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Two photon microscopy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107381/in-vivo-two-photon-imaging-of-astrocytes-in-gfap-gfp-transgenic-mice
#1
Dongjun Guo, Jia Zou, Nicholas Rensing, Michael Wong
Astrocytes play important roles in normal brain function and neurological diseases. In vivo two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy has the potential to reveal rapid, dynamic structural changes in cells in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. The type of in vivo imaging method has been shown to affect the plasticity of dendritic spines of neurons, but the optimal in vivo imaging methods of astrocytes have not been established. We compared open-skull and thinned-skull imaging methods for two-photon laser microscopy of live astrocytes in neocortex of GFAP-GFP transgenic mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101420/compact-diode-laser-source-for-multiphoton-biological-imaging
#2
Robert D Niederriter, Baris N Ozbay, Gregory L Futia, Emily A Gibson, Juliet T Gopinath
We demonstrate a compact, pulsed diode laser source suitable for multiphoton microscopy of biological samples. The center wavelength is 976 nm, near the peak of the two-photon cross section of common fluorescent markers such as genetically encoded green and yellow fluorescent proteins. The laser repetition rate is electrically tunable between 66.67 kHz and 10 MHz, with 2.3 ps pulse duration and peak powers >1 kW. The laser components are fiber-coupled and scalable to a compact package. We demonstrate >600 μm depth penetration in brain tissue, limited by laser power...
January 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094455/body-regions-have-an-impact-on-the-collagen-elastin-index-of-the-skin-measured-by-non-invasive-in-vivo-vertical-two-photon-microscopy
#3
Carolin Czekalla, Karl Heinz Schönborn, Nadine Döge, Sora Jung, Maxim E Darvin, Jürgen Lademann, Martina C Meinke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077713/reversible-disruption-of-neuronal-mitochondria-by-ischemic-and-traumatic-injury-revealed-by-quantitative-two-photon-imaging-in-the-neocortex-of-anesthetized-mice
#4
Mikhail Kislin, Jeremy Sword, Ioulia V Fomitcheva, Deborah Croom, Evgeny Pryazhnikov, Eero Lihavainen, Dmytro Toptunov, Heikki Rauvala, Andre S Ribeiro, Leonard Khiroug, Sergei A Kirov
: Mitochondria play a variety of functional roles in cortical neurons, from metabolic support and neuroprotection to the release of cytokines that trigger apoptosis. In dendrites, mitochondrial structure is closely linked to their function, and fragmentation (fission) of the normally elongated mitochondria indicates loss of their function under pathological conditions, such as stroke and brain trauma. Using in vivo two-photon microscopy in mouse brain, we quantified mitochondrial fragmentation in a full spectrum of cortical injuries, ranging from severe to mild...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074876/scale-up-of-nature-s-tissue-weaving-algorithms-to-engineer-advanced-functional-materials
#5
Joanna L Ng, Lillian E Knothe, Renee M Whan, Ulf Knothe, Melissa L Knothe Tate
We are literally the stuff from which our tissue fabrics and their fibers are woven and spun. The arrangement of collagen, elastin and other structural proteins in space and time embodies our tissues and organs with amazing resilience and multifunctional smart properties. For example, the periosteum, a soft tissue sleeve that envelops all nonarticular bony surfaces of the body, comprises an inherently "smart" material that gives hard bones added strength under high impact loads. Yet a paucity of scalable bottom-up approaches stymies the harnessing of smart tissues' biological, mechanical and organizational detail to create advanced functional materials...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071723/hcn1-channels-reduce-the-rate-of-exocytosis-from-a-subset-of-cortical-synaptic-terminals
#6
Zhuo Huang, Gengyu Li, Carolina Aguado, Rafael Lujan, Mala M Shah
The hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN1) channels are predominantly located in pyramidal cell dendrites within the cortex. Recent evidence suggests these channels also exist pre-synaptically in a subset of synaptic terminals within the mature entorhinal cortex (EC). Inhibition of pre-synaptic HCN channels enhances miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents (mEPSCs) onto EC layer III pyramidal neurons, suggesting that these channels decrease the release of the neurotransmitter, glutamate...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066800/cd36-deficiency-impairs-the-small-intestinal-barrier-and-induces-subclinical-inflammation-in-mice
#7
Vincenza Cifarelli, Stoyan Ivanov, Yan Xie, Ni-Huiping Son, Brian T Saunders, Terri A Pietka, Trevor M Shew, Jun Yoshino, Sinju Sundaresan, Nicholas O Davidson, Ira J Goldberg, Andrew E Gelman, Bernd H Zinselmeyer, Gwendalyn J Randolph, Nada A Abumrad
BACKGROUND & AIMS: CD36 has immuno-metabolic actions and is abundant in the small intestine on epithelial, endothelial and immune cells. We examined the role of CD36 in gut homeostasis using mice null for CD36 (CD36KO) and with CD36 deletion specific to enterocytes (Ent-CD36KO) or endothelial cells (EC-CD36KO). METHODS: Intestinal morphology was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy (EM). Intestinal inflammation was determined from neutrophil infiltration and expression of cytokines, toll-like receptors and COX-2...
January 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064458/label-free-multiphoton-microscopy-reveals-altered-tissue-architecture-in-hippocampal-sclerosis
#8
Ortrud Uckermann, Roberta Galli, Susann Leupold, Roland Coras, Matthias Meinhardt, Susanne Hallmeyer-Elgner, Thomas Mayer, Alexander Storch, Gabriele Schackert, Edmund Koch, Ingmar Blümcke, Gerald Steiner, Matthias Kirsch
The properties and structure of tissue can be visualized without labeling or preparation by multiphoton microscopy combining coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), addressing lipid content, second harmonic generation (SHG) showing collagen, and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) of endogenous fluorophores. We compared samples of sclerotic and nonsclerotic human hippocampus to detect pathologic changes in the brain of patients with pharmacoresistant temporomesial epilepsy (n = 15). Multiphoton microscopy of cryosections and bulk tissue revealed hippocampal layering and micromorphologic details in accordance with reference histology: CARS displayed white and gray matter layering and allowed the assessment of axonal myelin...
January 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063999/relationship-between-intracellular-ph-metabolic-co-factors-and-caspase-3-activation-in-cancer-cells-during-apoptosis
#9
Tatiana F Sergeeva, Marina V Shirmanova, Olga A Zlobovskaya, Alena I Gavrina, Varvara V Dudenkova, Maria M Lukina, Konstantin A Lukyanov, Elena V Zagaynova
A complex cascade of molecular events occurs in apoptotic cells but cell-to-cell variability significantly complicates determination of the order and interconnections between different processes. For better understanding of the mechanisms of programmed cell death, dynamic simultaneous registration of several parameters is required. In this paper we used multiparameter fluorescence microscopy to analyze energy metabolism, intracellular pH and caspase-3 activation in living cancer cells in vitro during staurosporine-induced apoptosis...
January 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062700/intravital-imaging-of-neutrophil-recruitment-reveals-the-efficacy-of-fpr1-blockade-in-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#10
Masaki Honda, Takayuki Takeichi, Shintaro Hashimoto, Daiki Yoshii, Kaori Isono, Shintaro Hayashida, Yuki Ohya, Hidekazu Yamamoto, Yasuhiko Sugawara, Yukihiro Inomata
Neutrophils are considered responsible for the pathophysiological changes resulting from hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, which is a complication of trauma, shock, liver resection, and transplantation. Recently, evidence is accumulating that formyl-peptide receptor (FPR) signaling constitutes an important danger signal that guides neutrophils to sites of inflammation. This study aimed to investigate dynamic neutrophil recruitment using two-photon laser-scanning microscopy (TPLSM) in response to FPR1 blockade during hepatic I/R...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060355/longitudinal-in-vivo-imaging-of-the-cerebrovasculature-relevance-to-cns-diseases
#11
Margarita Arango-Lievano, Patrizia Giannoni, Sylvie Claeysen, Nicola Marchi, Freddy Jeanneteau
Remodeling of the brain vasculature is a common trait of brain pathologies. In vivo imaging techniques are fundamental to detect cerebrovascular plasticity or damage occurring overtime and in relation to neuronal activity or blood flow. In vivo two-photon microscopy allows the study of the structural and functional plasticity of large cellular units in the living brain. In particular, the thinned-skull window preparation allows the visualization of cortical regions of interest (ROI) without inducing significant brain inflammation...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060307/lateral-chronic-cranial-window-preparation-enables-in-vivo-observation-following-distal-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-mice
#12
Simon H Bayerl, Melina Nieminen-Kelhä, Thomas Broggini, Peter Vajkoczy, Vincent Prinz
Focal cerebral ischemia (i.e., ischemic stroke) may cause major brain injury, leading to a severe loss of neuronal function and consequently to a host of motor and cognitive disabilities. Its high prevalence poses a serious health burden, as stroke is among the principal causes of long-term disability and death worldwide(1). Recovery of neuronal function is, in most cases, only partial. So far, treatment options are very limited, in particular due to the narrow time window for thrombolysis(2,3). Determining methods to accelerate recovery from stroke remains a prime medical goal; however, this has been hampered by insufficient mechanistic insights into the recovery process...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059294/non-degenerate-2-photon-excitation-in-scattering-medium-for-fluorescence-microscopy
#13
Mu-Han Yang, Maxim Abashin, Payam A Saisan, Peifang Tian, Christopher G L Ferri, Anna Devor, Yeshaiahu Fainman
Non-degenerate 2-photon excitation (ND-2PE) of a fluorophore with two laser beams of different photon energies offers an independent degree of freedom in tuning of the photon flux for each beam. This feature takes advantage of the infrared wavelengths used in degenerate 3-photon excitation (D-3PE) microscopy to achieve increased penetration depths, while preserving a relatively high 2-photon excitation cross section in comparison to that of D-3PE. Here, using spatially and temporally aligned Ti:Sapphire laser and optical parametric oscillator beams operating at near infrared (NIR) and short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) optical frequencies, we employ ND-2PE and provide a practical demonstration that a constant fluorophore emission intensity is achievable deeper into a scattering medium using ND-2PE as compared to the commonly used degenerate 2-photon excitation (D-2PE)...
December 26, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059225/generalized-vector-wave-theory-for-ultrahigh-resolution-confocal-optical-microscopy
#14
Ken Yang, Xiangsheng Xie, Jianying Zhou
Polarization modulation of a tightly focused beam in a confocal imaging scheme is considered for incident and collected light fields. Rigorous vector wave theory of a confocal optical microscopy is developed, which provides clear physical pictures without the requirement for fragmentary calculations. Multiple spatial modulations on polarization, phase, or amplitude of the illuminating and the detected beams can be mathematically described by a uniform expression. Linear and nonlinear excitation schemes are derived with tailored excitation and detection fields within this generalized theory, whose results show that the ultimate resolution achieved with the linear excitation can reach one-fifth of the excitation wavelength (or λ/5), while the nonlinear excitation scheme gives rise to a resolution better than λ/12 for two-photon fluorescence excitation and λ/20 for three-photon fluorescence excitation...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055099/evaluation-of-therapeutic-tissue-crosslinking-txl-for-myopia-using-second-harmonic-generation-signal-microscopy-in-rabbit-sclera
#15
Mariya Zyablitskaya, Anna Takaoka, Emilia L Munteanu, Takayuki Nagasaki, Stephen L Trokel, David C Paik
Purpose: Second harmonic generation signals (SHG) are emitted preferentially from collagenous tissue structures and have been used to evaluate photochemically-induced (CXL) crosslinking changes in the cornea. Since therapeutic tissue crosslinking (TXL) using sodium hydroxymethylglycinate (SMG) of the sclera is a potential treatment for high myopia, we explored the use of SHG microscopy to evaluate the effects. Methods: Single sub-Tenon's (sT) injections (400 μL) using SMG (40-400 mM) were made at the equatorial 12 o'clock position of the right eye of cadaveric rabbit heads (n = 16 pairs)...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054004/diffusion-tensor-imaging-measures-of-white-matter-compared-to-myelin-basic-protein-immunofluorescence-in-tissue-cleared-intact-brains
#16
Eric H Chang, Miklos Argyelan, Manisha Aggarwal, Toni-Shay S Chandon, Katherine H Karlsgodt, Susumu Mori, Anil K Malhotra
We provide datasets from combined ex vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and Clear Lipid-exchanged, Anatomically Rigid, Imaging/immunostaining compatible, Tissue hYdrogel (CLARITY) performed on intact mouse brains. DTI-derived measures of fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) were compared to antibody-based labeling of myelin basic protein (MBP), as measured by fluorescence microscopy. We used a customized CLARITY hydrogel solution to facilitate whole brain tissue clearing and subsequent immunolabeling...
February 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053036/pericytes-as-inducers-of-rapid-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-dependent-capillary-damage-during-ischemia
#17
Robert G Underly, Manuel Levy, David A Hartmann, Roger I Grant, Ashley N Watson, Andy Y Shih
: Blood-brain barrier disruption (BBB) and release of toxic blood molecules into the brain contributes to neuronal injury during stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases. While pericytes are builders and custodians of the BBB in the normal brain, their impact on BBB integrity during ischemia remains unclear. We imaged pericyte-labeled transgenic mice with in vivo two-photon microscopy to examine the relationship between pericytes and blood plasma leakage during photothrombotic occlusion of cortical capillaries...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049497/two-differentially-structured-collagen-scaffolds-for-potential-urinary-bladder-augmentation-proof-of-concept-study-in-a-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipig-model
#18
Dorothea Leonhäuser, Katja Stollenwerk, Volker Seifarth, Isabella M Zraik, Michael Vogt, Pramod K Srinivasan, Rene H Tolba, Joachim O Grosse
BACKGROUND: The repair of urinary bladder tissue is a necessity for tissue loss due to cancer, trauma, or congenital abnormalities. Use of intestinal tissue is still the gold standard in the urological clinic, which leads to new problems and dysfunctions like mucus production, stone formation, and finally malignancies. Therefore, the use of artificial, biologically derived materials is a promising step towards the augmentation of this specialised tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate potential bladder wall repair by two collagen scaffold prototypes, OptiMaix 2D and 3D, naïve and seeded with autologous vesical cells, as potential bladder wall substitute material in a large animal model...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048528/we-h-206-01-photoacoustic-tomography-multiscale-imaging-from-organelles-to-patients-by-ultrasonically-beating-the-optical-diffusion-limit
#19
L Wang
: Lihong V. Wang: Photoacoustic tomography (PAT), combining non-ionizing optical and ultrasonic waves via the photoacoustic effect, provides in vivo multiscale functional, metabolic, and molecular imaging. Broad applications include imaging of the breast, brain, skin, esophagus, colon, vascular system, and lymphatic system in humans or animals. Light offers rich contrast but does not penetrate biological tissue in straight paths as x-rays do. Consequently, high-resolution pure optical imaging (e...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047869/we-h-206-02-recent-advances-in-multi-modality-molecular-imaging-of-small-animals
#20
B Tsui
: Lihong V. Wang: Photoacoustic tomography (PAT), combining non-ionizing optical and ultrasonic waves via the photoacoustic effect, provides in vivo multiscale functional, metabolic, and molecular imaging. Broad applications include imaging of the breast, brain, skin, esophagus, colon, vascular system, and lymphatic system in humans or animals. Light offers rich contrast but does not penetrate biological tissue in straight paths as x-rays do. Consequently, high-resolution pure optical imaging (e...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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