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Robotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813017/a-wireless-exg-interface-for-patch-type-ecg-holter-and-emg-controlled-robot-hand
#1
Kwangmuk Lee, Yun Young Choi, Dae Jung Kim, Hee Young Chae, Kyeonghwan Park, Young Min Oh, Sung Hun Woo, Jae Joon Kim
This paper presents a wearable electrophysiological interface with enhanced immunity to motion artifacts. Anti-artifact schemes, including a patch-type modular structure and real-time automatic level adjustment, are proposed and verified in two wireless system prototypes of a patch-type electrocardiogram (ECG) module and an electromyogram (EMG)-based robot-hand controller. Their common ExG readout integrated circuit (ROIC), which is reconfigurable for multiple physiological interfaces, is designed and fabricated in a 0...
August 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812495/caring-robots-are-here-to-help
#2
Irena Papadopoulos, Antonio Sgorbissa, Christina Koulouglioti
Robots, along with sensors and telemedicine, have been identified as technologies that can assist and prolong independent living for older people, with robots especially being used to help prevent social isolation and depression.
August 16, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812291/technology-games-using-wittgenstein-for-understanding-and-evaluating-technology
#3
Mark Coeckelbergh
In the philosophy of technology after the empirical turn, little attention has been paid to language and its relation to technology. In this programmatic and explorative paper, it is proposed to use the later Wittgenstein, not only to pay more attention to language use in philosophy of technology, but also to rethink technology itself-at least technology in its aspect of tool, technology-in-use. This is done by outlining a working account of Wittgenstein's view of language (as articulated mainly in the Investigations) and by then applying that account to technology-turning around Wittgenstein's metaphor of the toolbox...
August 15, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812257/robotic-assisted-microvascular-surgery-skill-acquisition-in-a-rat-model
#4
Nicholas S Clarke, Johnathan Price, Travis Boyd, Stefano Salizzoni, Kenton J Zehr, Alejandro Nieponice, Pietro Bajona
Microsurgery is a technically demanding field with long learning curves. Robotic-assisted microsurgery has the ability to decrease these learning curves. We, therefore, sought to assess the feasibility of robotic-assisted microvascular surgery in a rat model, and whether this could be translated into a worthwhile skills acquisition exercise for residents. Twenty-eight rats underwent microvascular anastomosis. Procedures were performed by a trained microvascular surgeon with no robotic experience (n = 14), or a trained robotic surgeon with no microvascular experience (n = 14)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Robotic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812247/towards-robot-assisted-echocardiographic-monitoring-in-catheterization-laboratories-usability-centered-manipulator-for-transesophageal-echocardiography
#5
Christina Pahl, Henning Ebelt, Mostafa Sayahkaraji, Eko Supriyanto, Amiliana Soesanto
This paper proposes a robotic Transesophageal Echocardiography (TOE) system concept for Catheterization Laboratories. Cardiovascular disease causes one third of all global mortality. TOE is utilized to assess cardiovascular structures and monitor cardiac function during diagnostic procedures and catheter-based structural interventions. However, the operation of TOE underlies various conditions that may cause a negative impact on performance, the health of the cardiac sonographer and patient safety. These factors have been conflated and evince the potential of robot-assisted TOE...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812193/cost-analysis-of-robot-assisted-choledochotomy-and-common-bile-duct-exploration-as-an-option-for-complex-choledocholithiasis
#6
Ahmed Almamar, Nawar A Alkhamesi, Ward T Davies, Christopher M Schlachta
AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of elective, robot-assisted choledochotomy and common bile duct exploration (RCD/CBDE) compared to open surgery for ERCP refractory choledocholithiasis. METHOD: A prospective database of all RCD/CBDE has been maintained since our first procedure in April 2007 though April 2016. With ethics approval, this database was compared with all contemporaneous elective open procedures (OCD/CBDE) performed since March 2005...
August 15, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812160/robotic-versus-open-pancreatoduodenectomy-a-propensity-score-matched-analysis-based-on-factors-predictive-of-postoperative-pancreatic-fistula
#7
Niccolò Napoli, Emanuele F Kauffmann, Francesca Menonna, Francesca Costa, Sara Iacopi, Gabriella Amorese, Serena Giorgi, Angelo Baggiani, Ugo Boggi
BACKGROUND: Improvement in morbidity of pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) largely depends on the reduction in the incidence of clinically relevant (CR) postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). METHODS: After internal validation of the clinical risk score (CRS) of POPF, and identification of other predictive factors for POPF, robotic (RPD), and open (OPD) PDs were stratified into risk categories and matched by propensity scores. The primary endpoint of this study was incidence of CR-POPF...
August 15, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812154/robotic-versus-laparoscopic-versus-open-colorectal-surgery-towards-defining-criteria-to-the-right-choice
#8
Matthew Zelhart, Andreas M Kaiser
OBJECTIVE: Analysis of various parameters related to the patient, the disease, and the needed surgical maneuvers to develop guidance for preoperative selection of the appropriate and the best approach for a given patient. Rapid advances in minimally invasive surgical technology are fascinating and challenging alike. It can be difficult for surgeons to keep up with new modalities that come on to the market place and to assess their true value, i.e., distinguish between fashionable trends versus scientific evidence...
August 15, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812120/risk-adapted-robotic-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-for-inoperable-early-stage-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#9
Susanne Temming, Martin Kocher, Erich Stoelben, Lars Hagmeyer, De-Hua Chang, Konrad Frank, Khosro Hekmat, Juergen Wolf, Wolfgang W Baus, Robert Semrau, Christian Baues, S Marnitz
PURPOSE: To evaluate efficacy and toxicity of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) with CyberKnife® (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) in a selected cohort of primary, medically inoperable early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. METHODS: From 2012 to 2016, 106 patients (median age 74 years, range 50-94 years) with primary NSCLC were treated with SBRT using CyberKnife®. Histologic confirmation was available in 87 patients (82%). For mediastinal staging, 92 patients (87%) underwent (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (18-FDG-PET) and/or endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided lymph node biopsy or mediastinoscopy...
August 15, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809803/hitchhiking-robots-a-collaborative-approach-for-efficient-multi-robot-navigation-in-indoor-environments
#10
Abhijeet Ravankar, Ankit A Ravankar, Yukinori Kobayashi, Takanori Emaru
Hitchhiking is a means of transportation gained by asking other people for a (free) ride. We developed a multi-robot system which is the first of its kind to incorporate hitchhiking in robotics, and discuss its advantages. Our method allows the hitchhiker robot to skip redundant computations in navigation like path planning, localization, obstacle avoidance, and map update by completely relying on the driver robot. This allows the hitchhiker robot, which performs only visual servoing, to save computation while navigating on the common path with the driver robot...
August 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809785/path-planning-for-non-circular-non-holonomic-robots-in-highly-cluttered-environments
#11
Ricardo Samaniego, Joaquin Lopez, Fernando Vazquez
This paper presents an algorithm for finding a solution to the problem of planning a feasible path for a slender autonomous mobile robot in a large and cluttered environment. The presented approach is based on performing a graph search on a kinodynamic-feasible lattice state space of high resolution; however, the technique is applicable to many search algorithms. With the purpose of allowing the algorithm to consider paths that take the robot through narrow passes and close to obstacles, high resolutions are used for the lattice space and the control set...
August 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809745/a-hybrid-active-force-control-of-a-lower-limb-exoskeleton-for-gait-rehabilitation
#12
Zahari Taha, Anwar P P Abdul Majeed, Amar Faiz Zainal Abidin, Mohammed A Hashem Ali, Ismail Mohd Khairuddin, Abdelhakim Deboucha, Mohd Yashim Wong Paul Tze
Owing to the increasing demand for rehabilitation services, robotics have been engaged in addressing the drawbacks of conventional rehabilitation therapy. This paper focuses on the modelling and control of a three-link lower limb exoskeleton for gait rehabilitation that is restricted to the sagittal plane. The exoskeleton that is modelled together with a human lower limb model is subjected to a number of excitations at its joints while performing a joint space trajectory tracking, to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed controller in compensating disturbances...
August 15, 2017: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808971/high-throughput-screening-for-identification-of-novel-innate-immune-activators
#13
Bryan J Gall, Victor R DeFilippis
Modern drug discovery has embraced in vitro platforms that enable investigation of large numbers of compounds within tractable timeframes and for feasible costs. These endeavors have been greatly aided in recent years by advances in molecular and cell-based methods such as gene delivery and editing technology, advanced imaging, robotics, and quantitative analysis. As such, the examination of phenotypic impacts of novel molecules may only be limited by the size of the compound collection. Innate immune signaling processes in mammalian cells are especially amenable to high-throughput screening platforms since the cellular responses elicited by their activation often result in high level transcription that can be harnessed in the form of bioluminescent or fluorescent signal...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808931/robotic-total-pelvic-exenteration-video-illustrated-technique
#14
Ioannis T Konstantinidis, William Chu, Federico Tozzi, Clayton Lau, Mark Wakabayashi, Kevin Chan, Byrne Lee
BACKGROUND: Robotic-assisted total pelvic exenteration (TPE) can offer a minimally invasive approach to a major multi-organ operation. METHODS: In this video, we summarize a stepwise approach to robotic TPE in a 70 year-old female Jehovah's witness with a history of cervical cancer post-chemoradiation and radical hysterectomy who experienced local recurrence at the vaginal cuff involving the rectum and bladder. RESULTS: The patient was placed in the lithotomy position...
August 14, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808900/varying-ultrasound-power-level-to-distinguish-surgical-instruments-and-tissue
#15
Hongliang Ren, Banani Anuraj, Pierre E Dupont
We investigate a new framework of surgical instrument detection based on power-varying ultrasound images with simple and efficient pixel-wise intensity processing. Without using complicated feature extraction methods, we identified the instrument with an estimated optimal power level and by comparing pixel values of varying transducer power level images. The proposed framework exploits the physics of ultrasound imaging system by varying the transducer power level to effectively distinguish metallic surgical instruments from tissue...
August 15, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808825/integrating-planning-perception-and-action-for-informed-object-search
#16
Luis J Manso, Marco A Gutierrez, Pablo Bustos, Pilar Bachiller
This paper presents a method to reduce the time spent by a robot with cognitive abilities when looking for objects in unknown locations. It describes how machine learning techniques can be used to decide which places should be inspected first, based on images that the robot acquires passively. The proposal is composed of two concurrent processes. The first one uses the aforementioned images to generate a description of the types of objects found in each object container seen by the robot. This is done passively, regardless of the task being performed...
August 14, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807577/a-comparison-of-inflammatory-responses-between-robotically-enhanced-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-and-conventional-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-implications-for-hybrid-revascularization
#17
Galina Leyvi, Kumar Vivek, Sankalp Sehgal, Adrienne Warrick, Kea Alexa Moncada, Nancy Shilian, Jonathan D Leff, Robert E Michler, Joseph J DeRose
OBJECTIVE: The inflammatory response elicited by robotically enhanced coronary artery bypass grafting (r-CABG) has not been well described. When r-CABG is performed as part of hybrid coronary revascularization, the inflammatory milieu and the timing of percutaneous coronary intervention may affect the stent patency negatively in the short and long term. The goal of this study was to describe the extent and time course of cytokine release after r-CABG compared with conventional CABG (c-CABG) and to elucidate the optimal timing for r-CABG in the setting of hybrid coronary revascularization for a future study...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806995/robot-supported-assessment-of-balance-in-standing-and-walking
#18
REVIEW
Camila Shirota, Edwin van Asseldonk, Zlatko Matjačić, Heike Vallery, Pierre Barralon, Serena Maggioni, Jaap H Buurke, Jan F Veneman
Clinically useful and efficient assessment of balance during standing and walking is especially challenging in patients with neurological disorders. However, rehabilitation robots could facilitate assessment procedures and improve their clinical value. We present a short overview of balance assessment in clinical practice and in posturography. Based on this overview, we evaluate the potential use of robotic tools for such assessment. The novelty and assumed main benefits of using robots for assessment are their ability to assess 'severely affected' patients by providing assistance-as-needed, as well as to provide consistent perturbations during standing and walking while measuring the patient's reactions...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806756/generic-scalable-and-decentralized-fault-detection-for-robot-swarms
#19
Danesh Tarapore, Anders Lyhne Christensen, Jon Timmis
Robot swarms are large-scale multirobot systems with decentralized control which means that each robot acts based only on local perception and on local coordination with neighboring robots. The decentralized approach to control confers number of potential benefits. In particular, inherent scalability and robustness are often highlighted as key distinguishing features of robot swarms compared with systems that rely on traditional approaches to multirobot coordination. It has, however, been shown that swarm robotics systems are not always fault tolerant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806716/efficient-hardware-implementation-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-external-globus-pallidus-oscillation-system-and-its-dynamics-investigation
#20
Shuangming Yang, Xile Wei, Jiang Wang, Bin Deng, Chen Liu, Haitao Yu, Huiyan Li
Modeling and implementation of the nonlinear neural system with physiologically plausible dynamic behaviors are considerably meaningful in the field of computational neuroscience. This study introduces a novel hardware platform to investigate the dynamical behaviors within the nonlinear subthalamic nucleus-external globus pallidus system. In order to reduce the implementation complexities, a hardware-oriented conductance-based subthalamic nucleus (STN) model is presented, which can reproduce accurately the dynamical characteristics of biological conductance-based STN cells...
July 26, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
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