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Two photon microscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932931/usefulness-of-zebrafish-larvae-to-evaluate-drug-induced-functional-and-morphological-renal-tubular-alterations
#1
Rita Gorgulho, Raquel Jacinto, Susana S Lopes, Sofia A Pereira, Erin M Tranfield, Gabriel G Martins, Emilio J Gualda, Rico J E Derks, Ana C Correia, Evelyne Steenvoorden, Petra Pintado, Oleg A Mayboroda, Emilia C Monteiro, Judit Morello
Prediction and management of drug-induced renal injury (DIRI) rely on the knowledge of the mechanisms of drug insult and on the availability of appropriate animal models to explore it. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) offers unique advantages for assessing DIRI because the larval pronephric kidney has a high homology with its human counterpart and it is fully mature at 3.5 days post-fertilization. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the usefulness of zebrafish larvae as a model of renal tubular toxicity through a comprehensive analysis of the renal alterations induced by the lethal concentrations for 10% of the larvae for gentamicin, paracetamol and tenofovir...
September 20, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932820/reduced-arterial-elasticity-due-to-surgical-skeletonization-is-ameliorated-by-abluminal-peg-hydrogel
#2
Karyn G Robinson, Rebecca A Scott, Anne M Hesek, Edward J Woodford, Wafa Amir, Thomas A Planchon, Kristi L Kiick, Robert E Akins
Arteries for bypass grafting are harvested either with neighboring tissue attached or as skeletonized vessels that are free of surrounding tissue. There are significant benefits to skeletonization, but reports suggest that skeletonized vessels may develop structural defects and are at risk for atherosclerosis. We investigated the specific short-term effects of skeletonization on carotid artery biomechanics and microanatomy in a rabbit model. Six carotid arteries were surgically skeletonized. To support healing, three of these received polyethylene glycol hydrogel injected along their exterior surfaces...
June 2017: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925802/higher-prevalence-of-spontaneous-cerebral-vasculopathy-and-cerebral-infarcts-in-a-mouse-model-of-sickle-cell-disease
#3
Hyacinth I Hyacinth, Courtney L Sugihara, Thomas L Spencer, David R Archer, Andy Y Shih
Stroke is a dramatic complication of sickle cell disease (SCD), which is associated with cerebral vasculopathies including moya moya, intravascular thrombi, cerebral hyperemia, and increased vessel tortuosity. The spontaneous occurrence of these pathologies in the sickle cell mouse model has not been described. Here, we studied Townes humanized sickle cell and age-matched control mice that were 13 months old. We used in vivo two-photon microscopy to assess blood flow dynamics, vascular topology, and evidence of cerebral vasculopathy...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924658/two-photon-sted-microscopy-for-nanoscale-imaging-of-neural-morphology-in-vivo
#4
Mirelle J T Ter Veer, Thomas Pfeiffer, U Valentin Nägerl
The advent of super-resolution microscopy offers to bridge the gap between electron and light microscopy. It has opened up the possibility of visualizing cellular structures and dynamic signaling events on the "mesoscale" well below the classic diffraction barrier of light microscopy (10-200 nm), while essentially retaining the advantages of fluorescence microscopy concerning multicolor labeling, detection sensitivity, signal contrast, live-cell imaging, and temporal resolution.From among the new super-resolution techniques, STED microscopy stands out as a laser-scanning imaging modality, which enables nanoscale volume-metric imaging of cellular morphology...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920978/a-two-photon-fluorescent-probe-for-ratiometric-imaging-of-endogenous-hypochlorous-acid-in-live-cells-and-tissues
#5
Yong Woong Jun, Sourav Sarkar, Subhankar Singha, Ye Jin Reo, Hye Rim Kim, Jong-Jin Kim, Young-Tae Chang, Kyo Han Ahn
A fluorescent probe that enables ratiometric imaging of endogenous hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in cells and tissues by two-photon microscopy is developed based on a red-emitting acetyl-benzocoumarin (AcBC) dye. An oxathiolane group in the probe reacts with HOCl to generate the AcBC dye, which involves a ratiometric fluorescence change only toward HOCl along with high sensitivity.
September 18, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918081/developmental-alcohol-exposure-impairs-synaptic-plasticity-without-overtly-altering-microglial-function-in-mouse-visual-cortex
#6
Elissa L Wong, Nina M Lutz, Victoria A Hogan, Cassandra E Lamantia, Helene R McMurray, Jason R Myers, John M Ashton, Ania K Majewska
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), caused by gestational ethanol (EtOH) exposure, is one of the most common causes of non-heritable and life-long mental disability worldwide, with no standard treatment or therapy available. While EtOH exposure can alter the function of both neurons and glia, it is still unclear how EtOH influences brain development to cause deficits in sensory and cognitive processing later in life. Microglia play an important role in shaping synaptic function and plasticity during neural circuit development and have been shown to mount an acute immunological response to EtOH exposure in certain brain regions...
September 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910617/whole-cell-recording-of-neuronal-membrane-potential-during-behavior
#7
REVIEW
Carl C H Petersen
Neuronal membrane potential is of fundamental importance for the mechanistic understanding of brain function. This review discusses progress in whole-cell patch-clamp recordings for low-noise measurement of neuronal membrane potential in awake behaving animals. Whole-cell recordings can be combined with two-photon microscopy to target fluorescently labeled neurons, revealing cell-type-specific membrane potential dynamics of retrogradely or genetically labeled neurons. Dual whole-cell recordings reveal behavioral modulation of membrane potential synchrony and properties of synaptic transmission in vivo...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910360/transgelin-2-is-upregulated-on-activated-b-cells-and-expressed-in-hyperplastic-follicles-in-lupus-erythematosus-patients
#8
Kaori Kiso, Hajime Yoshifuji, Takuma Oku, Masaki Hikida, Koji Kitagori, Yoshitaka Hirayama, Toshiki Nakajima, Hironori Haga, Tatsuaki Tsuruyama, Aya Miyagawa-Hayashino
Transgelin-2 (TAGLN2) is an actin-binding protein that controls actin stability and promotes T cell activation. TAGLN2 is also expressed on B-cells but its function in B-cells is unknown. We found that TAGLN2-expressing B-cells were localized in the germinal center (GC) of secondary lymphoid tissues and TAGLN2 mRNA was significantly upregulated after IgM+IgG stimulation in primary human B-cells, suggesting that TAGLN2 was upregulated upon B-cell activation. In support of this, lymph nodes (LNs) from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), in which the intense GC activity have been recognized, showed increased TAGLN2 expression in B-cells compared to control LNs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910077/and-there-was-light-prospects-for-the-creation-of-micro-and-nanostructures-through-maskless-photolithography
#9
J Rühe
In photolithographic processes, the light inducing the photochemical reactions is confined to a small volume, which enables direct writing of micro- and nanoscale features onto solid surfaces without the need of a predefined photomask. The direct writing process can be used to generate topographic patterns through photopolymerization or photo-cross-linking or can be employed to use light to generate chemical patterns on the surface with high spatial control, which would make such processes attractive for bioapplications...
September 14, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894365/photothermal-ablation-of-inflammatory-breast-cancer-tumor-emboli-using-plasmonic-gold-nanostars
#10
Bridget M Crawford, Ronnie L Shammas, Andrew M Fales, David A Brown, Scott T Hollenbeck, Tuan Vo-Dinh, Gayathri R Devi
Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is rare, but it is the most aggressive subtype of breast cancer. IBC has a unique presentation of diffuse tumor cell clusters called tumor emboli in the dermis of the chest wall that block lymph vessels causing a painful, erythematous, and edematous breast. Lack of effective therapeutic treatments has caused mortality rates of this cancer to reach 20%-30% in case of women with stage III-IV disease. Plasmonic nanoparticles, via photothermal ablation, are emerging as lead candidates in next-generation cancer treatment for site-specific cell death...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890417/the-impact-of-vessel-size-orientation-and-intravascular-contribution-on-the-neurovascular-fingerprint-of-bold-bssfp-fmri
#11
Mario Gilberto Báez-Yánez, Philipp Ehses, Christian Mirkes, Philbert S Tsai, David Kleinfeld, Klaus Scheffler
Monte Carlo simulations have been used to analyze oxygenation-related signal changes in pass-band balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) as well as in gradient echo (GE) and spin echo (SE) sequences. Signal changes were calculated for artificial cylinders and neurovascular networks acquired from the mouse parietal cortex by two-photon laser scanning microscopy at 1 μm isotropic resolution. Signal changes as a function of vessel size, blood volume, vessel orientation to the main magnetic field B0 as well as relations of intra- and extravascular and of micro- and macrovascular contributions have been analyzed...
September 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888430/vacuum-facilitated-infusion-of-bioactives-into-yeast-microcarriers-evaluation-of-a-novel-encapsulation-approach
#12
Stephen Young, Sharleen Dea, Nitin Nitin
Encapsulation into yeast microcarriers provides an appealing alternative to biomimetic systems by employing natural, pre-formed vehicles for the stabilization and delivery of bioactives compounds. However, current (diffusion-limited) methods of encapsulation using yeast require long time scales and heating which lead to poor encapsulation efficiencies and yields. This study evaluates the usage of vacuum infusion to encapsulate two model bioactives, curcumin and fisetin, into yeast and yeast cell wall particles and the physical parameters, e...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884781/novel-routes-to-electromagnetic-enhancement-and-its-characterisation-in-surface-and-tip-enhanced-raman-scattering
#13
P Dawson, D Frey, V Kalathingal, R Mehfuz, J Mitra
Quantitative understanding of the electromagnetic component in enhanced Raman spectroscopy is often difficult to achieve on account of the complex substrate structures utilised. We therefore turn to two structurally simple systems amenable to detailed modelling. The first is tip-enhanced Raman scattering under electron scanning tunnelling microscopy control (STM-TERS) where, appealing to understanding developed in the context of photon emission from STM, it is argued that the localised surface plasmon modes driving the Raman enhancement exist in the visible and near-infrared regime only by virtue of significant modification to the optical properties of the tip and sample metals (gold here)...
September 8, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880900/phase-separation-of-the-plasma-membrane-in-human-red-blood-cells-as-a-potential-tool-for-diagnosis-and-progression-monitoring-of-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#14
Giuseppe Maulucci, Ermanno Cordelli, Alessandro Rizzi, Francesca De Leva, Massimiliano Papi, Gabriele Ciasca, Daniela Samengo, Giovambattista Pani, Dario Pitocco, Paolo Soda, Giovanni Ghirlanda, Giulio Iannello, Marco De Spirito
Glycosylation, oxidation and other post-translational modifications of membrane and transmembrane proteins can alter lipid density, packing and interactions, and are considered an important factor that affects fluidity variation in membranes. Red blood cells (RBC) membrane physical state, showing pronounced alterations in Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), could be the ideal candidate for monitoring the disease progression and the effects of therapies. On these grounds, the measurement of RBC membrane fluidity alterations can furnish a more sensitive index in T1DM diagnosis and disease progression than Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), which reflects only the information related to glycosylation processes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872817/carboplatin-loaded-raman-encoded-chitosan-coated-silver-nanotriangles-as-multimodal-traceable-nanotherapeutic-delivery-systems-and-ph-reporters-inside-human-ovarian-cancer-cells
#15
Monica Potara, Timea Nagy-Simon, Ana Maria Craciun, Sorina Suarasan, Emilia Licarete, Florica Imre-Lucaci, Simion Astilean
Ovarian cancer is a common cause of cancer death in women and is associated with the highest mortality rates of all gynecological malignancies. Carboplatin (CBP) is the most used cytotoxic agent in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Herein, we design and assess a CBP nanotherapeutic delivery system which allows combinatorial functionalities of chemotherapy, pH sensing, and multimodal traceable properties inside live NIH:OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells. In our design, a pH-sensitive Raman reporter, 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4MBA) is anchored onto the surface of chitosan-coated silver nanotriangles (chit-AgNTs) to generate a robust surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) traceable system...
September 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870739/increased-vascular-permeability-in-the-bone-marrow-microenvironment-contributes-to-disease-progression-and-drug-response-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#16
Diana Passaro, Alessandro Di Tullio, Ander Abarrategi, Kevin Rouault-Pierre, Katie Foster, Linda Ariza-McNaughton, Beatriz Montaner, Probir Chakravarty, Leena Bhaw, Giovanni Diana, François Lassailly, John Gribben, Dominique Bonnet
The biological and clinical behaviors of hematological malignancies can be influenced by the active crosstalk with an altered bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. In the present study, we provide a detailed picture of the BM vasculature in acute myeloid leukemia using intravital two-photon microscopy. We found several abnormalities in the vascular architecture and function in patient-derived xenografts (PDX), such as vascular leakiness and increased hypoxia. Transcriptomic analysis in endothelial cells identified nitric oxide (NO) as major mediator of this phenotype in PDX and in patient-derived biopsies...
September 11, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866082/the-in-situ-morphology-of-microglia-is-highly-sensitive-to-the-mode-of-tissue-fixation
#17
Bogdan Cătălin, Laura Stopper, Tudor-Adrian Bălşeanu, Anja Scheller
Microglia are known as the most motile cells in the central nervous system (CNS). It was shown in vivo that they permanently scan their direct microenvironment and react to pathological conditions within minutes. Many studies of brain pathologies use fixed brain tissue to investigate cellular changes. Unfortunately, due to technical reasons, the time span between the induction of the fixation procedure (start of the perfusion) and the finally-fixed tissue lasts several minutes, giving time to microglia to start reacting to the ischemic conditions due to perfusion start...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860973/particle-tracking-facilitates-real-time-capable-motion-correction-in-2d-or-3d-two-photon-imaging-of-neuronal-activity
#18
Samira Aghayee, Daniel E Winkowski, Zachary Bowen, Erin E Marshall, Matt J Harrington, Patrick O Kanold, Wolfgang Losert
The application of 2-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) techniques to measure the dynamics of cellular calcium signals in populations of neurons is an extremely powerful technique for characterizing neural activity within the central nervous system. The use of TPLSM on awake and behaving subjects promises new insights into how neural circuit elements cooperatively interact to form sensory perceptions and generate behavior. A major challenge in imaging such preparations is unavoidable animal and tissue movement, which leads to shifts in the imaging location (jitter)...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858615/robotic-automation-of-in%C3%A2-vivo-two-photon-targeted-whole-cell-patch-clamp-electrophysiology
#19
Luca A Annecchino, Alexander R Morris, Caroline S Copeland, Oshiorenoya E Agabi, Paul Chadderton, Simon R Schultz
Whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiological recording is a powerful technique for studying cellular function. While in vivo patch-clamp recording has recently benefited from automation, it is normally performed "blind," meaning that throughput for sampling some genetically or morphologically defined cell types is unacceptably low. One solution to this problem is to use two-photon microscopy to target fluorescently labeled neurons. Combining this with robotic automation is difficult, however, as micropipette penetration induces tissue deformation, moving target cells from their initial location...
August 30, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858472/mechanical-detection-and-imaging-of-hyperbolic-phonon-polaritons-in-hexagonal-boron-nitride
#20
Antonio Ambrosio, Luis Jauregui, Siyuan Dai, Kundan Chaudhary, Michele Tamagnone, Michael M Fogler, Prof Dimitri Basov, Federico Capasso, Philip Kim, William L Wilson
Mid-infrared nano-imaging and spectroscopy of two-dimensional (2D) materials have been limited so far to scattering-type Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy (s-SNOM) experiments where light from the sample is scattered by a metallic-coated Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) tip interacting with the material at the nanoscale. These experiments have recently allowed imaging of plasmon polaritons in graphene as well as hyperbolic phonon polaritons (HP(2)) in hexagonal Boron Nitride (hBN). Here we show that the high mechanical sensitivity of an AFM cantilever can be exploited for imaging hyperbolic phonon polaritons in hBN...
August 31, 2017: ACS Nano
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