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T H Liu, J D Wu, Yca Chang, C K Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
Tien-Kuan Chen, Hui-Ting Yang, Su-Chiung Fang, Yi-Chen Lien, Ting-Ting Yang, Swee-Suak Ko
Maintaining plant section integrity is essential for studying detailed anatomical structures at the cellular, tissue, or even organ level. However, some plant cells have rigid cell walls, tough fibers and crystals (calcium oxalate, silica, etc.), and high water content that often disrupt tissue integrity during plant tissue sectioning. This study establishes a simple Hybrid-Cut tissue sectioning method. This protocol modifies a paraffin-based sectioning technique and improves the integrity of tissue sections from different plants...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
K Kmieć, I Kot, K Golan, E Górska-Drabik, B Łagowska, K Rubinowska, W Michałek
The harmfulness of mealybugs resulting from sucking plant sap, secreting honeydew, and transmitting plant viruses can give them the status of serious pests. This study documents the influence of Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) infestation on alterations in selected physiological parameters of Phalaenopsis x hybridum 'Innocence'. The condition of the cytoplasmic membranes was expressed as the value of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. We have determined changes in the activities of catalase and guaiacol peroxidase and measured the following chlorophyll fluorescence parameters: maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), effective quantum yield (Y), photochemical quenching (qP), and nonphotochemical quenching (qN)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Shan-Ce Niu, Qing Xu, Guo-Qiang Zhang, Yong-Qiang Zhang, Wen-Chieh Tsai, Jui-Ling Hsu, Chieh-Kai Liang, Yi-Bo Luo, Zhong-Jian Liu
Orchids are renowned for their spectacular flowers and ecological adaptations. After the sequencing of the genome of the tropical epiphytic orchid Phalaenopsis equestris, we combined Illumina HiSeq2000 for RNA-Seq and Trinity for de novo assembly to characterize the transcriptomes for 11 diverse P. equestris tissues representing the root, stem, leaf, flower buds, column, lip, petal, sepal and three developmental stages of seeds. Our aims were to contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving the analysed tissue characteristics and to enrich the available data for P...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Data
Jhun-Chen Chen, Miao-Ju Wei, Su-Chiung Fang
One of the distinct reproductive programs in orchid species is pollination-triggered ovule development and megasporogenesis. During sexual reproduction, fertilization occurs days to months after pollination. The molecular mechanisms evolved to carry out this strategic reproductive program remain unclear. In the August issue of Plant Physiology (1) , we report comprehensive studies of comparative genome-wide gene expression in various reproductive tissues and the molecular events associated with developmental transitions unique to sexual reproduction of Phalaenopsis aphrodite...
October 2, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Truong Ngoc Minh, Do Tan Khang, Phung Thi Tuyen, Luong The Minh, La Hoang Anh, Nguyen Van Quan, Pham Thi Thu Ha, Nguyen Thanh Quan, Nguyen Phu Toan, Abdelnaser Abdelghany Elzaawely, Tran Dang Xuan
Phalaenopsis spp. is the most commercially and economically important orchid, but their plant parts are often left unused, which has caused environmental problems. To date, reports on phytochemical analyses were most available on endangered and medicinal orchids. The present study was conducted to determine the total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts prepared from leaves and roots of six commercial hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. Leaf extracts of "Chian Xen Queen" contained the highest total phenolics with a value of 11...
September 14, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Yu-Fu Lin, You-Yi Chen, Yu-Yun Hsiao, Ching-Yu Shen, Jui-Ling Hsu, Chuan-Ming Yeh, Nobutaka Mitsuda, Masaru Ohme-Takagi, Zhong-Jian Liu, Wen-Chieh Tsai
TEOSINTE-BRANCHED/CYCLOIDEA/PCF (TCP) proteins are plant-specific transcription factors known to have a role in multiple aspects of plant growth and development at the cellular, organ and tissue levels. However, there has been no related study of TCPs in orchids. Here we identified 23 TCP genes from the genome sequence of Phalaenopsis equestris Phylogenetic analysis distinguished two homology classes of PeTCP transcription factor families: classes I and II. Class II was further divided into two subclasses, CIN and CYC/TB1...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Su-Chiung Fang, Jhun-Chen Chen, Miao-Ju Wei
The distinct reproductive program of orchids provides a unique evolutionary model with pollination-triggered ovule development and megasporogenesis, a modified embryogenesis program resulting in seeds with immature embryos, and mycorrhiza-induced seed germination. However, the molecular mechanisms that have evolved to establish these unparalleled developmental programs are largely unclear. Here, we conducted comparative studies of genome-wide gene expression of various reproductive tissues and captured the molecular events associated with distinct reproductive programs in Phalaenopsis aphrodite Importantly, our data provide evidence to demonstrate that protocorm-like body (PLB) regeneration (the clonal regeneration practice used in the orchid industry) does not follow the embryogenesis program...
August 2016: Plant Physiology
Yi-Tzu Kuo, Hui-Lan Hsu, Chih-Hsin Yeh, Song-Bin Chang
BACKGROUND: Preparation of good chromosome spreads without cytoplasmic contamination is the crucial step in cytogenetic mapping. To date, cytogenetic research in the Orchidaceae family has been carried out solely on mitotic metaphase chromosomes. Well-spread meiotic pachytene chromosomes can provide higher resolution and fine detail for analysis of chromosomal structure and are also beneficial for chromosomal FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) mapping. However, an adequate method for the preparation of meiotic pachytene chromosomes in orchid species has not yet been reported...
2016: Molecular Cytogenetics
Jian-Zhi Huang, Chih-Peng Lin, Ting-Chi Cheng, Ya-Wen Huang, Yi-Jung Tsai, Shu-Yun Cheng, Yi-Wen Chen, Chueh-Pai Lee, Wan-Chia Chung, Bill Chia-Han Chang, Shih-Wen Chin, Chen-Yu Lee, Fure-Chyi Chen
The Phalaenopsis orchid is an important potted flower of high economic value around the world. We report the 3.1 Gb draft genome assembly of an important winter flowering Phalaenopsis 'KHM190' cultivar. We generated 89.5 Gb RNA-seq and 113 million sRNA-seq reads to use these data to identify 41,153 protein-coding genes and 188 miRNA families. We also generated a draft genome for Phalaenopsis pulcherrima 'B8802,' a summer flowering species, via resequencing. Comparison of genome data between the two Phalaenopsis cultivars allowed the identification of 691,532 single-nucleotide polymorphisms...
2016: PeerJ
Wen-Lin Liu, Huei-Chuan Shih, I-Szu Weng, Ya-Zhu Ko, Chi-Chu Tsai, Chang-Hung Chou, Yu-Chung Chiang
BACKGROUND: The intergeneric hybrids between Ascocenda John De Biase 'Blue' and Phalaenopsis Chih Shang's Stripes have been generated to introduce the blue color into the Phalaenopsis germplasm in prior study. In order to confirm the inheritance in hybrid progenies, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis were conducted to confirm the intergeneric hybridization status. METHODS/RESULTS: GISH analysis showed the presence of both maternal and paternal chromosomes in the cells of the putative hybrids indicating that the putative hybrid seedlings were intergeneric hybrids of the two parents...
2016: PloS One
Jhun-Chen Chen, Su-Chiung Fang
Pollen biology in P. aphrodite. Orchids have a distinct reproductive program. Pollination triggers ovule development and differentiation within flowers, and fertilization occurs days to months after pollination. It is unclear how pollen tubes travel through the developing ovaries during ovule development and when pollen tubes arrive at the mature embryo sac to achieve fertilization. Here, we report a robust staining protocol to image and record the timing of pollen germination, progressive growth of pollen tubes in ovaries, and arrival of pollen tubes at embryo sacs in Phalaenopsis aphrodite...
June 2016: Plant Reproduction
Takaaki Yamada, Seiji Hasegawa, Yu Inoue, Mayumi Kunita, Kazuhisa Ohsumi, Tsutomu Sakaida, Youichi Yashiro, Satoru Nakata
Recently, it has been reported that increased expression of WNT1 accelerates the differentiation of melanocyte stem cells (McSCs) in solar lentigines (SLs), hyperpigmented maculae commonly seen on sun-exposed areas of the skin. In this study, to establish an in vitro SL model, human epidermal squamous carcinoma cell line HSC-1, which expresses higher levels of WNT1 than normal human epidermal keratinocytes, was co-cultured with early passage normal human epidermal melanocytes (NHEMs) as an in vitro McSC model...
July 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Su Min Kim, Sun Hee Choi
A system for simultaneous detection of two orchid-infecting viruses was developed and applied to several orchid species. The detection system involved multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and could simultaneously identify Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) and Odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV) from the orchid species studied. Multiplex RT-PCR was conducted using two virus-specific primer pairs and an internal control pair of primers to amplify the CymMV and ORSV coat protein regions, and orchid 18S rDNA, respectively...
December 2015: Virus Genes
Chi-Chu Tsai, Huei-Chuan Shih, Hao-Ven Wang, Yu-Shium Lin, Chia-Hung Chang, Yu-Chung Chiang, Chang-Hung Chou
BACKGROUND: The moth orchid (Phalaenopsis species) is an ornamental crop that is highly commercialized worldwide. Over 30,000 cultivars of moth orchids have been registered at the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS). These cultivars were obtained by artificial pollination of interspecific hybridization. Therefore, the identification of different cultivars is highly important in the worldwide market. METHODS/RESULTS: We used Illumina sequencing technology to analyze an important species for breeding, Phalaenopsis aphrodite subsp...
2015: PloS One
Seonghoe Jang
The plant-specific transcription factor LEAFY (LFY) is considered to be a master regulator of flower development in the model plant, Arabidopsis. This protein plays a dual role in plant growth, integrating signals from the floral inductive pathways and acting as a floral meristem identity gene by activating genes for floral organ development. Although LFY occupies an important position in flower development, the functional divergence of LFY homologs has been demonstrated in several plants including monocots and gymnosperms...
November 2015: Plant & Cell Physiology
Hua Deng, Liang-Sheng Zhang, Guo-Qiang Zhang, Bao-Qiang Zheng, Zhong-Jian Liu, Yan Wang
The phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) gene is the key enzyme in CAM and C4 photosynthesis. A detailed phylogenetic analysis of the PEPC family was performed using sequences from 60 available published plant genomes, the Phalaenopsis equestris genome and RNA-Seq of 15 additional orchid species. The PEPC family consists of three distinct subfamilies, PPC-1, PPC-2, and PPC-3, all of which share a recent common ancestor in chlorophyte algae. The eudicot PPC-1 lineage separated into two clades due to whole genome duplication (WGD)...
January 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Špela Alič, Tina Naglič, Pablo Llop, Nataša Toplak, Simon Koren, Maja Ravnikar, Tanja Dreo
The genus Dickeya contains bacteria causing soft rot of economically important crops and ornamental plants. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two Dickeya sp. isolates from rotted leaves of Phalaenopsis orchids.
2015: Genome Announcements
Seonghoe Jang, Sang-Chul Choi, Hsing-Yi Li, Gynheung An, Elmon Schmelzer
We show that the key flowering regulators encoded by Phalaenopsis aphrodite FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (PaFT1) and PaFD share high sequence homologies to these from long-day flowering Arabidopsis and short-day flowering rice. Interestingly, PaFT1 is specifically up-regulated during flowering inductive cooling treatment but is not subjected to control by photoperiod in P. aphrodite. Phloem or shoot apex-specific expression of PaFT1 restores the late flowering of Arabidopsis ft mutants. Moreover, PaFT1 can suppress the delayed flowering caused by SHORT VEGATATIVE PHASE (SVP) overexpression as well as an active FRIGIDA (FRI) allele, indicating the functional conservation of flowering regulatory circuit in different plant species...
2015: PloS One
Chi-Chu Tsai, Chang-Hung Chou, Hao-Ven Wang, Ya-Zhu Ko, Tzen-Yuh Chiang, Yu-Chung Chiang
BACKGROUND: Phalaenopsis is one of the important commercial orchids in the world. Members of the P. amabilis species complex represent invaluable germplasm for the breeding program. However, the phylogeny of the P. amabilis species complex is still uncertain. The Phalaenopsis amabilis species complex (Orchidaceae) consists of subspecies amabilis, moluccana, and rosenstromii of P. amabilis, as well as P. aphrodite ssp. aphrodite, P. ap. ssp. formosana, and P. sanderiana. The aims of this study were to reconstruct the phylogeny and biogeographcial patterns of the species complex using Neighbor Joining (NJ), Maxinum Parsimony (MP), Bayesian Evolutionary Analysis Sampling Trees (BEAST) and Reconstruct Ancestral State in Phylogenies (RASP) analyses based on sequences of internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 from the nuclear ribosomal DNA and the trnH-psbA spacer from the plastid DNA...
2015: BMC Plant Biology
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