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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195549/dendrobium-chrysanthum-ethanolic-extract-induces-apoptosis-via-p53-up-regulation-in-hela-cells-and-inhibits-tumor-progression-in-mice
#1
Ritika Prasad, Nishant Kumar Rana, Biplob Koch
Background Dendrobium is one of the diverse genus of orchid plants. It possesses a number of pharmacological activities and has long been used in traditional system of medicine. The goal of this study was to investigate the apoptosis inducing property of the ethanolic extract from the leaves of Dendrobium chrysanthum, a species of Dendrobium whose anticancer role has not been ascertained yet. Methods To evaluate the anticancer activity of the ethanolic extract of D. chrysanthum in vitro in HeLa (human cervical cancer) cells, cytotoxic activity, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), induction of apoptosis and effect on cell cycle were determined...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168103/in-situ-morphometric-survey-elucidates-the-evolutionary-systematics-of-the-eurasian-himantoglossum-clade-orchidaceae-orchidinae
#2
Richard M Bateman, Attila Molnár V, Gábor Sramkó
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The charismatic Himantoglossum s.l. clade of Eurasian orchids contains an unusually large proportion of taxa that are of controversial circumscriptions and considerable conservation concern. Whereas our previously published study addressed the molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of every named taxon within the clade, here we use detailed morphometric data obtained from the same populations to compare genotypes with associated phenotypes, in order to better explore taxonomic circumscription and character evolution within the clade...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160857/eulophia-macrobulbon-an-orchid-with-significant-anti-inflammatory-and-antioxidant-effect-and-anticancerogenic-potential-exerted-by-its-root-extract
#3
Roswitha Schuster, Laura Zeindl, Wolfgang Holzer, Nattakanwadee Khumpirapang, Siriporn Okonogi, Helmut Viernstein, Monika Mueller
BACKGROUND: The Orchidaceae family is one of the largest families of flowering plants. Orchids are widely used for the traditional herbal medicine, acting as aphrodisiac, antisepic, antimicrobial, anti-cancer agent, etc. PURPOSE: This study was designed to elucidate the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of a 50% ethanolic extract of Eulophia macrobulbon roots (EME) in vitro, an orchid growing in Southern Asia. Furthermore, the main active compounds were isolated, and the bioactivity of the single constituents was determined...
January 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146332/effects-of-distance-from-models-on-the-fitness-of-floral-mimics
#4
Karl J Duffy, Steven D Johnson
Rewardless plants can attract pollinators by mimicking floral traits of rewarding heterospecific plants. This should result in the pollination success of floral mimics being dependent on the relative abundance of their models, as pollinator abundance and conditioning on model signals should be greater in the vicinity of the models. However, the attraction of pollinators to signals of the models may be partially innate, such that spatial isolation of mimics from model species may not strongly affect pollination success of mimics...
February 1, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144949/blown-by-the-wind-the-ecology-of-male-courtship-display-behavior-in-orchid-bees
#5
Tamara Pokorny, Ira Vogler, René Losch, Patrick Schlütting, Pedro Juarez, Nicolai Bissantz, Santiago R Ramírez, Thomas Eltz
Many insects rely on chemical signals to transmit precise information on the location, identity, and quality of potential mates. Chemical signals are often broadcasted at sites with physical properties that maximize signal propagation and signal transmision. Male neotropical orchid bees (Euglossini) perch and display on vertical branches and tree trunks in the forest to expose volatile blends (perfumes) that they previously collected from their environment. Previous studies have shown that the chemical composition of perfume blends is highly differentiated even between closely related species...
February 1, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141838/when-it-pays-to-cheat-examining-how-generalized-food-deception-increases-male-and-female-fitness-in-a-terrestrial-orchid
#6
Ryan P Walsh, Helen J Michaels
BACKGROUND: Experimental manipulations of floral nectar in food deceptive species can reveal insights into the evolutionary consequences of the deceptive strategy. When coupled to pollen tracking, the effects of the deceptive pollination syndrome on both male and female reproductive success may be quantified. Attraction of pollinators in deceit-pollinated species often relies on producing a conspicuous floral display which may increase visibility to pollinators, but in-turn may increase within plant selfing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131062/anthocyanin-biosynthesis-regulation-of-dhmyb2-and-dhbhlh1-in-dendrobium-hybrids-petals
#7
Chonghui Li, Jian Qiu, Ling Ding, Mingzhong Huang, Surong Huang, Guangsui Yang, Junmei Yin
Dendrobium hybrids orchid are popular throughout the world. They have various floral color and pigmentation patterns that are mainly caused by anthocyanins. It is well established that anthocyanin biosynthesis is regulated by the interplay between MYB and bHLH transcription factors (TF) in most plants. In this study, we identified one R2R3-MYB gene, DhMYB2, and one bHLH gene, DhbHLH1, from a Dendrobium hybrid. Their expression profiles were related to anthocyanin pigmentation in Dendrobium petals. Transient over-expression of these two TF genes showed that both DhMYB2 and DhbHLH1 resulted in anthocyanin production in white petals...
March 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111366/orchidstra-2-0-a-transcriptomics-resource-for-the-orchid-family
#8
Ya-Ting Chao, Shao-Hua Yen, Jen-Hau Yeh, Wan-Chieh Chen, Ming-Che Shih
Orchidaceae, the orchid family, encompasses more than 25,000 species and five subfamilies. Due to their beautiful and exotic flowers, distinct biological and ecological features, orchids have aroused wide interest among both researchers and the general public. We constructed the Orchidstra database, a resource for orchid transcriptome assembly and gene annotations. The Orchistra database has been under active development since 2013. To accommodate the increasing amount of orchid transcriptome data and house more comprehensive information, Orchidstra 2...
January 22, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100022/mycorrhizal-specificity-does-not-limit-the-distribution-of-an-endangered-orchid-species
#9
Michael Waud, Rein Brys, Wouter Van Landuyt, Bart Lievens, Hans Jacquemyn
What factors determine the distribution of a species is a central question in ecology and conservation biology. In general, the distribution of plant species is assumed to be controlled by dispersal or environmentally controlled recruitment. For plant species which are critically dependent on mycorrhizal symbionts for germination and seedling establishment, specificity in mycorrhizal associations and availability of suitable mycorrhizal fungi can be expected to have a major impact on successful colonization and establishment, and thus ultimately on a species distribution...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099773/comparison-of-green-and-albino-individuals-of-the-partially-mycoheterotrophic-orchid-epipactis-helleborine-on-molecular-identities-of-mycorrhizal-fungi-nutritional-modes-and-gene-expression-in-mycorrhizal-roots
#10
Kenji Suetsugu, Masahide Yamato, Chihiro Miura, Katsushi Yamaguchi, Kazuya Takahashi, Yoshiko Ida, Shuji Shigenobu, Hironori Kaminaka
Some green orchids obtain carbon from their mycorrhizal fungi, as well as from photosynthesis. These partially mycoheterotrophic orchids sometimes produce fully achlorophyllous, leaf-bearing (albino) variants. Comparing green and albino individuals of these orchids will help to uncover the molecular mechanisms associated with mycoheterotrophy. We compared green and albino Epipactis helleborine by molecular barcoding of mycorrhizal fungi, nutrient sources based on (15) N and (13) C abundances, and gene expression in their mycorrhizae by RNA-seq and cDNA de novo assembly...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088716/unveiling-the-transformation-and-bioavailability-of-dissolved-organic-matter-in-contrasting-hydrothermal-vents-using-fluorescence-eem-parafac
#11
Liyang Yang, Wan-E Zhuang, Chen-Tung Arthur Chen, Bing-Jye Wang, Fu-Wen Kuo
The submarine hydrothermal systems are extreme environments where active cycling of dissolved organic matter (DOM) may occur. However, little is known about the optical properties and bioavailability of hydrothermal DOM, which could provide valuable insights into its transformation processes and biogeochemical reactivity. The quantity, quality, and bioavailability of DOM were investigated for four very different hydrothermal vents east of Taiwan, using dissolved organic carbon (DOC), absorption spectroscopy, and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices-parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC)...
January 3, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066153/collectors-on-illicit-collecting-higher-loyalties-and-other-techniques-of-neutralization-in-the-unlawful-collecting-of-rare-and-precious-orchids-and-antiquities
#12
Simon Mackenzie, Donna Yates
Trafficking natural objects and trafficking cultural objects have been treated separately both in regulatory policy and in criminological discussion. The former is generally taken to be 'wildlife crime' while the latter has come to be considered under the auspices of a debate on 'illicit art and antiquities'. In this article we study the narrative discourse of high-end collectors of orchids and antiquities. The illicit parts of these global trades are subject to this analytical divide between wildlife trafficking and art trafficking, and this has resulted in quite different regulatory structures for each of these markets...
August 2016: Theor Criminol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062407/symbiont-abundance-can-affect-host-plant-population-dynamics
#13
Rachel Rock-Blake, Melissa K McCormick, Hope E A Brooks, Cynthia S Jones, Dennis F Whigham
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Symbioses are almost universal, but little is known about how symbiont abundance can affect host performance. Many orchids undergo vegetative dormancy and frequent and protracted dormancy have been associated with population declines. If mycorrhizal fungi affect host plant performance, those effects are likely to alter patterns of vegetative dormancy. The goal of this study was to determine whether the abundance of mycorrhizal fungi is related to the likelihood of entering dormancy and whether fungal abundance varied with dormancy duration in the federally listed threatened orchid Isotria medeoloides...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040774/comparative-omics-of-the-fusarium-fujikuroi-species-complex-highlights-differences-in-genetic-potential-and-metabolite-synthesis
#14
Eva-Maria Niehaus, Martin Münsterkötter, Robert H Proctor, Daren W Brown, Amir Sharon, Yifat Idan, Liat Oren-Young, Christian M Sieber, Ondřej Novák, Aleš Pěnčík, Danuše Tarkowská, Kristýna Hromadová, Stanley Freeman, Marcel Maymon, Meirav Elazar, Sahar A Youssef, El Said M El-Shabrawy, Abdel Baset A Shalaby, Petra Houterman, Nelson L Brock, Immo Burkhardt, Elena A Tsavkelova, Jeroen S Dickschat, Petr Galuszka, Ulrich Güldener, Bettina Tudzynski
Species of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFC) cause a wide spectrum of often devastating diseases on diverse agricultural crops, including coffee, fig, mango, maize, rice, and sugarcane. Although species within the FFC are difficult to distinguish by morphology, and their genes often share 90% sequence similarity, they can differ in host plant specificity and life style. FFC species can also produce structurally diverse secondary metabolites (SMs), including the mycotoxins fumonisins, fusarins, fusaric acid, and beauvericin, and the phytohormones gibberellins, auxins, and cytokinins...
December 31, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039600/local-scale-spatial-structure-and-community-composition-of-orchid-mycorrhizal-fungi-in-semi-natural-grasslands
#15
Jane Oja, Johanna Vahtra, Mohammad Bahram, Petr Kohout, Tiiu Kull, Riinu Rannap, Urmas Kõljalg, Leho Tedersoo
Orchid mycorrhizal (OrM) fungi play a crucial role in the ontogeny of orchids, yet little is known about how the structure of OrM fungal communities varies with space and environmental factors. Previous studies suggest that within orchid patches, the distance to adult orchids may affect the abundance of OrM fungi. Many orchid species grow in species-rich temperate semi-natural grasslands, the persistence of which depends on moderate physical disturbances, such as grazing and mowing. The aim of this study was to test whether the diversity, structure and composition of OrM fungal community are influenced by the orchid patches and management intensity in semi-natural grasslands...
December 30, 2016: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027702/making-a-global-sensation-vanilla-flavor-synthetic-chemistry-and-the-meanings-of-purity
#16
Nadia Berenstein
How did vanilla, once a rare luxury, become a global sensation? Rather than taking the vanilla flavor of vanilla beans as a pre-existing natural fact, this essay argues that the sensory experience that came to be recognized as vanilla was a hybrid artifact produced by an expanding global trade in a diverse set of pleasurable substances, including cured beans from artificially pollinated vanilla orchids, synthetic vanillin, sugar, and a far-flung miscellany of other botanical and chemical materials. Global trade and large-scale production resulted not in the production of a homogenous, stable commodity, but in a range of local vanillas, heterogeneous mixtures with a range of qualities and virtues...
December 2016: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025292/comparative-seed-germination-and-seedling-development-of-the-ghost-orchid-dendrophylax-lindenii-orchidaceae-and-molecular-identification-of-its-mycorrhizal-fungus-from-south-florida
#17
Nguyen H Hoang, Michael E Kane, Ellen N Radcliffe, Lawrence W Zettler, Larry W Richardson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The endangered leafless ghost orchid, Dendrophylax lindenii, one of the most renowned orchids in the world, is difficult to grow under artificial conditions. Published information on asymbiotic and symbiotic (co-culture with a mycobiont) seed germination, seedling anatomy and developmental morphology of this leafless orchid is completely lacking. This information is critical for the development of efficient procedures for ghost orchid production for successful reintroduction...
February 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024450/age-estimation-for-the-genus-cymbidium-orchidaceae-epidendroideae-with-implementation-of-fossil-data-calibration-using-molecular-markers-its2-matk-and-phylogeographic-inference-from-ancestral-area-reconstruction
#18
Ruchishree Konhar, Manish Debnath, Jean Valrie Marbaniang, Devendra Kumar Biswal, Pramod Tandon
Intercontinental dislocations between tropical regions harboring two-thirds of the flowering plants have always drawn attention from taxonomists and biogeographers. One such family belonging to angiosperms is Orchidaceae with an herbaceous habit and high species diversity in the tropics. Here, we investigate the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the genus Cymbidium, which represents a monophyletic subfamily (Epidendroideae) of the orchids and comprises 50 odd species that are distinctly distributed in tropical to temperate regions...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018622/the-carbon-and-nitrogen-ecophysiologies-of-two-endemic-tropical-orchids-mirrors-those-of-their-temperate-relatives-and-the-local-environment
#19
Nicole A Hynson
Orchids are one of the most widely distributed plant families. However, current research on the ecophysiology of terrestrial orchids is biased towards temperate species. Thus, it is currently unknown whether tropical terrestrial orchids belong to similar trophic guilds as their temperate relatives. To examine the ecophysiologies of two tropical terrestrial orchids, I analysed the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope compositions and nitrogen concentrations of the Hawaiian endemics Anoectochilus sandvicensis and Liparis hawaiensis...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004781/functional-insights-into-the-late-embryogenesis-abundant-lea-protein-family-from-dendrobium-officinale-orchidaceae-using-an-escherichia-coli-system
#20
Hong Ling, Xu Zeng, Shunxing Guo
Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, a diverse family, accumulate during seed desiccation in the later stages of embryogenesis. LEA proteins are associated with tolerance to abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity and high or cold temperature. Here, we report the first comprehensive survey of the LEA gene family in Dendrobium officinale, an important and widely grown medicinal orchid in China. Based on phylogenetic relationships with the complete set of Arabidopsis and Oryza LEA proteins, 17 genes encoding D...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
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