafish embryos for 80 days post fertilization to 0, 3, and 10 ng/L EE2 (measured concentrations 2...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466980/social-context-affects-behavior-preoptic-area-gene-expression-and-response-to-d2-receptor-manipulation-during-territorial-defense-in-a-cichlid-fish
#12
Chelsea A Weitekamp, Jessica Nguyen, Hans A Hofmann
Social context often has profound effects on behavior, yet the neural and molecular mechanisms which mediate flexible behavioral responses to different social environments are not well understood. We used the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, to examine aggressive defense behavior across three social contexts representing different motivational states: a reproductive opportunity, a familiar male, and a neutral context. To elucidate how differences in behavior across contexts may be mediated by neural gene expression, we examined gene expression in the preoptic area, a brain region known to control male aggressive and sexual behavior...
May 3, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463727/sound-production-in-japanese-medaka-oryzias-latipes-and-its-alteration-by-exposure-to-aldicarb-and-copper-sulfate
#13
Ik Joon Kang, Xuchun Qiu, Junya Moroishi, Yuji Oshima
This study is the first to report sound production in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Sound production was affected by exposure to the carbamate insecticide (aldicarb) and heavy-metal compound (copper sulfate). Medaka were exposed at four concentrations (aldicarb: 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg L(-1); copper sulfate: 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg L(-1)), and sound characteristics were monitored for 5 h after exposure. We observed constant average interpulse intervals (approx 0.2 s) in all test groups before exposure, and in the control groups throughout the experiment...
April 20, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461781/zebrafish-as-an-in-vivo-model-for-sustainable-chemical-design
#14
Pamela D Noyes, Gloria R Garcia, Robert L Tanguay
Heightened public awareness about the many thousands of chemicals in use and present as persistent contaminants in the environment has increased the demand for safer chemicals and more rigorous toxicity testing. There is a growing recognition that the use of traditional test models and empirical approaches is impractical for screening for toxicity the many thousands of chemicals in the environment and the hundreds of new chemistries introduced each year. These realities coupled with the green chemistry movement have prompted efforts to implement more predictive-based approaches to evaluate chemical toxicity early in product development...
December 21, 2016: Green Chemistry: An International Journal and Green Chemistry Resource: GC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455549/involution-processes-of-follicular-atresia-and-post-ovulatory-complex-in-a-characid-fish-ovary-a-study-of-apoptosis-and-autophagy-pathways
#15
Mônica Cassel, Marília de Paiva Camargo, Lázaro Wender Oliveira de Jesus, Maria Inês Borella
Recent studies seem to indicate that apoptosis and autophagy can act cooperatively in fish ovaries in order to achieve more effective ovarian regression after spawning. Considering the importance of tissue remodeling in ovarian functioning, we sought to morphologically characterize the involution processes of follicular atresia and post-ovulatory complexes using Astyanax altiparanae as an experimental model, and to determine the location of proteins involved in apoptosis and autophagy throughout this process...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455440/sperm-in-hot-water-direct-and-indirect-thermal-challenges-interact-to-impact-on-brown-trout-sperm-quality
#16
Miriam Fenkes, John L Fitzpatrick, Karlina Ozolina, Holly A Shiels, Robert L Nudds
Recent and future climate change alters the thermal habitat of aquatic species on a global scale, generating novel environmental challenges during all life stages, including reproduction. Changes in water temperature profoundly influence the performance of ectothermic aquatic organisms. This is an especially crucial issue for migratory fish, because they traverse multiple environments in order to reproduce. In externally fertilizing migratory fish, gametes are affected by water temperature indirectly, within the reproductive organ in which they are produced during migration, as well as directly upon release into the surrounding medium upon arrival at their spawning grounds...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454515/identification-and-profiling-of-cyprinus-carpio-micrornas-during-ovary-differentiation-by-deep-sequencing
#17
Fang Wang, Yongfang Jia, Po Wang, Qianwen Yang, QiYan Du, ZhongJie Chang
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by targeting specific mRNAs. However, the possible role of miRNAs in the ovary differentiation and development of fish is not well understood. In this study, we examined the expression profiles and differential expression of miRNAs during three key stages of ovarian development and different developmental stages in common carp Cyprinus carpio. RESULTS: A total of 8765 miRNAs were identified, including 2155 conserved miRNAs highly conserved among various species, 145 miRNAs registered in miRBase for common carp, and 6505 novel miRNAs identified in common carp for the first time...
April 28, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454037/agricultural-expansion-as-risk-to-endangered-wildlife-pesticide-exposure-in-wild-chimpanzees-and-baboons-displaying-facial-dysplasia
#18
Sabrina Krief, Philippe Berny, Francis Gumisiriza, Régine Gross, Barbara Demeneix, Jean Baptiste Fini, Colin A Chapman, Lauren J Chapman, Andrew Seguya, John Wasswa
Prenatal exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors can affect development and induce irreversible abnormalities in both humans and wildlife. The northern part of Kibale National Park, a mid-altitude rainforest in western Uganda, is largely surrounded by industrial tea plantations and wildlife using this area (Sebitoli) must cope with proximity to human populations and their activities. The chimpanzees and baboons in this area raid crops (primarily maize) in neighboring gardens. Sixteen young individuals of the 66 chimpanzees monitored (25%) exhibit abnormalities including reduced nostrils, cleft lip, limb deformities, reproductive problems and hypopigmentation...
April 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450759/sex-in-murky-waters-algal-induced-turbidity-increases-sexual-selection-in-pipefish
#19
Josefin Sundin, Tonje Aronsen, Gunilla Rosenqvist, Anders Berglund
ABSTRACT: Algal-induced turbidity has been shown to alter several important aspects of reproduction and sexual selection. However, while turbidity has been shown to negatively affect reproduction and sexually selected traits in some species, it may instead enhance reproductive success in others, implying that the impact of eutrophication is far more complex than originally believed. In this study, we aimed to provide more insight into these inconsistent findings. We used molecular tools to investigate the impact of algal turbidity on reproductive success and sexual selection on males in controlled laboratory experiments, allowing mate choice, mating competition, and mate encounter rates to affect reproduction...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447151/rhythms-in-the-endocrine-system-of-fish-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Mairi Cowan, Clara Azpeleta, Jose Fernando López-Olmeda
The environment which living organisms inhabit is not constant and many factors, such as light, temperature, and food availability, display cyclic and predictable variations. To adapt to these cyclic changes, animals present biological rhythms in many of their physiological variables, timing their functions to occur when the possibility of success is greatest. Among these variables, many endocrine factors have been described as displaying rhythms in vertebrates. The aim of the present review is to provide a thorough review of the existing knowledge on the rhythms of the endocrine system of fish by examining the hormones that show rhythmicity, how environmental factors control these rhythms and the variation in the responses of the endocrine system depending on the time of the day...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
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