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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088716/unveiling-the-transformation-and-bioavailability-of-dissolved-organic-matter-in-contrasting-hydrothermal-vents-using-fluorescence-eem-parafac
#1
Liyang Yang, Wan-E Zhuang, Chen-Tung Arthur Chen, Bing-Jye Wang, Fu-Wen Kuo
The submarine hydrothermal systems are extreme environments where active cycling of dissolved organic matter (DOM) may occur. However, little is known about the optical properties and bioavailability of hydrothermal DOM, which could provide valuable insights into its transformation processes and biogeochemical reactivity. The quantity, quality, and bioavailability of DOM were investigated for four very different hydrothermal vents east of Taiwan, using dissolved organic carbon (DOC), absorption spectroscopy, and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices-parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC)...
January 3, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066153/collectors-on-illicit-collecting-higher-loyalties-and-other-techniques-of-neutralization-in-the-unlawful-collecting-of-rare-and-precious-orchids-and-antiquities
#2
Simon Mackenzie, Donna Yates
Trafficking natural objects and trafficking cultural objects have been treated separately both in regulatory policy and in criminological discussion. The former is generally taken to be 'wildlife crime' while the latter has come to be considered under the auspices of a debate on 'illicit art and antiquities'. In this article we study the narrative discourse of high-end collectors of orchids and antiquities. The illicit parts of these global trades are subject to this analytical divide between wildlife trafficking and art trafficking, and this has resulted in quite different regulatory structures for each of these markets...
August 2016: Theor Criminol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062407/symbiont-abundance-can-affect-host-plant-population-dynamics
#3
Rachel Rock-Blake, Melissa K McCormick, Hope E A Brooks, Cynthia S Jones, Dennis F Whigham
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Symbioses are almost universal, but little is known about how symbiont abundance can affect host performance. Many orchids undergo vegetative dormancy and frequent and protracted dormancy have been associated with population declines. If mycorrhizal fungi affect host plant performance, those effects are likely to alter patterns of vegetative dormancy. The goal of this study was to determine whether the abundance of mycorrhizal fungi is related to the likelihood of entering dormancy and whether fungal abundance varied with dormancy duration in the federally listed threatened orchid Isotria medeoloides...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040774/comparative-omics-of-the-fusarium-fujikuroi-species-complex-highlights-differences-in-genetic-potential-and-metabolite-synthesis
#4
Eva-Maria Niehaus, Martin Münsterkötter, Robert H Proctor, Daren W Brown, Amir Sharon, Yifat Idan, Liat Oren-Young, Christian M Sieber, Ondřej Novák, Aleš Pěnčík, Danuše Tarkowská, Kristýna Hromadová, Stanley Freeman, Marcel Maymon, Meirav Elazar, Sahar A Youssef, El Said M El-Shabrawy, Abdel Baset A Shalaby, Petra Houterman, Nelson L Brock, Immo Burkhardt, Elena A Tsavkelova, Jeroen S Dickschat, Petr Galuszka, Ulrich Güldener, Bettina Tudzynski
Species of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFC) cause a wide spectrum of often devastating diseases on diverse agricultural crops, including coffee, fig, mango, maize, rice, and sugarcane. Although species within the FFC are difficult to distinguish by morphology, and their genes often share 90% sequence similarity, they can differ in host plant specificity and life style. FFC species can also produce structurally diverse secondary metabolites (SMs), including the mycotoxins fumonisins, fusarins, fusaric acid, and beauvericin, and the phytohormones gibberellins, auxins, and cytokinins...
December 31, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039600/local-scale-spatial-structure-and-community-composition-of-orchid-mycorrhizal-fungi-in-semi-natural-grasslands
#5
Jane Oja, Johanna Vahtra, Mohammad Bahram, Petr Kohout, Tiiu Kull, Riinu Rannap, Urmas Kõljalg, Leho Tedersoo
Orchid mycorrhizal (OrM) fungi play a crucial role in the ontogeny of orchids, yet little is known about how the structure of OrM fungal communities varies with space and environmental factors. Previous studies suggest that within orchid patches, the distance to adult orchids may affect the abundance of OrM fungi. Many orchid species grow in species-rich temperate semi-natural grasslands, the persistence of which depends on moderate physical disturbances, such as grazing and mowing. The aim of this study was to test whether the diversity, structure and composition of OrM fungal community are influenced by the orchid patches and management intensity in semi-natural grasslands...
December 30, 2016: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027702/making-a-global-sensation-vanilla-flavor-synthetic-chemistry-and-the-meanings-of-purity
#6
Nadia Berenstein
How did vanilla, once a rare luxury, become a global sensation? Rather than taking the vanilla flavor of vanilla beans as a pre-existing natural fact, this essay argues that the sensory experience that came to be recognized as vanilla was a hybrid artifact produced by an expanding global trade in a diverse set of pleasurable substances, including cured beans from artificially pollinated vanilla orchids, synthetic vanillin, sugar, and a far-flung miscellany of other botanical and chemical materials. Global trade and large-scale production resulted not in the production of a homogenous, stable commodity, but in a range of local vanillas, heterogeneous mixtures with a range of qualities and virtues...
December 2016: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025292/comparative-seed-germination-and-seedling-development-of-the-ghost-orchid-dendrophylax-lindenii-orchidaceae-and-molecular-identification-of-its-mycorrhizal-fungus-from-south-florida
#7
Nguyen H Hoang, Michael E Kane, Ellen N Radcliffe, Lawrence W Zettler, Larry W Richardson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The endangered leafless ghost orchid, Dendrophylax lindenii, one of the most renowned orchids in the world, is difficult to grow under artificial conditions. Published information on asymbiotic and symbiotic (co-culture with a mycobiont) seed germination, seedling anatomy and developmental morphology of this leafless orchid is completely lacking. This information is critical for the development of efficient procedures for ghost orchid production for successful reintroduction...
December 26, 2016: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024450/age-estimation-for-the-genus-cymbidium-orchidaceae-epidendroideae-with-implementation-of-fossil-data-calibration-using-molecular-markers-its2-matk-and-phylogeographic-inference-from-ancestral-area-reconstruction
#8
Ruchishree Konhar, Manish Debnath, Jean Valrie Marbaniang, Devendra Kumar Biswal, Pramod Tandon
Intercontinental dislocations between tropical regions harboring two-thirds of the flowering plants have always drawn attention from taxonomists and biogeographers. One such family belonging to angiosperms is Orchidaceae with an herbaceous habit and high species diversity in the tropics. Here, we investigate the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the genus Cymbidium, which represents a monophyletic subfamily (Epidendroideae) of the orchids and comprises 50 odd species that are distinctly distributed in tropical to temperate regions...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018622/the-carbon-and-nitrogen-ecophysiologies-of-two-endemic-tropical-orchids-mirrors-those-of-their-temperate-relatives-and-the-local-environment
#9
Nicole A Hynson
Orchids are one of the most widely distributed plant families. However, current research on the ecophysiology of terrestrial orchids is biased towards temperate species. Thus, it is currently unknown whether tropical terrestrial orchids belong to similar trophic guilds as their temperate relatives. To examine the ecophysiologies of two tropical terrestrial orchids, I analysed the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope compositions and nitrogen concentrations of the Hawaiian endemics Anoectochilus sandvicensis and Liparis hawaiensis...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004781/functional-insights-into-the-late-embryogenesis-abundant-lea-protein-family-from-dendrobium-officinale-orchidaceae-using-an-escherichia-coli-system
#10
Hong Ling, Xu Zeng, Shunxing Guo
Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, a diverse family, accumulate during seed desiccation in the later stages of embryogenesis. LEA proteins are associated with tolerance to abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity and high or cold temperature. Here, we report the first comprehensive survey of the LEA gene family in Dendrobium officinale, an important and widely grown medicinal orchid in China. Based on phylogenetic relationships with the complete set of Arabidopsis and Oryza LEA proteins, 17 genes encoding D...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994608/dna-barcoding-evaluation-and-its-taxonomic-implications-in-the-recently-evolved-genus-oberonia-lindl-orchidaceae-in-china
#11
Yuling Li, Yi Tong, Fuwu Xing
The orchid genus Oberonia Lindl., is a taxonomically complex genus characterized by recent species radiations and many closely related species. All Oberonia species are under conservation as listed in the CITES and the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Given its difficulties in taxonomy and conservation status, Oberonia is an excellent model for developing DNA barcodes. Three analytical methods and five DNA barcoding regions (rbcL, matK, trnH-psbA, ITS, and ITS2) were evaluated on 127 individuals representing 40 species and 1 variety of Oberonia from China...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994196/dual-modified-antiphospho-ser10-acetyl-lys14-histone-h3-predominantly-mark-the-pericentromeric-chromatin-during-mitosis-in-monokinetic-plants
#12
Santosh Kumar Sharma, Maki Yamamoto, Yasuhiko Mukai
Epigenetic regulatory posttranslational histone modification marks not only function individually but also capable to act in combination as a unique pattern. A total of 16 plant species belonging to 11 genera of eight families (five dicots and three monocots) including land plants, epiphytes (orchids) and the holokinetic taxa (Drosera spp.) were analysed for chromosomal distribution of dual modified antiphospho (Ser10)-acetyl (K14)-histone H3 (H3S10phK14ac) to understand the combinatorial chromatin dynamics during mitotic cell division in plants...
December 2016: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975405/to-evaluate-the-effects-of-orchid-mycorrhizal-fungi-on-the-metabolites-of-anoectochilus-formosanus-hayata-by-uhplc-ms
#13
F C Yang, C K Lee, M K Lin, M S Lee, W T Chang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965752/ascorbate-peroxidase-activity-of-aranda-broga-blue-orchid-protocorm-like-bodies-plbs-in-response-to-pvs2-cryopreservation-method
#14
Khor Soo Ping, Rahmad Zakaria, Sreeramanan Subramaniam
Throughout the cryopreservation process, plants were exposed to a series of abiotic stresses such as desiccation and osmotic pressure due to highly concentrated vitrification solution. Abiotic stress stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which include hydrogen peroxide, superoxide radicals, and singlet oxygen. Higher production of ROS may lead to oxidative stress which contributes to the major injuries in cryopreserved explants. Antioxidant enzymes in plant such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX) can protect plants from cell damage by scavenging the free radicals...
November 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965736/early-studies-on-protoplast-isolation-of-ludisia-discolor-a-wild-orchid
#15
Ranjetta Poobathy, Rahmad Zakaria, Syed Mohd Edzham Syed Hamzah, Sreeramanan Subramaniam
The terrestrial Ludisia discolor, also referred to as the jewel orchid is prized for the quality of its leaves. L. discolor is known as a medicinal herb and is touted for its heat- and pathogen-resisting qualities. L. discolor is valuable in the production of both flavonoids and anthocyanins, antioxidants that are exalted in the health industry. Plant cell cultures have emerged as alternative sources of anthocyanin production. Plant protoplast cultures are used frequently in transient gene expression studies and in the establishment of callus and cell suspension cultures...
November 2016: Tropical Life Sciences Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931140/phylogeography-of-the-endangered-orchid-dendrobium-moniliforme-in-east-asia-inferred-from-chloroplast-dna-sequences
#16
Meirong Ye, Wei Liu, Qingyun Xue, Beiwei Hou, Jing Luo, Xiaoyu Ding
The aim of the current study was to elucidate the phylogeographic history of Dendrobium moniliforme, an endangered orchid species, based on two chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) markers (trnC-petN and trnE-trnT). One hundred and thirty-five samples were collected from 18 natural populations of D. moniliforme covering the entire range of the Sino-Japanese Floristic Region (SJFR) of East Asia. A total of 35 distinct cpDNA haplotypes were identified in these populations, of which 23 haplotypes were each present in only one sample and thus restricted to a single population...
December 8, 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917576/karyotype-diversity-and-genome-size-variation-in-neotropical-maxillariinae-orchids
#17
A P Moraes, S Koehler, J S Cabral, S S L Gomes, L F Viccini, F Barros, L P Felix, M Guerra, E R Forni-Martins
(1) Orchidaceae is a widely distributed plant family with a very diverse vegetative and floral morphology and such variability is also reflected in their karyotypes. However, since only a low proportion of Orchidaceae has been analysed for chromosome data, a greater diversity may await to be unveiled. Here we analyse both genome size (GS) and karyotype in two subtribes recently included in the broadened Maxillariineae to detect how much chromosome and GS variation there are in these groups and to evaluate which genome rearrangements were involved in the species evolution...
December 5, 2016: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911377/hybrid-cut-an-improved-sectioning-method-for-recalcitrant-plant-tissue-samples
#18
Tien-Kuan Chen, Hui-Ting Yang, Su-Chiung Fang, Yi-Chen Lien, Ting-Ting Yang, Swee-Suak Ko
Maintaining plant section integrity is essential for studying detailed anatomical structures at the cellular, tissue, or even organ level. However, some plant cells have rigid cell walls, tough fibers and crystals (calcium oxalate, silica, etc.), and high water content that often disrupt tissue integrity during plant tissue sectioning. This study establishes a simple Hybrid-Cut tissue sectioning method. This protocol modifies a paraffin-based sectioning technique and improves the integrity of tissue sections from different plants...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905469/selection-for-predation-not-female-fecundity-explains-sexual-size-dimorphism-in-the-orchid-mantises
#19
Gavin J Svenson, Sydney K Brannoch, Henrique M Rodrigues, James C O'Hanlon, Frank Wieland
Here we reconstruct the evolutionary shift towards floral simulation in orchid mantises and suggest female predatory selection as the likely driving force behind the development of extreme sexual size dimorphism. Through analysis of body size data and phylogenetic modelling of trait evolution, we recovered an ancestral shift towards sexual dimorphisms in both size and appearance in a lineage of flower-associated praying mantises. Sedentary female flower mantises dramatically increased in size prior to a transition from camouflaged, ambush predation to a floral simulation strategy, gaining access to, and visually attracting, a novel resource: large pollinating insects...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891646/nitrogen-transport-in-the-orchid-mycorrhizal-symbiosis-further-evidence-for-a-mutualistic-association
#20
John D W Dearnaley, Duncan D Cameron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: New Phytologist
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