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Neonatal over exposure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902983/perinatal-asphyxia-and-erythropoietin-and-vegf-serial-serum-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-responses
#1
Deirdre U Sweetman, Chike Onwuneme, William R Watson, John F A Murphy, Eleanor J Molloy
BACKGROUND: Infants with neonatal encephalopathy (NE) of hypoxic-ischaemic origin are at risk of oxidative and ischaemia-reperfusion injury, which may induce abnormal inflammatory responses involving excessive cytokine production and release in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Systemic inflammation is found in infants with NE, and we therefore were interested in cytokines associated with hypoxia, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and erythropoietin (Epo). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between Epo, VEGF levels, brain injury and outcome in a group of term infants exposed to perinatal asphyxia (PA) compared to controls...
December 1, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902503/bedside-placement-of-the-postpyloric-tube-in-infants
#2
Patricia Clifford, Elizabeth Ely, Lauren Heimall
BACKGROUND: Patients in the neonatal intensive care unit are a vulnerable population with specific nutritional requirements, which include increased protein and caloric needs for adequate growth. Some infants cannot tolerate gastric feeds and need to have postpyloric feeds to grow. Placement of a postpyloric tube can be done by gastric insufflation. Gastric insufflation is a technique where air is inserted into the stomach as a nasogastric tube is advanced through the pylorus to the duodenum...
November 29, 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832763/a-comparison-of-intestinal-microbiota-in-a-population-of-low-risk-infants-exposed-and-not-exposed-to-intrapartum-antibiotics-the-baby-microbiota-of-the-intestine-cohort-study-protocol
#3
Julia Simioni, Eileen K Hutton, Elizabeth Gunn, Alison C Holloway, Jennifer C Stearns, Helen McDonald, Andrea Mousseau, Jonathan D Schertzer, Elyanne M Ratcliffe, Lehana Thabane, Michael G Surette, Katherine M Morrison
BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiota influences metabolic, nutritional, and immunologic processes and has been associated with a broad range of adverse health outcomes including asthma, obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Early life exposures may alter the course of gut microbial colonization leading to differences in metabolic and immune regulation throughout life. Although approximately 50 % of low-risk full-term infants born in Canada are exposed to intrapartum antibiotics, little is known about the influence of this common prophylactic treatment on the developing neonatal intestinal microbiota...
November 10, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831551/changing-antiepileptic-drug-use-for-seizures-in-us-neonatal-intensive-care-units-from-2005-to-2014
#4
K A Ahmad, S J Desai, M M Bennett, S F Ahmad, Y-T Ng, R H Clark, V N Tolia
OBJECTIVE: Neonatal seizures are a common problem in the neonatal intensive care unit and are frequently treated with antiepileptic drugs. Limited data exist on current or changing antiepileptic drug use for seizures in the neonatal intensive care unit.We sought to describe trends of antiepileptic drug exposure in a large volume of US neonatal intensive care unit from 2005 to 2014 and we hypothesized increasing levetiracetam exposure over the 10-year study period. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of infants from the Pediatrix Medical Group Clinical Data Warehouse, a large, multicenter, deidentified data set...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826117/neonatal-inhibition-of-na-k-2cl-cotransporter-prevents-ketamine-induced-spatial-learning-and-memory-impairments
#5
Ryan A Stevens, Brandon D Butler, Saurabh S Kokane, Andrew W Womack, Qing Lin
Prolonged ketamine exposure in neonates at anesthetic doses is known to cause long-term impairments of learning and memory. A current theoretical mechanism explains this phenomenon as being neuro-excitotoxicity mediated by compensatory upregulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), which then initiates widespread neuroapoptosis. Additionally, the excitatory behavior of GABAergic synaptic transmission mediated by GABAA receptors (GABAARs), occurring during the early neuronal development period, is proposed as contributing to the susceptibility of neonatal neurons to ketamine-induced injury...
November 5, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814345/pro-inflammatory-immune-responses-in-leukocytes-of-premature-infants-exposed-to-maternal-chorioamnionitis-or-funisitis
#6
Courtney M Jackson, Casey B Wells, Meredith E Tabangin, Jareen Meinzen-Derr, Alan H Jobe, Claire A Chougnet
BACKGROUND: Acute chorioamnionitis contributes to premature birth, and is associated with post-birth complications. How chorioamnionitis impacts neonate's developing immune system has not been well defined. METHODS: Blood from extremely preterm infants (=28 weeks gestation) was drawn at the 1(st), 2(nd), and 4(th) week of life. Blood was either left unstimulated or stimulated for 4 hours with PMA/ionomycin. mRNA expression of transcription factors in unstimulated cells (RORC, TBET, GATA3, FOXP3) and inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6) in unstimulated and stimulated cells were analyzed...
November 4, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770432/fgf10-deficiency-is-causative-for-lethality-in-a-mouse-model-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#7
Cho-Ming Chao, Faady Yahya, Alena Moiseenko, Caterina Tiozzo, Amit Shrestha, Negah Ahmadvand, Elie El Agha, Jennifer Quantius, Salma Dilai, Vahid Kheirollahi, Matthew Jones, Jochen Wilhem, Gianni Carraro, Harald Ehrhardt, Klaus-Peter Zimmer, Guillermo Barreto, Katrin Ahlbrecht, Rory E Morty, Susanne Herold, Rosanna G Abellar, Werner Seeger, Ralph Schermuly, Jin-San Zhang, Parviz Minoo, Saverio Bellusci
Inflammation-induced FGF10 protein deficiency is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a chronic lung disease of prematurely born infants characterized by arrested alveolar development. So far, experimental evidence for a direct role of FGF10 in lung disease is lacking. Using the hyperoxia-induced neonatal lung injury as a mouse model of BPD, the impact of Fgf10 deficiency in Fgf10(+/-) versus Fgf10(+/+) pups was investigated. In normoxia, no lethality of Fgf10(+/+) or Fgf10(+/-) pups was observed...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716943/paracetamol-acetaminophen-for-prevention-or-treatment-of-pain-in-newborns
#8
REVIEW
Arne Ohlsson, Prakeshkumar S Shah
BACKGROUND: Newborn infants have the ability to experience pain. Hospitalised infants are exposed to numerous painful procedures. Healthy newborns are exposed to pain if the birth process consists of assisted vaginal birth by vacuum extraction or by forceps and during blood sampling for newborn screening tests. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and safety of paracetamol for the prevention or treatment of procedural/postoperative pain or pain associated with clinical conditions in neonates...
October 7, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713078/cardiac-ankyrin-repeat-protein-attenuates-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis-by-upregulation-of-bcl-2-expression
#9
Na Zhang, Feiming Ye, Wei Zhu, Dexing Hu, Changchen Xiao, Jinliang Nan, Sheng'an Su, Yingchao Wang, Mingfei Liu, Kanglu Gao, Xinyang Hu, Jinghai Chen, Hong Yu, Xiaojie Xie, Jian'an Wang
Cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP) is a nuclear transcriptional co-factor that has additional functions in the myoplasm as a component of the muscle sarcomere. Previous studies have demonstrated increased expression of CARP in cardiovascular diseases, however, its role in cardiomyocyte apoptosis is unclear and controversial. In the present study, we investigated possible roles of CARP in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) -induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms. Neonatal mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes were isolated and infected with adenovirus encoding Flag-tagged CARP (Ad-CARP) and lentivirus encoding CARP targeted shRNA (sh-CARP), respectively...
December 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687316/-effect-of-equipotent-doses-of-bupivacaine-and-ropivacaine-in-high-fat-diet-fed-neonatal-rodent-model
#10
Ying-Dong Lian, Zong-Xiang Chen, Kang-Ru Zhu, Shu-Yin Sun, Li-Ping Zhu
OBJECTIVES: The increase in the prevalence of obesity presents a significant health and economic problem. Obesity has been reported to be a major contributor to variety of chronic diseases. Childhood obesity has been rising over the past decades leading to various complications in health. Millions of infants and children undergo surgery every year on various health grounds. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of spinal anesthesia of equipotent doses of ropivacaine and bupivacaine on over-weight neonatal rats...
September 26, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642671/safety-of-neonatal-phototherapy-lamp-exposure
#11
Douglas McG Clarkson, P Satodia, Ian Hadley
A routine review of light exposure within a neonatal intensive care unit is described following the introduction of a new model of neonatal phototherapy lamp. Spectral measurements were undertaken using a Bentham Dmc150 spectroradiometer system. Safety assessments were undertaken based on likely exposure of parents at the cot side, neonates in adjacent cots and the effectiveness of eye protection for neonates with direct phototherapy. An aphakic eye response was used for assessment of neonatal risk and the blue-light response for estimation of adult exposure using current ICNIRP guidelines...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642062/perinatal-outcome-in-pregnant-women-with-cancer-are-there-any-effects-of-chemotherapy
#12
S Garofalo, V A Degennaro, S Salvi, M P De Carolis, G Capelli, S Ferrazzani, S De Carolis, A Lanzone
Cancer is the leading cause of death in women of reproductive age. During the last decades and especially in developed countries, the incidence of cancer is increasing dramatically, with an incidence of 1 in 1,000 pregnancies. This is mostly related to delay of pregnancy into the late reproductive years. The aim of this study was to investigate the outcome of pregnancy in women with diagnosis of cancer; in particular, neonatal morbidity and mortality, after in utero exposure to chemotherapy, were evaluated...
September 19, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640177/toward-early-estimation-and-treatment-of-addiction-vulnerability-radial-arm-maze-and-n-acetyl-cysteine-before-cocaine-sensitization-or-nicotine-self-administration-in-neonatal-ventral-hippocampal-lesion-rats
#13
Kalyan N Rao, Alena M Sentir, Eric A Engleman, Richard L Bell, Leslie A Hulvershorn, Alan Breier, R Andrew Chambers
RATIONAL: Prefrontal cortical (PFC)-hippocampal-striatal circuits, interconnected via glutamatergic signaling, are dysfunctional in mental illnesses that involve addiction vulnerability. OBJECTIVES: In healthy and neurodevelopmentally altered rats, we examined how Radial Arm Maze (RAM) performance estimates addiction vulnerability, and how starting a glutamatergic modulating agent, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) in adolescence alters adult mental illness and/or addiction phenotypes...
December 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634962/serotonin-receptors-in-the-medulla-oblongata-of-the-human-fetus-and-infant-the-analytic-approach-of-the-international-safe-passage-study
#14
Robin L Haynes, Rebecca D Folkerth, David S Paterson, Kevin G Broadbelt, S Dan Zaharie, Richard H Hewlett, Johan J Dempers, Elsie Burger, Shabbir Wadee, Pawel Schubert, Colleen Wright, Mary Ann Sens, Laura Nelsen, Bradley B Randall, Hoa Tran, Elaine Geldenhuys, Amy J Elliott, Hein J Odendaal, Hannah C Kinney
The Safe Passage Study is an international, prospective study of approximately 12 000 pregnancies to determine the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) upon stillbirth and the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). A key objective of the study is to elucidate adverse effects of PAE upon binding to serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptors in brainstem homeostatic networks postulated to be abnormal in unexplained stillbirth and/or SIDS. We undertook a feasibility assessment of 5-HT1A receptor binding using autoradiography in the medulla oblongata (6 nuclei in 27 cases)...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614807/mucous-fistula-refeeding-decreases-parenteral-nutrition-exposure-in-postsurgical-premature-neonates
#15
Colin D Gause, Madoka Hayashi, Courtney Haney, Daniel Rhee, Omar Karim, Brian W Weir, Dylan Stewart, Jeffrey Lukish, Henry Lau, Fizan Abdullah, Estelle Gauda, Howard I Pryor
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Premature neonates can develop intraabdominal conditions requiring emergent bowel resection and enterostomy. Parenteral nutrition (PN) is often required, but results in cholestasis. Mucous fistula refeeding allows for functional restoration of continuity. We sought to determine the effect of refeeding on nutrition intake, PN dependence, and PN associated hepatotoxicity while evaluating the safety of this practice. METHODS: A retrospective review of neonates who underwent bowel resection and small bowel enterostomy with or without mucous fistula over 2years was undertaken...
November 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602537/dietary-supplementation-with-myo-inositol-in-women-during-pregnancy-for-treating-gestational-diabetes
#16
Julie Brown, Tineke J Crawford, Jane Alsweiler, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is any degree of glucose intolerance that first presents and is recognised during pregnancy and usually resolves after the birth of the baby. GDM is associated with increased short- and long-term morbidity for the mother and her baby. Treatment usually includes lifestyle modification and/or pharmacological therapy (oral antidiabetic agents or insulin) with the aim to maintain treatment targets for blood glucose concentrations. Finding novel treatment agents which are effective, acceptable and safe for the mother and her baby are important...
September 7, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556818/amnioinfusion-for-chorioamnionitis
#17
REVIEW
G Justus Hofmeyr, Joseph A K Kiiza
BACKGROUND: Chorioamnionitis is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Amnioinfusion aims at reducing the adverse effects of chorioamnionitis by dilution of the infective organisms or by an anti-microbial effect of the fluid infused. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to determine the effect of amnioinfusion on clinical and sub-clinical chorioamnionitis, fetal well-being, fetal heart rate characteristics and perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555319/maternofetal-pharmacokinetics-and-fetal-lung-responses-in%C3%A2-chronically-catheterized-sheep-receiving-constant-low-dose-infusions-of-betamethasone-phosphate
#18
Matthew W Kemp, Masatoshi Saito, Haruo Usuda, Timothy J Molloy, Yuichiro Miura, Shinichi Sato, Shimpei Watanabe, Michael Clarke, Michael Fossler, Augusto Scmidt, Suhas G Kallapur, Boris W Kramer, John P Newnham, Alan H Jobe
BACKGROUND: Antenatal steroids are standard of care for cases of anticipated preterm labor to improve neonatal outcomes. However, steroids are potent drugs, and their use in pregnancy remains largely unoptimized. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure the maternofetal pharmacokinetics of constant, low-dose intravenous betamethasone phosphate infusions and correlate these data with the transcriptional effect exerted by subclinical betamethasone exposures on the ovine fetal lung...
December 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522446/sedation-analgesia-and-paralysis-during-mechanical-ventilation-of-premature-infants
#19
Kanecia O Zimmerman, P Brian Smith, Daniel K Benjamin, Matthew Laughon, Reese Clark, Chani Traube, Til Stürmer, Christoph P Hornik
OBJECTIVE: To characterize administration of sedatives, analgesics, and paralytics in a large cohort of mechanically ventilated premature infants. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study including all infants <1500 g birth weight and <32 weeks gestational age (GA) mechanically ventilated at 348 Pediatrix Medical Group neonatal intensive care units from 1997 to 2012. The primary outcome is the proportion of mechanically ventilated days in which infants were administered drugs of interest...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484068/s-nitrosoglutathione-attenuates-airway-hyperresponsiveness-in-murine-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#20
Thomas M Raffay, Andrew M Dylag, Juliann M Di Fiore, Laura A Smith, Helly J Einisman, Yuejin Li, Mitchell M Lakner, Ahmad M Khalil, Peter M MacFarlane, Richard J Martin, Benjamin Gaston
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is characterized by lifelong obstructive lung disease and profound, refractory bronchospasm. It is observed among survivors of premature birth who have been treated with prolonged supplemental oxygen. Therapeutic options are limited. Using a neonatal mouse model of BPD, we show that hyperoxia increases activity and expression of a mediator of endogenous bronchoconstriction, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) reductase. MicroRNA-342-3p, predicted in silico and shown in this study in vitro to suppress expression of GSNO reductase, was decreased in hyperoxia-exposed pups...
October 2016: Molecular Pharmacology
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