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Eric S Haag, Te-Wen Lo
Transmission of the human parasite Brugia malayi relies on the sustained production of larvae in blood. In this issue of Developmental Cell,Foray et al. (2018) use methods developed in the model nematode C. elegans to reveal how a symbiotic bacterium supports the female germ cell development underlying this massive fecundity.
April 23, 2018: Developmental Cell
Da Yin, Erich M Schwarz, Cristel G Thomas, Rebecca L Felde, Ian F Korf, Asher D Cutter, Caitlin M Schartner, Edward J Ralston, Barbara J Meyer, Eric S Haag
To reveal impacts of sexual mode on genome content, we compared chromosome-scale assemblies of the outcrossing nematode Caenorhabditis nigoni to its self-fertile sibling species, C. briggsae C. nigoni 's genome resembles that of outcrossing relatives but encodes 31% more protein-coding genes than C. briggsae C. nigoni genes lacking C. briggsae orthologs were disproportionately small and male-biased in expression. These include the male secreted short ( mss ) gene family, which encodes sperm surface glycoproteins conserved only in outcrossing species...
January 5, 2018: Science
Lauren E Ryan, Eric S Haag
Within the nematode genus Caenorhabditis, Caenorhabditis briggsae and C. nigoni are among the most closely related species known. They differ in sexual mode, with C. nigoni retaining the ancestral XO male-XX female outcrossing system, while C. briggsae recently evolved self-fertility and an XX-biased sex ratio. Wild-type C. briggsae and C. nigoni can produce fertile hybrid XX female progeny, but XO progeny are either 100% inviable (when C. briggsae is the mother) or viable but sterile (when C. nigoni is the mother)...
April 3, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Eric S Haag, Gili Marbach-Ad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Gili Marbach-Ad, Carly H Rietschel, Neeti Saluja, Karen L Carleton, Eric S Haag
This study describes the implementation and effectiveness of small-group active engagement (GAE) exercises in an introductory biology course (BSCI207) taught in a large auditorium setting. BSCI207 (Principles of Biology III-Organismal Biology) is the third introductory core course for Biological Sciences majors. In fall 2014, the instructors redesigned one section to include GAE activities to supplement lecture content. One section (n = 198) employed three lectures per week. The other section (n = 136) replaced one lecture per week with a GAE class...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Alana V Beadell, Eric S Haag
Given the large number of RNA-binding proteins and regulatory RNAs within genomes, posttranscriptional regulation may be an underappreciated aspect of cis-regulatory evolution. Here, we focus on nematode germ cells, which are known to rely heavily upon translational control to regulate meiosis and gametogenesis. GLD-1 belongs to the STAR-domain family of RNA-binding proteins, conserved throughout eukaryotes, and functions in Caenorhabditis elegans as a germline-specific translational repressor. A phylogenetic analysis across opisthokonts shows that GLD-1 is most closely related to Drosophila How and deuterostome Quaking, both implicated in alternative splicing...
January 2015: Genome Biology and Evolution
Gavin C Woodruff, Christine M Knauss, Timothy K Maugel, Eric S Haag
Lifespan costs to reproduction are common across multiple species, and such costs could potentially arise through a number of mechanisms. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, it has been suggested that part of the lifespan cost to hermaphrodites from mating results from physical damage owing to the act of copulation itself. Here, we examine whether mating damages the surface of the hermaphrodite cuticle via scanning electron microscopy. It is found that mated hermaphrodites suffered delamination of cuticle layers surrounding the vulva, and that the incidence of such damage depends on genetic background...
2014: PloS One
Janice J Ting, Gavin C Woodruff, Gemma Leung, Na-Ra Shin, Asher D Cutter, Eric S Haag
Conflict between the sexes over reproductive interests can drive rapid evolution of reproductive traits and promote speciation. Here we show that inter-species mating between Caenorhabditis nematodes sterilizes maternal individuals. The principal effectors of male-induced harm are sperm cells, which induce sterility and shorten lifespan by displacing conspecific sperm, invading the ovary, and sometimes breaching the gonad to infiltrate other tissues. This sperm-mediated harm is pervasive across species, but idiosyncrasies in its magnitude implicate both independent histories of sexually antagonistic coevolution within species and differences in reproductive mode (self-fertilizing hermaphrodites versus females) in determining its severity...
July 2014: PLoS Biology
Kalle Sipilä, Sabrina Haag, Konstantin Denessiouk, Jarmo Käpylä, Eric C Peters, Alexander Denesyuk, Uwe Hansen, Yrjö Konttinen, Mark S Johnson, Rikard Holmdahl, Jyrki Heino
Citrullinated collagen II (CII) is a well-known autoantigen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the direct effects of CII citrullination on cell behavior have not been described. To study whether citrullination of CII could affect cellular functions, we measured the adhesion of 3 different cell types (human Saos2 osteosarcoma cells, human synovial fibroblasts, and rat mesenchymal stem cells) with impedance-based technology. The binding of different collagen receptor integrins to citrullinated collagen was studied by CHO cell lines, each overexpressing 1 of the 4 human collagen receptors on the cell surface, and with solid-phase binding assays, using the recombinant human integrin α1I, α2I, α10I, and α11I domains...
August 2014: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Eric S Haag
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2014: PLoS Genetics
Qinwen Liu, Eric S Haag
Gene duplication and divergence has emerged as an important aspect of developmental evolution. The genomes of Caenorhabditis nematodes encode an ancient family of PUF RNA-binding proteins. Most have been implicated in germline development, and are often redundant with paralogs of the same sub-family. An exception is Cbr-puf-2 (one of three Caenorhabditis briggsae PUF-2 sub-family paralogs), which is required for development past the second larval stage. Here, we provide a detailed functional characterization of Cbr-puf-2...
May 2014: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
Cristel G Thomas, Renhua Li, Harold E Smith, Gavin C Woodruff, Brian Oliver, Eric S Haag
Evolutionary transitions between sexual modes could be potent forces in genome evolution. Several Caenorhabditis nematode species have evolved self-fertile hermaphrodites from the obligately outcrossing females of their ancestors. We explored the relationship between sexual mode and global gene expression by comparing two selfing species, C. elegans and C. briggsae, with three phylogenetically informative outcrossing relatives, C. remanei, C. brenneri, and C. japonica. Adult transcriptome assemblies from the selfing species are consistently and strikingly smaller than those of the outcrossing species...
November 20, 2012: Current Biology: CB
Eric S Haag, Qinwen Liu
Germ cells share core attributes and homologous molecular components across animal phyla. Nevertheless, abrupt shifts in reproductive mode often occur that are mediated by the rapid evolution of germ cell properties. Studies of Caenorhabditis nematodes show how the otherwise conserved RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that regulate germline development and differentiation can undergo surprisingly rapid functional evolution. This occurs even as the narrow biochemical tasks performed by the RBPs remain constant. The biological roles of germline RBPs are thus highly context-dependent, and the inference of archetypal roles from isolated models in different phyla may therefore be premature...
2013: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Cristel G Thomas, Gavin C Woodruff, Eric S Haag
Reproduction is directly connected to the suite of developmental and physiological mechanisms that enable it, but how it occurs also has consequences for the genetics, ecology and longer term evolutionary potential of a lineage. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, anatomically female XX worms can self-fertilize their eggs. This ability evolved recently and in multiple Caenorhabditis lineages from male-female ancestors, providing a model for examining both the developmental causes and longer term consequences of a novel, convergently evolved reproductive mode...
May 2012: Trends in Genetics: TIG
Qinwen Liu, Craig Stumpf, Cristel Thomas, Marvin Wickens, Eric S Haag
The modification of transcriptional regulation is a well-documented evolutionary mechanism in both plants and animals, but post-transcriptional controls have received less attention. The derived hermaphrodite of C. elegans has regulated spermatogenesis in an otherwise female body. The PUF family RNA-binding proteins FBF-1 and FBF-2 limit XX spermatogenesis by repressing the male-promoting proteins FEM-3 and GLD-1. Here, we examine the function of PUF homologs from other Caenorhabditis species, with emphasis on C...
April 2012: Development
Alana V Beadell, Qinwen Liu, Dorothy M Johnson, Eric S Haag
Pleiotropic developmental regulators have been repeatedly linked to the evolution of anatomical novelties. Known mechanisms include cis-regulatory DNA changes that alter regulator transcription patterns or modify target-gene linkages. Here, we examine the role of another form of regulation, translational control, in the repeated evolution of self-fertile hermaphroditism in Caenorhabditis nematodes. Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodites initiate spermatogenesis in an otherwise female body through translational repression of the gene tra-2...
December 6, 2011: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Andreas F Haag, Mikhail Baloban, Monica Sani, Bernhard Kerscher, Olivier Pierre, Attila Farkas, Renato Longhi, Eric Boncompagni, Didier Hérouart, Sergio Dall'angelo, Eva Kondorosi, Matteo Zanda, Peter Mergaert, Gail P Ferguson
Sinorhizobium meliloti differentiates into persisting, nitrogen-fixing bacteroids within root nodules of the legume Medicago truncatula. Nodule-specific cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides (NCR AMPs) and the bacterial BacA protein are essential for bacteroid development. However, the bacterial factors central to the NCR AMP response and the in planta role of BacA are unknown. We investigated the hypothesis that BacA is critical for the bacterial response towards NCR AMPs. We found that BacA was not essential for NCR AMPs to induce features of S...
October 2011: PLoS Biology
Joseph A Ross, Daniel C Koboldt, Julia E Staisch, Helen M Chamberlin, Bhagwati P Gupta, Raymond D Miller, Scott E Baird, Eric S Haag
The nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae is an emerging model organism that allows evolutionary comparisons with C. elegans and exploration of its own unique biological attributes. To produce a high-resolution C. briggsae recombination map, recombinant inbred lines were generated from reciprocal crosses between two strains and genotyped at over 1,000 loci. A second set of recombinant inbred lines involving a third strain was also genotyped at lower resolution. The resulting recombination maps exhibit discrete domains of high and low recombination, as in C...
July 2011: PLoS Genetics
Gavin C Woodruff, Onyinyechi Eke, Scott E Baird, Marie-Anne Félix, Eric S Haag
The architecture of both phenotypic variation and reproductive isolation are important problems in evolutionary genetics. The nematode genus Caenorhabditis includes both gonochoristic (male/female) and androdioecious (male/hermaprodite) species. However, the natural genetic variants distinguishing reproductive mode remain unknown, and nothing is known about the genetic basis of postzygotic isolation in the genus. Here we describe the hybrid genetics of the first Caenorhabditis species pair capable of producing fertile hybrid progeny, the gonochoristic Caenorhabditis sp...
November 2010: Genetics
Daniel C Koboldt, Julia Staisch, Bavithra Thillainathan, Karen Haines, Scott E Baird, Helen M Chamberlin, Eric S Haag, Raymond D Miller, Bhagwati P Gupta
BACKGROUND: The nematode C. briggsae serves as a useful model organism for comparative analysis of developmental and behavioral processes. The amenability of C. briggsae to genetic manipulations and the availability of its genome sequence have prompted researchers to study evolutionary changes in gene function and signaling pathways. These studies rely on the availability of forward genetic tools such as mutants and mapping markers. RESULTS: We have computationally identified more than 30,000 polymorphisms (SNPs and indels) in C...
April 13, 2010: BMC Genomics
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