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Ariel A Beltramino, Roberto E Vogler, Alejandra Rumi, Leila B Guzmán, Stella M Martín, Juana G Peso
The exotic land gastropod Ovachlamys fulgens (Gude, 1900), aka the jumping snail, was registered in Eldorado city, Misiones province, constituting the first documented record of that species in Argentina-and for all of South America as well. Identities of the individuals were confirmed through morphological examination, and by a DNA sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. DNA sequences for the mitochondrial 16S-rRNA and the nuclear 18S-rRNA genes were also obtained from the morphologically-confirmed specimens to gain insights into the genetic background of this species in Argentina, and as additional markers for enhancing the rapidity of identification by governmental authorities who are responsible for managing the presence of exotic species...
May 14, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Murielle Simo-Droissart, Tariq Stévart, Bonaventure Sonké, Sandrine Mayogo, Narcisse Kamdem, Vincent Droissart
In the context of producing a revised phylogenetic Linnean taxonomy of angraecoid orchids, the monotypic and narrow-endemic genus Ossiculum is synonymised with Calyptrochilum . Accordingly, a new combination in Calyptrochilum is proposed for Ossiculum aurantiacum . The morphological and DNA-based evidence for this transfer is discussed. Moreover, Calyptrochilum aurantiacum is here firstly reported outside Cameroon, with a record from the Republic of the Congo. The Red List conservation status of this species is reassessed and it is to be downgraded from "Critically Endangered" (CR) to "Endangered" (EN), following the recent discovery of additional subpopulations in Cameroon...
2018: PhytoKeys
Emily Schofield, Edward P Jones, Viswambharan Sarasan
BACKGROUND: Orchids are under threat from human activities and climate change, with populations limited to small geographic hotspots. This makes them ideal candidates for ex situ conservation. Orchid seeds are desiccation tolerant, but often have poor longevity in seed banks and cryopreservation of orchid protocorms is complex and expensive. Therefore, simple methods for large-scale storage programs are essential to store orchid seeds of different life forms. Seeds of five species representing epiphytic, lithophytic and terrestrial orchids from the Central Highlands of Madagascar were studied to find a simple and effective system of cryopreservation...
May 9, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
K S Ping, R R Poobathy, R Zakaria, S Subramaniam
  BACKGROUND: Conservation of commercially important ornamental plants is important to maintain its unique beauty to cater the market demands. OBJECTIVE: The main objective is to develop an efficient cryopreservation technique for Aranda Broga Blue orchid PLBs using droplet-vitrification method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Several critical factors in cryopreservation were accessed such as preculture concentrations and durations, choice of vitrification solutions, two-step or three-step vitrification, growth recovery medium and PVS2 exposure duration...
July 2017: Cryo Letters
Rajkumar Kishor, G J Sharma
The P8 stem-loop region of the trnL intron, which is known to be hypervariable in size with multiple repeat motifs and created difficulties in alignment, is always excluded in phylogenetic as well as barcode analyses. This region was investigated for species discrimination in 98 taxa of orchids belonging to the tribe Vandeae using in silico mapping of restriction site polymorphism. The length of the P8 regions varied from 200 nucleotides in Aerides rosea to 669 nucleotides in Dendrophylax sallei. Forty two taxa had unique lengths, while as many as eight shared a common length of 521 nucleotides...
2018: PloS One
Cindy Callens, Matthew R Tucker, Dabing Zhang, Zoe A Wilson
Many monocot plants have high social and economic value. These include grasses such as rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which produce soft commodities for many food and beverage industries, and ornamental flowers such ase lily (Lilium longiflorum) and orchid (Oncidium Gower Ramsey), which represent an important component of international flower markets. There is constant pressure to improve the development and diversity of these species, with a significant emphasis on flower development, and this is particularly relevant considering the impact of changing environments on reproduction and thus yield...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Ya-Ting Chao, Wan-Chieh Chen, Chun-Yi Chen, Hsiu-Yin Ho, Chih-Hsin Yeh, Yi-Tzu Kuo, Chun-Lin Su, Shao-Hua Yen, Hao-Yen Hsueh, Jen-Hau Yeh, Hui-Lan Hsu, Yi-Hui Tsai, Tzu-Yen Kuo, Song-Bin Chang, Kai-Yi Chen, Ming-Che Shih
The Orchidaceae is a diverse and ecologically important plant family. Approximately 69% of all orchid species are epiphytes, which provide diverse microhabitats for many small animals and fungi in the canopy of tropical rainforests. Moreover, many orchids are of economic importance as food flavorings or ornamental plants. Phalaenopsis aphrodite, an epiphytic orchid, is a major breeding parent of many commercial orchid hybrids. We provide a high-quality chromosome-scale assembly of the P. aphrodite genome. The total length of all scaffolds is 1025...
April 28, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Po-Hsiung Chang, Yu-Pin Cheng, Po-Sheng Chang, Chiao-Wei Lo, Lung-Huang Lin, Chin-Fang Lu, Wen-Hung Chung
Scrub typhus is becoming a clinically important cause of acute undifferentiated febrile illness in Taiwan. The incubation period is between 6 and 21 days after exposure. It is transmitted by chiggers (larva of trombiculid mite) in long grasses and in dirt-floor homes, with infection characterized by a flu-like illness of fever, headache, and myalgia lasting approximately 1 week. It has various systemic manifestations, including GI symptoms. In some, the illness progresses to multiorgan dysfunction syndrome and death...
April 24, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Anand Kumar Mishra, Andrea Degl'Innocenti, Barbara Mazzolai
OBJECTIVE: Within the field of biorobotics, an emerging branch is plant-inspired robotics. Some effort exists in particular towards the production of digging robots that mimic roots; for these, a deeper comprehension of the role of root tip geometry in excavation would be highly desirable. Here we demonstrate a photogrammetry-based pipeline for the production of computer and manufactured replicas of moth orchid root apexes. RESULTS: Our methods yields faithful root reproductions...
April 25, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Huai Zhen Tian, Li Xia Han, Jun Li Zhang, Xing Lin Li, Takayuki Kawahara, Tomohisa Yukawa, Jordi López-Pujol, Pankaj Kumar, Myong Gi Chung, Mi Yoon Chung
Little is known about levels and patterns of genetic diversity for the entire range of endangered orchids native to China, Korea, and Japan. In this study, we focus on Cypripedium japonicum and suggest three hypotheses: 1) that genetic drift has been a primary evolutionary force; 2) that populations in central and western China harbor higher levels of genetic variation relative to those from eastern China; and 3) that C. japonicum in China maintains the highest genetic variation among the three countries. Using ISSR and SCoT markers, we investigated genetic diversity in 17 populations to test the three hypotheses...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mukti Ram Paudel, Mukesh Babu Chand, Basant Pant, Bijaya Pant
BACKGROUND: The medicinal orchid Dendrobium moniliforme contains water-soluble polysaccharides, phenanthrenes, bibenzyl derivatives, and polyphenol compounds. This study explored the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of D. moniliforme extracts and detected their bioactive compounds. METHODS: Plant material was collected from the Daman of Makawanpur district in central Nepal. Plant extracts were prepared from stems using hexane, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and methanol...
April 23, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Murielle Simo-Droissart, Gregory M Plunkett, Vincent Droissart, Molly B Edwards, João N M Farminhão, Vladimir Ječmenica, Tania D'haijère, Porter P Lowry, Bonaventure Sonké, Claire Micheneau, Barbara S Carlsward, Laura Azandi, Simon Verlynde, Olivier J Hardy, Florent Martos, Benny Bytebier, Eberhard Fischer, Tariq Stévart
Despite significant progress made in recent years toward developing an infrafamilial classification of Orchidaceae, our understanding of relationships among and within tribal and subtribal groups of epidendroid orchids remains incomplete. To reassess generic delimitation among one group of these epidendroids, the African angraecoids, phylogenetic relationships were inferred from DNA sequence data from three regions, ITS, matK, and the trnL-trnF intergenic spacer, obtained from a broadly representative sample of taxa...
April 16, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Richard M Bateman, Jessica J Guy, Paula J Rudall, Ilia J Leitch, Jaume Pellicer, Andrew R Leitch
Background and Aims: Recent tissue-level observations made indirectly via flow cytometry suggest that endoreplication (duplication of the nuclear genome within the nuclear envelope in the absence of subsequent cell division) is widespread within the plant kingdom. Here, we also directly observe ploidy variation among cells within individual petals, relating size of nucleus to cell micromorphology and (more speculatively) to function. Methods: We compared the labella (specialized pollinator-attracting petals) of two European orchid genera: Dactylorhiza has a known predisposition to organismal polyploidy, whereas Ophrys exhibits exceptionally complex epidermal patterning that aids pseudocopulatory pollination...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
Sonia Salazar-Cerezo, Nancy Martinez-Montiel, Maria Del Carmen Cruz-Lopez, Rebeca D Martinez-Contreras
Stanhopea tigrina is a Mexican endemic orchid reported as a threatened species. The naturally occurring microorganisms present in S. tigrina are unknown. In this work, we analyzed the diversity of endophytic and epiphytic culturable fungi in S. tigrina according to morphological and molecular identification. Using this combined approach, in this study we retrieved a total of 634 fungal isolates that presented filamentous growth, which were grouped in 134 morphotypes that were associated to 63 genera, showing that S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kenji Suetsugu
• Although orthopterans are rarely considered to be effective seed dispersal agents, the large flightless crickets known as weta have been suggested to function as ecological replacements for small mammals in New Zealand, where such mammals are absent. In addition, a recent study reported that camel crickets mediate seed dispersal of several heterotrophic plants including Yoania amagiensis in Japan. • I investigated the seed dispersal mechanism of Yoania japonica because the fruit morphology is similar to Yoania amagiensis...
April 14, 2018: Plant Biology
Riccardo Baroncelli, Serenella Sukno, Sabrina Sarrocco, Giovanni Cafà, Gaetan Le Floch, Michael R Thon
Colletotrichum orchidophilum is a plant pathogenic fungus infecting a wide range of plant species belonging to the family Orchidaceae. Besides its economic impact, C. orchidophilum has been used in recent years in evolutionary studies as it represents the closest related species to the C. acutatum species complex. Here we present the first draft whole-genome sequence of C. orchidophilum IMI 309357, providing a resource for future research on anthracnose of Orchidaceae and other hosts.
April 12, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Chihiro Miura, Katsushi Yamaguchi, Ryohei Miyahara, Tatsuki Yamamoto, Masako Fuji, Takahiro Yagame, Haruko Imaizumi-Anraku, Masahide Yamato, Shuji Shigenobu, Hironori Kaminaka
Achlorophylous and early developmental stages of chorolophylous orchids are highly dependent on carbon and other nutrients provided by mycorrhizal fungi, in a nutritional mode termed mycoheterotrophy. Previous findings have implied that some common properties at least partially underlie the mycorrhizal symbioses of mycoheterotrophic orchids and that of autotrophic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants; however, information about the molecular mechanisms of the relationship between orchids and their mycorrhizal fungi is limited...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Ranjetta Poobathy, Rahmad Zakaria, Vikneswaran Murugaiyah, Sreeramanan Subramaniam
Anoectochilus sp. and Ludisia discolor are known as Jewel orchids. Both species are terrestrial wild orchids that grow in shaded areas of forests. The Jewel orchids are renowned for the beauty of their leaves, which are dark-green laced with silvery or golden veins. The orchids are used as a cure in various parts of Asia. Overharvesting and anthropogenic disturbances threaten the existence of the Jewel orchids in the wild, necessitating human intervention in their survival. An understanding of the structure and adaptations of a plant may assist in its survival when propagated outside of its habitat...
2018: PloS One
Daniel de la Torre Llorente
This report reviews the European, National, and Regional catalogues of protected species, focusing specifically on the Orchidaceae family to determine which species seem to be well-protected and where they are protected. Moreover, this examination highlights which species appear to be underprotected and therefore need to be included in some catalogues of protection or be catalogued under some category of protection. The national and regional catalogues that should be implemented are shown, as well as what species should be included within them...
2018: TheScientificWorldJournal
Tim James Viney, Minas Salib, Abhilasha Joshi, Gunes Unal, Naomi Berry, Peter Somogyi
Rhythmic theta frequency (~5-12 Hz) oscillations coordinate neuronal synchrony and higher frequency oscillations across the cortex. Spatial navigation and context-dependent episodic memories are represented in several interconnected regions including the hippocampal and entorhinal cortices, but the cellular mechanisms for their dynamic coupling remain to be defined. Using monosynaptically-restricted retrograde viral tracing in mice, we identified a subcortical GABAergic input from the medial septum that terminated in the entorhinal cortex, with collaterals innervating the dorsal presubiculum...
April 5, 2018: ELife
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