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Neonatal over exposure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314518/adult-consequences-of-prenatal-drug-exposure
#1
Ju Lee Oei
Maternal drug use is not new but over the last few decades, the number of mothers using drugs of addiction has escalated to epidemic levels. These drugs are both legal (e.g. prescription medication) and illegal (e.g. heroin) and all will cross the placental barrier into the developing infant. The most immediate and obvious consequence of intra-uterine drug exposure is newborn withdrawal or the Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) which is now, with prompt recognition and treatment, an uncommon cause of neonatal death...
January 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307441/critical-analysis-of-reference-studies-on-the-toxicokinetics-of-aluminum-based-adjuvants
#2
REVIEW
Jean-Daniel Masson, Guillemette Crépeaux, François-Jérôme Authier, Christopher Exley, Romain K Gherardi
We reviewed the three toxicokinetic reference studies commonly used to suggest that aluminum (Al)-based adjuvants are innocuous. A single experimental study was carried out using isotopic 26Al (Flarend et al., Vaccine, 1997). This study used aluminum salts resembling those used in vaccines but ignored adjuvant uptake by cells that was not fully documented at the time. It was conducted over a short period of time (28days) and used only two rabbits per adjuvant. At the endpoint, Al elimination in the urine accounted for 6% for Al hydroxide and 22% for Al phosphate, both results being incompatible with rapid elimination of vaccine-derived Al in urine...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302327/uptake-and-predictors-of-early-postnatal-follow-up-care-amongst-mother-baby-pairs-in-south-africa-results-from-three-population-based-surveys-2010-2013
#3
Anna Larsen, Mireille Cheyip, Getahun Aynalem, Thu-Ha Dinh, Debra Jackson, Nobubelo Ngandu, Witness Chirinda, Mary Mogashoa, Gupreet Kindra, Carl Lombard, Ameena Goga
Background: Achieving World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for postnatal care (PNC) within the first few weeks of life is vital to eliminating early mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) and improving infant health. Almost half of the annual global deaths among children under five occur during the first six weeks of life. This study aims to identify uptake of three PNC visits within the first six weeks of life as recommended by WHO among South African mother-infant pairs, and factors associated with uptake...
December 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290827/local-intratracheal-delivery-of-perfluorocarbon-nanoparticles-to-lung-cancer-demonstrated-with-magnetic-resonance-multimodal-imaging
#4
Lina Wu, Xiaofei Wen, Xiance Wang, Chunan Wang, Xilin Sun, Kai Wang, Huiying Zhang, Todd Williams, Allen J Stacy, Junjie Chen, Anne H Schmieder, Gregory M Lanza, Baozhong Shen
Eighty percent of lung cancers originate as subtle premalignant changes in the airway mucosal epithelial layer of bronchi and alveoli, which evolve and penetrate deeper into the parenchyma. Liquid-ventilation, with perfluorocarbons (PFC) was first demonstrated in rodents in 1966 then subsequently applied as lipid-encapsulated PFC emulsions to improve pulmonary function in neonatal infants suffering with respiratory distress syndrome in 1996. Subsequently, PFC nanoparticles (NP) were extensively studied as intravenous (IV) vascular-constrained nanotechnologies for diagnostic imaging and targeted drug delivery applications...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281864/long-term-effects-of-neonatal-hyperoxia-in-adult-mice
#5
Vasantha Hs Kumar, Huamei Wang, Sergei Kishkurno, Babu S Paturi, Lori Nielsen, Rita M Ryan
BACKGROUND: The outcomes of premature infants have improved greatly, however the health risks in adulthood are still relatively unclear. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants is a major risk factor producing alteration in lung function and predisposition to later respiratory morbidity, and is associated with hyperoxia. This study explores the effect of neonatal hyperoxia on organ systems in adult mice. METHODS: Newborn mouse litters were randomized to 85%O2 or room air (RA) on P3 for 12 days; mice were sacrificed at P3, P7, P15, 3 months and 9 months...
December 27, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215155/prophylactic-antibiotics-before-cord-clamping-in-cesarean-delivery-a-systematic-review
#6
Claudia Bollig, Monika Nothacker, Cornelius Lehane, Edith Motschall, Britta Lang, Joerg J Meerpohl, Christine M Schmucker
The number of clinical trials investigating the optimal timing of prophylactic antibiotics in cesarean section increased rapidly over the last few years. We conducted a systematic review to inform up-to date evidence-based guidelines to prevent postpartum infectious morbidity in the mother and rule out any safety issues related to antepartum antibiotic exposure in infants MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four bibliographic databases were searched for published reports of trials. Ongoing or unpublished studies were searched in Clinicaltrials...
December 7, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167058/neuroimaging-findings-in-normocephalic-newborns-with-intrauterine-zika-virus-exposure
#7
Sarah B Mulkey, Gilbert Vezina, Dorothy I Bulas, Zarir Khademian, Anna Blask, Youssef Kousa, Caitlin Cristante, Lindsay Pesacreta, Adre J du Plessis, Roberta L DeBiasi
BACKGROUND: Congenital Zika infection can result in a spectrum of neurological abnormalities in the newborn. Newborns exposed to Zika virus in utero often have neuroimaging as part of their clinical evaluation. METHODS: Through the Congenital Zika Program at Children's National Health System in Washington DC, we performed fetal or neonatal neuroimaging, including magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound, on over 70 fetuses or neonates with intrauterine Zika exposure...
October 19, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150862/randomised-crossover-trial-showed-that-using-breast-milk-or-sucrose-provided-the-same-analgesic-effect-in-preterm-infants-of-at-least-28-weeks
#8
L Collados-Gómez, P Ferrera-Camacho, E Fernandez-Serrano, V Camacho-Vicente, C Flores-Herrero, A M García-Pozo, R Jiménez-García
AIM: Repeated, on-going exposure to pain influences the growth, cognitive and motor functions, behaviour, personality and neurodevelopment of preterm infants. We compared the analgesic effects of expressed breast milk and 24% oral sucrose on preterm neonates during venipuncture. METHODS: This multicentre randomised, non-inferiority, cross-over trial focused on five neonatal university units in Madrid, Spain, from October 2013 to October 2014. It comprised 66 preterm infants born at less than 37 weeks and randomly split into two groups...
November 18, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146078/bisphenol-a-distribution-in-serum-urine-placenta-breast-milk-and-umbilical-cord-serum-in-a-birth-panel-of-mother-neonate-pairs
#9
Jangwoo Lee, Kyungho Choi, Jeongim Park, Hyo-Bang Moon, Gyuyeon Choi, Jeong Jae Lee, Eunsook Suh, Hai-Joong Kim, So-Hee Eun, Gun-Ha Kim, Geum Joon Cho, Sung Koo Kim, Sungjoo Kim, Su Young Kim, Seunghyo Kim, Soyong Eom, Sooran Choi, Young Don Kim, Sungkyoon Kim
Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure during the perinatal and postnatal periods increases the susceptibility to disease over the life cycle. However, information on the BPA delivered to fetuses or infants via the placenta and breastfeeding is limited. We determined the BPA exposure levels in various bodily fluids and tissues of pregnant women and described fetus and infant exposures to BPA based on associations and BPA ratios in mother-neonate paired samples. Maternal serum, urine, placenta, breast milk, cord serum, and neonatal urine samples were collected from 318 mother-neonate pairs at six university hospitals in Korea...
November 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126435/human-amnion-cells-reverse-acute-and-chronic-pulmonary-damage-in-experimental-neonatal-lung-injury
#10
Dandan Zhu, Jean Tan, Amina S Maleken, Ruth Muljadi, Siow T Chan, Sin N Lau, Kirstin Elgass, Bryan Leaw, Joanne Mockler, Daniel Chambers, Kristen T Leeman, Carla F Kim, Euan M Wallace, Rebecca Lim
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in neonatal care, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains a significant contributor to infant mortality and morbidity. While human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) have shown promise in small and large animal models of BPD, there is scarce information on long-term benefit and clinically relevant questions surrounding administration strategy remain unanswered. In assessing the therapeutic potential of hAECs, we investigated the impact of cell dosage, administration routes and timing of treatment in a pre-clinical model of BPD...
November 10, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121823/effect-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-dose-and-exposure-time-on-tumor-necrosis-factor-induced-gene-6-activation-by-neonatal-and-adult-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#11
Shiva Hamidian Jahromi, Yunqing Li, John E Davies
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-stimulated gene 6 (TSG-6) is a major anti-inflammatory mediator released by activated mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Neonatal MSCs are considered more metabolically active than cells derived from adult tissues, and potentially less heterogeneous. We hypothesized that a TNF-α activated neonatal MSC population (human umbilical cord perivascular cells-HUCPVCs) would show an enhanced level of TSG-6 activation compared to adult bone marrow MSCs (BMMSCs). Thus, we stimulated HUCPVCs, and both human and mouse BMMSCs with 1, 10, 50, and 100ng/mL of recombinant TNF-α over various exposure times...
November 9, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095430/excipient-exposure-in-very-low-birth-weight-preterm-neonates
#12
T O Akinmboni, N L Davis, A J Falck, C F Bearer, S M Mooney
OBJECTIVE: The excipients benzyl alcohol, propylene glycol and ethanol are present in medications used in the neonatal intensive care unit. Exposure to high levels can have adverse effects in a neonatal population. The objective was to quantify excipient exposure in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates and identify risk factors associated with greater exposure. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective record review of VLBW infants admitted over 1 year. Excipient exposures were calculated and multivariable regression analyses identified risk factors for increasing exposure...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093813/a-twenty-four-hour-observational-study-of-hand-hygiene-compliance-among-health-care-workers-in-debre-berhan-referral-hospital-ethiopia
#13
Tufa Kolola, Takele Gezahegn
Background: Hand hygiene (HH) is recognized as the single most effective strategy for preventing health care-associated infections. In developing countries, data on hand hygiene compliance is available only for few health-care facilities. This study aimed to assess hand hygiene compliance among health-care workers in Debre Berhan referral hospital, Ethiopia. Methods: This study employed the WHO hand hygiene observation method. Direct observation of the health care workers (HCWs) was conducted using an observation record form in five different wards...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029159/impact-evaluation-of-free-delivery-care-on-maternal-health-service-utilisation-and-neonatal-health-in-nepal
#14
Prabhat Lamichhane, Anurag Sharma, Ajay Mahal
Nepal introduced free delivery services for births in public facilities in 2005 in 25 districts with the intervention initially restricted to women with less than two living children and/or women with obstetric complications. After November 2007, eligibility conditions were relaxed to include all women, and the programme was later expanded to cover an additional 50 districts in December 2008. We exploit the phased expansion of the free birth delivery programme to identify its impact on place of delivery, the presence of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) and neonatal mortality using difference-in-difference methods, on data for 4457 live-births reported between 2001 and 2008 from Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys for 2006 and 2011...
December 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987617/mitigation-of-postnatal-ethanol-induced-neuroinflammation-ameliorates-trace-fear-memory-deficits-in-juvenile-rats
#15
Molly J Goodfellow, Youn Ju Shin, Derick H Lindquist
Impairments in behavior and cognition are common in individuals diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). In this study, FASD model rats were intragastrically intubated with ethanol (5g/kg/day; 5E), sham-intubated (SI), or maintained as naïve controls (NC) over postnatal days (PD) 4-9. Ethanol exposure during this human third trimester-equivalent period induces persistent impairments in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. The ability of ibuprofen (IBU), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, to diminish ethanol-induced neuroinflammation and rescue deficits in hippocampus-dependent trace fear conditioning (TFC) was investigated in 5E rats...
October 5, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983789/acute-kidney-injury-in-necrotizing-enterocolitis-predicts-mortality
#16
Cory N Criss, David T Selewski, Bipin Sunkara, Joshua S Gish, Lily Hsieh, Jennifer S Mcleod, Jason O Robertson, Niki Matusko, Samir K Gadepalli
BACKGROUND: Morbidity and mortality with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains a significant challenge. Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been shown to worsen survival in critically ill neonates. To our knowledge, this study is the first to evaluate the prevalence of AKI and its impact on outcomes in neonatal NEC. METHODS: We carried out a single-center retrospective chart review of all neonates treated for NEC between 2003 and 2015 (N = 181). AKI is defined as a rise in serum creatinine (SCr) from a previous trough according to neonatal modified KDIGO criteria (stage 1 = SCr rise 0...
October 5, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975368/obesogenic-endocrine-disruptors-and-obesity-myths-and-truths
#17
REVIEW
Giovanna Muscogiuri, Luigi Barrea, Daniela Laudisio, Silvia Savastano, Annamaria Colao
Obesogenic endocrine disruptors, also known as obesogens, are chemicals potentially involved in weight gain by altering lipid homeostasis and promoting adipogenesis and lipid accumulation. They included compounds to which human population is exposed over daily life such as pesticides/herbicides, industrial and household products, plastics, detergents and personal care products. The window of life during which the exposure happens could lead to different effects. A critical window is during utero and/or neonatal period in which the obesogens could cause subtle changes in gene expression and tissue organization or blunt other levels of biological organization leading to increased susceptibility to diseases in the adulthood...
October 3, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970325/sensory-exposure-of-neonates-in-single-room-environments-sense-an-observational-study-of-light
#18
Kobi Best, Fiona Bogossian, Karen New
OBJECTIVES: To measure the internal and external light exposure of incubators and open cots in an Australian single-room configured neonatal unit and compare findings to current recommendations. METHODS: Light meters were placed in the internal and external environment of incubators and open cots within occupied single rooms in a tertiary-level neonatal unit between 15 September and 28 October 2015. Data were recorded in one-second increments over a minimum of 48 hours per room...
September 27, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957644/effect-of-early-life-geohelminth-infections-on-the-development-of-wheezing-at-5-years-of-age
#19
Philip J Cooper, Martha E Chico, Maritza G Vaca, Carlos A Sandoval, Sofia Loor, Leila Amorim, Laura C Rodrigues, Mauricio L Barreto, David P Strachan
RATIONALE: Exposures to geohelminths during gestation or early childhood may reduce risk of wheezing illness/asthma and atopy during childhood in tropical regions. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of maternal and early childhood geohelminths on development of wheeze/asthma and atopy during the first 5 years of life. METHODS: Cohort of 2,404 neonates followed to 5 years of age in rural District in coastal Ecuador. Data on wheeze collected by questionnaire and atopy measured by allergen skin prick test reactivity to 9 allergens at 5 years...
September 28, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936111/agile-development-of-a-smartphone-app-for-perinatal-monitoring-in-a-resource-constrained-setting
#20
Boris Martinez, Rachel Hall-Clifford, Enma Coyote, Lisa Stroux, Camilo E Valderrama, Christopher Aaron, Aaron Francis, Cate Hendren, Peter Rohloff, Gari D Clifford
Technology provides the potential to empower frontline healthcare workers with low levels of training and literacy, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. An obvious platform for achieving this aim is the smartphone, a low cost, almost ubiquitous device with good supply chain infrastructure and a general cultural acceptance for its use. In particular, the smartphone offers the opportunity to provide augmented or procedural information through active audiovisual aids to illiterate or untrained users, as described in this article...
2017: Journal of Health Informatics in Developing Countries
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