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A P Moraes, S Koehler, J S Cabral, S S L Gomes, L F Viccini, F Barros, L P Felix, M Guerra, E R Forni-Martins
(1) Orchidaceae is a widely distributed plant family with a very diverse vegetative and floral morphology and such variability is also reflected in their karyotypes. However, since only a low proportion of Orchidaceae has been analysed for chromosome data, a greater diversity may await to be unveiled. Here we analyse both genome size (GS) and karyotype in two subtribes recently included in the broadened Maxillariineae to detect how much chromosome and GS variation there are in these groups and to evaluate which genome rearrangements were involved in the species evolution...
December 5, 2016: Plant Biology
Tien-Kuan Chen, Hui-Ting Yang, Su-Chiung Fang, Yi-Chen Lien, Ting-Ting Yang, Swee-Suak Ko
Maintaining plant section integrity is essential for studying detailed anatomical structures at the cellular, tissue, or even organ level. However, some plant cells have rigid cell walls, tough fibers and crystals (calcium oxalate, silica, etc.), and high water content that often disrupt tissue integrity during plant tissue sectioning. This study establishes a simple Hybrid-Cut tissue sectioning method. This protocol modifies a paraffin-based sectioning technique and improves the integrity of tissue sections from different plants...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Gavin J Svenson, Sydney K Brannoch, Henrique M Rodrigues, James C O'Hanlon, Frank Wieland
Here we reconstruct the evolutionary shift towards floral simulation in orchid mantises and suggest female predatory selection as the likely driving force behind the development of extreme sexual size dimorphism. Through analysis of body size data and phylogenetic modelling of trait evolution, we recovered an ancestral shift towards sexual dimorphisms in both size and appearance in a lineage of flower-associated praying mantises. Sedentary female flower mantises dramatically increased in size prior to a transition from camouflaged, ambush predation to a floral simulation strategy, gaining access to, and visually attracting, a novel resource: large pollinating insects...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
John D W Dearnaley, Duncan D Cameron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: New Phytologist
Hans Jacquemyn, Michael Waud, Vincent S F T Merckx, Rein Brys, Daniel Tyteca, Mikael Hedrén, Bart Lievens
Orchid species are critically dependent on mycorrhizal fungi for completion of their life cycle, particularly during the early stages of their development when nutritional resources are scarce. As such, orchid mycorrhizal fungi play an important role in the population dynamics, abundance, and spatial distribution of orchid species. However, less is known about the ecology and distribution of orchid mycorrhizal fungi. In this study, we used 454 amplicon pyrosequencing to investigate ecological and geographic variation in mycorrhizal associations in fourteen species of the orchid genus Dactylorhiza...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Stefania Cevallos, Aminael Sánchez-Rodríguez, Cony Decock, Stéphane Declerck, Juan Pablo Suárez
In epiphytic orchids, distinctive groups of fungi are involved in the symbiotic association. However, little is known about the factors that determine the mycorrhizal community structure. Here, we analyzed the orchid mycorrhizal fungi communities associated with three sympatric Cymbidieae epiphytic tropical orchids (Cyrtochilum flexuosum, Cyrtochilum myanthum, and Maxillaria calantha) at two sites located within the mountain rainforest of southern Ecuador. To characterize these communities at each orchid population, the ITS2 region was analyzed by Illumina MiSeq technology...
November 23, 2016: Mycorrhiza
Natalia Pimentel Esposito-Polesi, Monita Fiori de Abreu-Tarazi, Cristina Vieira de Almeida, Siu Mui Tsai, Marcílio de Almeida
Asepsis, defined as the absence of microbial contamination, is one of the most important requirements of plant micropropagation. In long-term micropropagated cultures, there may occasionally occur scattered microorganism growth in the culture medium. These microorganisms are common plant components and are known as latent endophytes. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the presence of endophytic bacteria in asymptomatic pineapple and orchid microplants, which were cultivated in three laboratories for 1 year...
November 19, 2016: Current Microbiology
Jonas Morales-Linares, José G García-Franco, Alejandro Flores-Palacios, Jorge E Valenzuela-González, Martín Mata-Rosas, Cecilia Díaz-Castelazo
Ant-gardens (AGs) are considered one of the most complex mutualist systems between ants and plants, since interactions involving dispersal, protection, and nutrition occur simultaneously in them; however, little is known about the effects of the transformation of ecosystems on their diversity and interactions. In five environments with different land use within an anthropic landscape in southeastern Mexico, we investigated the diversity and composition of epiphytes and host trees of AGs built by Azteca gnava...
December 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
Xirui He, Jiacheng Fang, Xiaoxiao Wang, Zefeng Zhao, Yu Chang, Hao Guo, Linhong Huang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bletilla striata (Thunb.) Reichb. f. (Orchidaceae), also known as Hyacinth Orchid and Baiji (Simplified Chinese: ), not only has been widely used for the treatment of hematemesis, hemoptysis, and traumatic bleeding due to the efficacy of arresting bleeding with astringent action, but also has been applied topically to overcome ulcers, sores, swellings, and chapped skin due to the efficacy of dispersing swelling and promoting tissue regeneration. Additional medical applications include the treatment of tuberculosis, malignant ulcers, hemorrhoids, anthrax, eye diseases, and silicosis...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Ying-Hui Hou, Anburaj Jeyaraj, Xiao Zhang, Chao-Ling Wei
BACKGROUND: There are some studies to show that food-derived plant microRNAs (miRNAs) may be detected in mammals. The research evidence has being provoked a considerable debate whether plant-derived miRNAs exert the same regulatory functions as endogenous animal miRNAs. To test the hypothesis, the methods of highly sensitive absolute quantification miRNAs have been developed. However, absolute miRNA quantification of green tea has not yet been reported. In this study, it is the first to build an absolute quantification method to detect miRNAs level in green tea using stem-loop quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)...
November 12, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Samuele Voyron, Enrico Ercole, Stefano Ghignone, Silvia Perotto, Mariangela Girlanda
Mycorrhizal fungi are essential for the survival of orchid seedlings under natural conditions. The distribution of these fungi in soil can constrain the establishment and resulting spatial arrangement of orchids at the local scale, but the actual extent of occurrence and spatial patterns of orchid mycorrhizal (OrM) fungi in soil remain largely unknown. We addressed the fine-scale spatial distribution of OrM fungi in two orchid-rich Mediterranean grasslands by means of high-throughput sequencing of fungal ITS2 amplicons, obtained from soil samples collected either directly beneath or at a distance from adult Anacamptis morio and Ophrys sphegodes plants...
November 15, 2016: New Phytologist
E R Pansarin, I Alves-Dos-Santos, L M Pansarin
The incredible pollination mechanisms displayed by orchid flowers has inspired biologists over the centuries. Based on the intriguing flower structures the relation among orchid species and their pollinators has been frequently regarded as very specialized. Given that visits on flowers pollinated by oil-collecting bees are regularly rare and in Oncidiinae the flowers frequently atract exclusively species that act as effective pollinators, the comparative reproductive biology and pollinator specificity of two sympatric Gomesa (G...
November 11, 2016: Plant Biology
Valeria Fochi, Walter Chitarra, Annegret Kohler, Samuele Voyron, Vasanth R Singan, Erika A Lindquist, Kerrie W Barry, Mariangela Girlanda, Igor V Grigoriev, Francis Martin, Raffaella Balestrini, Silvia Perotto
Orchids are highly dependent on their mycorrhizal fungal partners for nutrient supply, especially during early developmental stages. In addition to organic carbon, nitrogen (N) is probably a major nutrient transferred to the plant because orchid tissues are highly N-enriched. We know almost nothing about the N form preferentially transferred to the plant or about the key molecular determinants required for N uptake and transfer. We identified, in the genome of the orchid mycorrhizal fungus Tulasnella calospora, two functional ammonium transporters and several amino acid transporters but found no evidence of a nitrate assimilation system, in agreement with the N preference of the free-living mycelium grown on different N sources...
November 11, 2016: New Phytologist
Johan Petter Dahlgren, Fernando Colchero, Owen R Jones, Dag-Inge Øien, Asbjørn Moen, Nina Sletvold
The dominant evolutionary theory of actuarial senescence-an increase in death rate with advancing age-is based on the concept of a germ cell line that is separated from the somatic cells early in life. However, such a separation is not clear in all organisms. This has been suggested to explain the paucity of evidence for actuarial senescence in plants. We used a 32 year study of Dactylorhiza lapponica that replaces its organs each growing season, to test whether individuals of this tuberous orchid senesce. We performed a Bayesian survival trajectory analysis accounting for reproductive investment, for individuals under two types of land use, in two climatic regions...
November 16, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Marta Kolanowska, Aleksandra M Naczk, Radomir Jaskuła
BACKGROUND: Psilochilus is a poorly studied orchid genus distributed from southern Mexico to south-eastern Brazil. A taxonomic revision of this Neotropical endemic based on morphological data is presented. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Over 170 dried herbarium specimens and flowers preserved in liquid of Psilochilus were analyzed. Morphological variation among examined taxa was described based on multivariate analysis. To evaluate the similarity between niches occupied by various Psilochilus species ecological niche modeling (ENM) was applied...
2016: PeerJ
Yuying Sun, Guangdong Wang, Yuxia Li, Li Jiang, Yuxia Yang, Shuangxue Guan
Cymbidium faberi is a traditional orchid flower in China that is highly appreciated for its fragrant aroma from its zygomorphic flowers. One bottleneck of the commercial production of C. faberi is the long vegetative growth phase of the orchid and the difficulty of the regulation of its flowering time. Moreover, its flower size, shape and color are often targeting traits for orchid breeders. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of floral development in C. faberi will ultimately benefit the genetic improvement of this orchid plant...
2016: SpringerPlus
Shreeti Pradhan, Tripti Regmi, Mukunda Ranjit, Bijaya Pant
Orchids are affected by many viruses resulting in poor growth, yield and quality, and an overall decline in population. Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) is one of the common orchid viruses found in Cymbidium species but it infects different orchid genera. In this study Cymbidium aloifolium was propagated in vitro using MS medium at different strength (1.0, ½, and ¼) with or without 0.5 mg/l BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) and 0.5 mg/l NAA (Naphthalene acetic acid). To provide disease-free planting material, source plant for in vitro propagation needs to be screened for pathogenic viruses...
October 2016: Heliyon
Carlos Martel, Lianka Cairampoma, Fred W Stauffer, Manfred Ayasse
Several neotropical orchid genera have been proposed as being sexually deceptive; however, this has been carefully tested in only a few cases. The genus Telipogon has long been assumed to be pollinated by male tachinid flies during pseudocopulatory events but no detailed confirmatory reports are available. Here, we have used an array of methods to elucidate the pollination mechanism in Telipogon peruvianus. The species presents flowers that have a mean floral longevity of 33 days and that are self-compatible, although spontaneous self-pollination does not occur...
2016: PloS One
Subhankar Biswas, Rashmi Pardeshi, Neetinkumar D Reddy, Muhammed Haneefa Shoja, Pawan G Nayak, M Manjunath Setty, K Sreedhara R Pai
Orchids of the genus Bulbophyllum have been reported to possess antitumor activity. Present study investigated the possible antitumor activity of the active fraction of bulb and root of Bulbophyllum sterile. Alcoholic extract along with petroleum ether, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions were subjected to SRB assay in HCT-116, MDA-MB-231 and A549 cell lines. The active fractions were further evaluated for apoptosis, expression of apoptotic signaling proteins, comet assay and cell cycle analysis. Furthermore, they were assessed for in vivo antitumor activity in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma model...
October 29, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Florence Auberon, Opeyemi Joshua Olatunji, Stéphanie Krisa, Cyril Antheaume, Gaëtan Herbette, Frédéric Bonté, Jean-Michel Mérillon, Annelise Lobstein
Two new phenanthrene derivatives, a phenanthrenequinone named arundiquinone (1) and a 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene named arundigramin (2) together with a known lignin dimer (3) and seven known stilbenoids (4-10) were isolated from the aerial parts of the Asian orchid Arundina graminifolia. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including extensive 1D, 2D NMR (heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC), heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation spectroscopy (HMBC), and HR-ESI-MS techniques, as well as comparison with respective literature reports...
October 27, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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