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Abdolbaset Ghorbani, Barbara Gravendeel, Sugirthini Selliah, Shahin Zarré, Hugo de Boer
Tubers of terrestrial orchids are harvested and traded from the eastern Mediterranean to the Caspian Sea for the traditional product Salep. Over-exploitation of wild populations and increased middle-class prosperity have escalated prices for Salep, causing overharvesting, depletion of native populations and providing an incentive to expand harvesting to untapped areas in Iran. Limited morphological distinctiveness among traded Salep tubers renders species identification impossible, making it difficult to establish which species are targeted and affected the most...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
Necmettin Güler
In this study, the seed micromorphologies of eight taxa of Anacamptis, Neotinea and Orchis growing around Edirne province (Turkey) were investigated using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Slides prepared with glycerin jelly were used for measurements under the light microscope and fine details of seed testae characteristics were observed with SEM. Seeds of the investigated orchid taxa are fusiform shaped and of different shades of brown. Their lengths and widths are different among the taxa and range between 0...
2016: PhytoKeys
Fabiana Esposito, Hans Jacquemyn, Michael Waud, Daniel Tyteca
While it is generally acknowledged that orchid species rely on mycorrhizal fungi for completion of their life cycle, little is yet known about how mycorrhizal fungal diversity and community composition vary within and between closely related orchid taxa. In this study, we used 454 amplicon pyrosequencing to investigate variation in mycorrhizal communities between pure (allopatric) and mixed (sympatric) populations of two closely related Platanthera species (Platanthera bifolia and P. chlorantha) and putative hybrids...
2016: PloS One
Thomas Henneresse, Daniel Tyteca
As part of a research project on the food deception strategy in Orchis militaris (L.), the objective of this study was to identify insect visitors and potential pollinators of this orchid species in Belgium. In 2013, insects were collected over 2 d per site in five localities distributed in Southern Belgium (Wallonia). A total of 104 insects belonging to 49 species were caught. Dipterans were the most abundant visitors (50% of total specimens), followed by Hymenopterans (32%). Rhingia campestris Meigen, Bombylius venosus Mikan, Apis mellifera (L...
2016: Journal of Insect Science
Nga Shi Yeu, Farah Alia Nordin, Ahmad Sofiman Othman
Five new records of terrestrial and lithophytic orchid species were gathered from Penang Hill, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia namely Bulbophyllum depressum, Goodyera pusilla, Peristylus monticola, Podochilus microphyllus, and Zeuxine gracilis. Checklist of each species is provided and their distribution in Penang Hill is discussed.
August 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Cecilia T Costiniuk, Vikram Mehraj, Feras M Ghazawi, Rémi Fromentin, Joëlle Brousseau, Pierre Brassard, Maud Bélanger, Petronela Ancuta, Reina Bendayan, Nicolas Chomont, Jean-Pierre Routy
OBJECTIVE: HIV persistence in long-lived infected cells and in anatomical sanctuary sites are major hurdles to HIV eradication. Testicular tissue may represent a significant viral sanctuary site as it constitutes an immunologically-privileged compartment. We assessed immuno-tolerance properties of the testicular tissue in individuals receiving suppressive ART. DESIGN AND METHODS: Testicular tissue and matched blood samples were collected from 6 virally suppressed adults and 10 HIV-uninfected controls prior to gender reassignment surgery...
September 24, 2016: AIDS
Jamie W L Ong, Hua Li, Krishnapillai Sivasithamparam, Kingsley W Dixon, Michael G K Jones, Stephen J Wylie
Viruses associated with wild orchids and their mycorrhizal fungi are poorly studied. Using a shotgun sequencing approach, we identified eight novel endornavirus-like genome sequences from isolates of Ceratobasidium fungi isolated from pelotons within root cortical cells of wild indigenous orchid species Microtis media, Pterostylis sanguinea and an undetermined species of Pterostylis in Western Australia. They represent the first endornaviruses to be described from orchid mycorrhizal fungi and from the Australian continent...
September 24, 2016: Virology
Shan-Ce Niu, Qing Xu, Guo-Qiang Zhang, Yong-Qiang Zhang, Wen-Chieh Tsai, Jui-Ling Hsu, Chieh-Kai Liang, Yi-Bo Luo, Zhong-Jian Liu
Orchids are renowned for their spectacular flowers and ecological adaptations. After the sequencing of the genome of the tropical epiphytic orchid Phalaenopsis equestris, we combined Illumina HiSeq2000 for RNA-Seq and Trinity for de novo assembly to characterize the transcriptomes for 11 diverse P. equestris tissues representing the root, stem, leaf, flower buds, column, lip, petal, sepal and three developmental stages of seeds. Our aims were to contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving the analysed tissue characteristics and to enrich the available data for P...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Data
Jhun-Chen Chen, Miao-Ju Wei, Su-Chiung Fang
One of the distinct reproductive programs in orchid species is pollination-triggered ovule development and megasporogenesis. During sexual reproduction, fertilization occurs days to months after pollination. The molecular mechanisms evolved to carry out this strategic reproductive program remain unclear. In the August issue of Plant Physiology (1) , we report comprehensive studies of comparative genome-wide gene expression in various reproductive tissues and the molecular events associated with developmental transitions unique to sexual reproduction of Phalaenopsis aphrodite...
September 26, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Carlos Neto, Patrícia Cardigos, Sérgio Cruz Oliveira, José Luís Zêzere
Floristic and vegetation analysis in seven Mediterranean landslides led to the understanding of the successional processes occurring in different landslide disturbed sectors. Our study showed that in landslides that occurred between 1996 and 2010 there is a clear differentiation between the three main landslide sectors (scarp, main body and foot) concerning floristic composition, vegetation structure, floristic richness, successional processes and plant functional type. Additional differences were found between landslide areas and undisturbed agricultural areas adjacent to landslides...
September 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Thitita Unahabhokha, Pithi Chanvorachote, Boonchoo Sritularak, Jutarat Kitsongsermthon, Varisa Pongrakhananon
Lung cancer remains a leading public health problem as evidenced by its increasing death rate. The main cause of death in lung cancer patients is cancer metastasis. The metastatic behavior of lung cancer cells becomes enhanced when cancer cells undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Gigantol, a bibenzyl compound extracted from the Thai orchid, Dendrobium draconis, has been shown to have promising therapeutic potential against cancer cells, which leads to the hypothesis that gigantol may be able to inhibit the fundamental EMT process in cancer cells...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Truong Ngoc Minh, Do Tan Khang, Phung Thi Tuyen, Luong The Minh, La Hoang Anh, Nguyen Van Quan, Pham Thi Thu Ha, Nguyen Thanh Quan, Nguyen Phu Toan, Abdelnaser Abdelghany Elzaawely, Tran Dang Xuan
Phalaenopsis spp. is the most commercially and economically important orchid, but their plant parts are often left unused, which has caused environmental problems. To date, reports on phytochemical analyses were most available on endangered and medicinal orchids. The present study was conducted to determine the total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts prepared from leaves and roots of six commercial hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. Leaf extracts of "Chian Xen Queen" contained the highest total phenolics with a value of 11...
September 14, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Tiiu Kull, Ulvi Selgis, Miguel Villoslada Peciña, Mirjam Metsare, Aigi Ilves, Kadri Tali, Kalev Sepp, Kalevi Kull, Richard P Shefferson
The red list has become a ubiquitous tool in the conservation of species. We analyzed contemporary trends in the threat levels of European orchids, in total 166 species characterized in 27 national red lists, in relation to their reproductive biology and growth form, distribution area, and land cover where they occur. We found that species in central Europe are more threatened than those in the northern, southern, or Atlantic parts of Europe, while species were least threatened in southern Europe. Nectarless and tuberous species are significantly more threatened than nectariferous and rhizomatous taxa...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
T L Wise
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an inherited form of intellectual disability that is usually caused by expansion of a polymorphic CGG repeat in the 5' untranslated region of the X-linked FMR1 gene, which leads to hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing. Two non-neurological phenotypes of FXS are enlarged testes and connective tissue dysplasia, which could be caused by alterations in a growth factor signaling pathway. FXS patients also frequently have autistic-like symptoms, suggesting that the signaling pathways affected in FXS may overlap with those affected in autism...
September 19, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
S Mehra, P D Morrison, F Coates, A C Lawrie
Terrestrial orchids depend on orchid mycorrhizal fungi (OMF) as symbionts for their survival, growth and nutrition. The ability of OMF from endangered orchid species to compete for available resources with OMF from common species may affect the distribution, abundance and therefore conservation status of their orchid hosts. Eight symbiotically effective OMF from endangered and more common Caladenia species were tested for their ability to utilise complex insoluble and simple soluble carbon sources produced during litter degradation by growth with different carbon sources in liquid medium to measure the degree of OMF variation with host conservation status or taxonomy...
September 17, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Marta Kolanowska, Katarzyna Mystkowska, Marta Kras, Magdalena Dudek, Kamil Konowalik
The location of possible glacial refugia of six Apostasioideae representatives is estimated based on ecological niche modeling analysis. The distribution of their suitable niches during the last glacial maximum (LGM) is compared with their current potential and documented geographical ranges. The climatic factors limiting the studied species occurrences are evaluated and the niche overlap between the studied orchids is assessed and discussed. The predicted niche occupancy profiles and reconstruction of ancestral climatic tolerances suggest high level of phylogenetic niche conservatism within Apostasioideae...
2016: PeerJ
Nimisha Pulikkal Sukumaran, R Hiranmai Yadav
CONTEXT: D. macrostachyum is an epiphytic orchid abundant in Southern India and is reported for pain relief in folklore. AIMS: The objective of the present study was to determine in vitro free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activity of D. macrostachyum and to perform LCMS based metabolic profiling of the plant. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Sequential stem and leaf extracts were assessed for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity by in vitro methods...
April 2016: Ancient Science of Life
Erika Toda, Takashi Okamoto
Polyploidization is a common phenomenon in angiosperms, and polyploidy has played a major role in the long-term diversification and evolutionary success of plants. Triploid plants are considered as the intermediate stage in the formation of stable autotetraploid plants, and this pathway of tetraploid formation is known as the triploid bridge. As for the mechanism of triploid formation among diploid populations, fusion of an unreduced gamete with a reduced gamete is generally accepted. In addition, the possibility of polyspermy has been proposed for maize, wheat and some orchids, although it has been regarded as an uncommon mechanism of polyploid formation...
September 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Nina Joffard, Bruno Buatois, Bertrand Schatz
Several authors have recently stressed the need to develop an integrative approach in taxonomy, but studies applying such an approach to Mediterranean orchids are scarce. In sexually deceptive orchids from the taxonomically difficult genus Ophrys, pollination is specific and performed by male insects attracted to the flowers by sex pheromone-mimicking floral scents. Floral compounds are therefore of primary importance for reproductive isolation and species delimitations in this genus. In the fly orchid group, molecular, morphological, and ecological characters have been extensively studied, but a comprehensive survey of floral scents is still lacking...
October 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
Hector I Areizaga-Martinez, Ivan Kravchenko, Nickolay V Lavrik, Michael J Sepaniak, Samuel P Hernández-Rivera, Marco A De Jesús
The fabrication of high-performance plasmonic nanomaterials for bio-sensing and trace chemical detection is a field of intense theoretical and experimental research. The use of metal-silicon nanopillar arrays as analytical sensors has been reported with reasonable results in recent years. The use of bio-inspired nanocomposite structures that follow the Fibonacci numerical architecture offers the opportunity to develop nanostructures with theoretically higher and more reproducible plasmonic fields over extended areas...
September 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
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