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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434415/does-the-incredible-years-reduce-child-externalizing-problems-through-improved-parenting-the-role-of-child-negative-affectivity-and-serotonin-transporter-linked-polymorphic-region-5-httlpr-genotype
#1
Joyce Weeland, Rabia R Chhangur, Sara R Jaffee, Danielle Van Der Giessen, Walter Matthys, Bram Orobio De Castro, Geertjan Overbeek
In a randomized controlled trial, the Observational Randomized Controlled Trial of Childhood Differential Susceptibility (ORCHIDS study), we tested whether observed parental affect and observed and reported parenting behavior are mechanisms of change underlying the effects of the behavioral parent training program the Incredible Years (IY). Furthermore, we tested whether some children are more susceptible to these change mechanisms because of their temperamental negative affectivity and/or serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype...
April 24, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421312/an-annotated-translation-of-no%C3%A3-l-bernard-s-1899-article-on-the-germination-of-neottia-nidus-avis
#2
Marc-André Selosse, Julita Minasiewicz, Bernard Boullard
We translate Noël Bernard's discovery of orchid symbiotic germination discovered on Neottia nidus-avis, as published in the May 1899 issue of the Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des sciences. In his note, Bernard (1874-1911) establishes the need for a fungus, which is also forming mycorrhizae in adults, for seeds germination. We provide illustrations reproduced from his later works, and summaries of the French text he cited. In our annotations, we show how early this discovery was done in Bernard's career, and insist on the scientific framework at the end of the nineteenth century, where orchid germination was mysterious and the need for vicinity of parents was not fully understood...
April 18, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419219/dna-remodelling-by-strict-partial-endoreplication-in-orchids-an-original-process-in-the-plant-kingdom
#3
Spencer C Brown, Mickaël Bourge, Nicolas Maunoury, Maurice Wong, Michele Wolfe Bianchi, Sandra Lepers-Andrzejewski, Pascale Besse, Sonja Siljak-Yakovlev, Michel Dron, Béatrice Satiat-Jeunemaître
DNA remodelling during endoreplication appears to be a strong developmental characteristic in orchids. In this study, we analysed DNA content and nuclei in 41 species of orchids to further map the genome evolution in this plant family. We demonstrate that the DNA remodelling observed in 36 out of 41 orchids studied corresponds to strict partial endoreplication. Such process is developmentally regulated in each wild species studied. Cytometry data analyses allowed us to propose a model where nuclear states 2C, 4E, 8E, etc...
April 13, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411481/a-re-evaluation-of-the-final-step-of-vanillin-biosynthesis-in-the-orchid-vanilla-planifolia
#4
Hailian Yang, Jaime Barros-Rios, Galina Kourteva, Xiaolan Rao, Fang Chen, Hui Shen, Chenggang Liu, Andrzej Podstolski, Faith Belanger, Daphna Havkin-Frenkel, Richard A Dixon
A recent publication describes an enzyme from the vanilla orchid Vanilla planifolia with the ability to convert ferulic acid directly to vanillin. The authors propose that this represents the final step in the biosynthesis of vanillin, which is then converted to its storage form, glucovanillin, by glycosylation. The existence of such a "vanillin synthase" could enable biotechnological production of vanillin from ferulic acid using a "natural" vanilla enzyme. The proposed vanillin synthase exhibits high identity to cysteine proteases, and is identical at the protein sequence level to a protein identified in 2003 as being associated with the conversion of 4-coumaric acid to 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde...
April 12, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410432/patterns-of-orchid-bee-species-diversity-and-turnover-among-forested-plateaus-of-central-amazonia
#5
Yasmine Antonini, Carolina de Barros Machado, Pedro Manoel Galetti, Marcio Oliveira, Rodolfo Dirzo, Geraldo Wilson Fernandes
The knowledge of spatial pattern and geographic beta-diversity is of great importance for biodiversity conservation and interpreting ecological information. Tropical forests, especially the Amazon Rainforest, are well known for their high species richness and low similarity in species composition between sites, both at local and regional scales. We aimed to determine the effect and relative importance of area, isolation and climate on species richness and turnover in orchid bee assemblages among plateaus in central Brazilian Amazonia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402786/atractiella-rhizophila-sp-nov-an-endorrhizal-fungus-isolated-from-the-populus-root-microbiome
#6
Gregory Bonito, Khalid Hameed, Merje Toome-Heller, Rosanne Healy, Chantal Reid, Hui-Ling Liao, M Catherine Aime, Christopher Schadt, Rytas Vilgalys
Among fungi isolated from healthy root mycobiomes of Populus, we discovered a new endorrhizal fungal species belonging to the rust lineage Pucciniomycotina, described here as Atractiella rhizophila. We characterized this species by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), phylogenetic analysis, and plant bioassay experiments. Phylogenetic sequence analysis of isolates and available environmental and reference sequences indicates that this new species, A. rhizophila, has a broad geographic and host range. Atractiella rhizophila appears to be present in North America, Australia, Asia, and Africa and is associated with trees, orchids, and other agriculturally important species, including soybean, corn, and rice...
2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398876/citrus-leprosis-virus-n-a-new-dichorhavirus-causing-citrus-leprosis-disease
#7
Pedro Ramos-Gonzalez, Camila Chabi-Jesus, Orlene Guerra-Peraza, Aline D Tassi, Elliot Kitajima, Ricardo Harakava, Renato B Salaroli, Juliana Freitas-Astua
Citrus leprosis (CL) is a viral disease endemic to the Western Hemisphere that produces local-necrotic and -chlorotic lesions on leaves, branches and fruits and causes serious yield reduction in citrus orchards. Samples of sweet orange (Citrus × sinensis) trees showing CL symptoms were collected during a survey in non-commercial citrus areas in the southeast region of Brazil in 2013-2016. Transmission electron microscopy analyses of foliar lesions confirmed the presence of rod-like viral particles commonly associated with CL in the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected cells...
April 11, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397556/orchid-a-cultural-history
#8
Ann Shteir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2017: Annals of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390323/the-impact-of-gc-bias-on-phylogenetic-accuracy-using-targeted-enrichment-phylogenomic-data
#9
Silas Bossert, Elizabeth A Murray, Bonnie B Blaimer, Bryan N Danforth
The field of sequence based phylogenetic analyses is currently being transformed by novel hybrid-based targeted enrichment methods, such as the use of ultraconserved elements (UCEs). Rather than analyzing relationships among organisms using a small number of genes, these methods now allow us to evaluate relationships with many hundreds to thousands of individual gene loci. However, the inclusion of thousands of loci does not necessarily overcome the long-standing challenge of incongruence among phylogenetic trees derived from different genes or gene regions...
April 5, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390097/preponderance-of-clonality-triggers-loss-of-sex-in-bulbophyllum-bicolor-an-obligately-outcrossing-epiphytic-orchid
#10
Ai-Qun Hu, Stephan W Gale, Pankaj Kumar, Richard M K Saunders, Mei Sun, Gunter A Fischer
Vegetative propagation (clonal growth) conveys several evolutionary advantages that positively affect life history fitness and is a widespread phenomenon among angiosperms that also reproduce sexually. However, a bias towards clonality can interfere with sexual reproduction and lead to sexual extinction, although a dearth of effective genetic tools and mathematical models for clonal plants has hampered assessment of these impacts. Using the endangered tropical epiphytic or lithophytic orchid Bulbophyllum bicolor as a model, we integrated an examination of breeding system with 12 microsatellite loci and models valid for clonal species to test for the 'loss of sex' and infer likely consequences for long-term reproductive dynamics...
April 8, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386268/doap1-promotes-flowering-in-the-orchid-dendrobium-chao-praya-smile
#11
Nunchanoke Sawettalake, Sumontip Bunnag, Yanwen Wang, Lisha Shen, Hao Yu
APETALA1 (AP1) encodes a key MADS-box transcription factor that specifies the floral meristem identity on the flank of the inflorescence meristem, and determines the identity of perianth floral organs in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Orchids are members of the Orchidaceae, one of the largest families of angiosperms. Although the expression patterns of a few AP1-like genes in orchids have been reported, their actual functions in orchid reproductive development are so far largely unknown. In this study, we isolated and characterized an AP1 ortholog, DOAP1, from Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370647/adaptive-sequence-evolution-is-driven-by-biotic-stress-in-a-pair-of-orchid-species-dactylorhiza-with-distinct-ecological-optima
#12
Francisco Balao, Emiliano Trucchi, Thomas Wolfe, Bao-Hai Hao, Maria Teresa Lorenzo, Juliane Baar, Laura Sedman, Carolin Kosiol, Fabian Amman, Mark W Chase, Mikael Hedrén, Ovidiu Paun
The orchid family is the largest in the angiosperms, but little is known about the molecular basis of the significant variation they exhibit. We investigate here the transcriptomic divergence between two European terrestrial orchids, Dactylorhiza incarnata and D. fuchsii, and integrate these results in the context of their distinct ecologies that we also document. Clear signals of lineage-specific adaptive evolution of protein-coding sequences are identified, notably targeting elements of biotic defence, including both physical and chemical adaptations in the context of divergent pools of pathogens and herbivores...
March 30, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360387/genetic-structure-of-pseudococcus-microcirculus-hemiptera-pseudococcidae-populations-on-epiphytic-orchids-in-south-florida
#13
J A Zettler, K Adams, B Frederick, A Gutting, N Ingebretsen, A Ragsdale, A Schrey
In 2012, the orchid mealy bug Pseudococcus microcirculus was first detected in situ in North America's more diverse orchid region, the Big Cypress Basin (Collier Co FL). A follow-up survey showed that the mealy bug is more widespread and found on epiphytic orchids in two locations, in both the Fakahatchee Strand State Preserve (sites B and F) and the Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge (sites M and C). There, we collected mealy bugs (n = 54) from 35 orchid individuals and screened allelic variation at seven microsatellite loci...
March 2017: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335712/exploring-the-evolutionary-origin-of-floral-organs-of-erycina-pusilla-an-emerging-orchid-model-system
#14
Anita Dirks-Mulder, Roland Butôt, Peter van Schaik, Jan Willem P M Wijnands, Roel van den Berg, Louie Krol, Sadhana Doebar, Kelly van Kooperen, Hugo de Boer, Elena M Kramer, Erik F Smets, Rutger A Vos, Alexander Vrijdaghs, Barbara Gravendeel
BACKGROUND: Thousands of flowering plant species attract pollinators without offering rewards, but the evolution of this deceit is poorly understood. Rewardless flowers of the orchid Erycina pusilla have an enlarged median sepal and incised median petal ('lip') to attract oil-collecting bees. These bees also forage on similar looking but rewarding Malpighiaceae flowers that have five unequally sized petals and gland-carrying sepals. The lip of E. pusilla has a 'callus' that, together with winged 'stelidia', mimics these glands...
March 23, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334284/genomic-diversity-guides-conservation-strategies-among-rare-terrestrial-orchid-species-when-taxonomy-remains-uncertain
#15
Collin W Ahrens, Megan A Supple, Nicola C Aitken, David J Cantrill, Justin O Borevitz, Elizabeth A James
Background and Aims: Species are often used as the unit for conservation, but may not be suitable for species complexes where taxa are difficult to distinguish. Under such circumstances, it may be more appropriate to consider species groups or populations as evolutionarily significant units (ESUs). A population genomic approach was employed to investigate the diversity within and among closely related species to create a more robust, lineage-specific conservation strategy for a nationally endangered terrestrial orchid and its relatives from south-eastern Australia...
March 15, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334113/you-are-what-you-get-from-your-fungi-nitrogen-stable-isotope-patterns-in-epipactis-species
#16
Julienne M-I Schiebold, Martin I Bidartondo, Peter Karasch, Barbara Gravendeel, Gerhard Gebauer
Background and Aims: Partially mycoheterotrophic plants are enriched in 13 C and 15 N compared to autotrophic plants. Here, it is hypothesized that the type of mycorrhizal fungi found in orchid roots is responsible for variation in 15 N enrichment of leaf tissue in partially mycoheterotrophic orchids. Methods: The genus Epipactis was used as a case study and carbon and nitrogen isotope abundances of eight Epipactis species, fungal sporocarps of four Tuber species and autotrophic references were measured...
February 22, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334073/do-distinct-biomes-influence-the-cuticular-chemical-profile-in-orchid-bees
#17
A B Santos, F S Nascimento
Cuticular chemical profiles of Euglossa cordata L. males were analyzed to test whether ecological predictors affect their composition and relative proportion. Males were collected in areas of Caatinga and Atlantic Forest from Brazil during two distinct seasonal periods. We found 48 compounds from the cuticular extracts of males, which consisted of hydrocarbons (71.39%), acetates (16.79%), esters (10.5%), alcohols and others (1.31%). We verified that when specimens were separated between biomes, they did not show a qualitative differentiation, but a small quantitative variation of compounds was found between some alkanes...
April 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322852/a-fuzzy-mathematical-model-to-estimate-the-effects-of-global-warming-on-the-vitality-of-laelia-purpurata-orchids
#18
Fernando Ferrari Putti, Luis Roberto Almeida Gabriel Filho, Camila Pires Cremasco Gabriel, Alfredo Bonini Neto, Carolina Dos Santos Batista Bonini, André Rodrigues Dos Reis
This study aimed to develop a fuzzy mathematical model to estimate the impacts of global warming on the vitality of Laelia purpurata growing in different Brazilian environmental conditions. In order to develop the mathematical model was considered as intrinsic factors the parameters: temperature, humidity and shade conditions to determine the vitality of plants. Fuzzy model results could accurately predict the optimal conditions for cultivation of Laelia purpurata in several sites of Brazil. Based on fuzzy model results, we found that higher temperatures and lacking of properly shading can reduce the vitality of orchids...
March 18, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299575/phylogenetic-constrains-on-mycorrhizal-specificity-in-eight-dendrobium-orchidaceae-species
#19
Xiaoke Xing, Xueting Ma, Jinxin Men, Yanhong Chen, Shunxing Guo
Plant phylogeny constrains orchid mycorrhizal (OrM) fungal community composition in some orchids. Here, we investigated the structures of the OrM fungal communities of eight Dendrobium species in one niche to determine whether similarities in the OrM fungal communities correlated with the phylogeny of the host plants and whether the Dendrobium-OrM fungal interactions are phylogenetically conserved. A phylogeny based on DNA data was constructed for the eight coexisting Dendrobium species, and the OrM fungal communities were characterized by their roots...
March 13, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280565/predicting-evolution-in-response-to-climate-change-the-example-of-sprouting-probability-in-three-dormancy-prone-orchid-species
#20
Richard P Shefferson, Ryo Mizuta, Michael J Hutchings
Although many ecological properties of species respond to climate change, their evolutionary responses are poorly understood. Here, we use data from long-term demographic studies to predict evolutionary responses of three herbaceous perennial orchid species, Cypripedium parviflorum, C. candidum and Ophrys sphegodes, to predicted climate changes in the habitats they occupy. We focus on the evolution of sprouting probability, because all three species exhibit long-term vegetative dormancy, i.e. individual plants may not emerge above-ground, potentially for several consecutive years...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
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