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Richard M Bateman, Gábor Sramkó, Ovidiu Paun
Background and Aims: Bee orchids (Ophrys) have become the most popular model system for studying reproduction via insect-mediated pseudo-copulation and for exploring the consequent, putatively adaptive, evolutionary radiations. However, despite intensive past research, both the phylogenetic structure and species diversity within the genus remain highly contentious. Here, we integrate next-generation sequencing and morphological cladistic techniques to clarify the phylogeny of the genus...
January 9, 2018: Annals of Botany
Hossein Kargar Jahromi, Morteza Pourahmad, Hassan Ali Abedi, Mohadeseh Karimi, Zahra Kargar Jahromi
Introduction: Isoniazid is a drug for treatment of tuberculosis. One of the main side effects of this drug is hepatotoxicity, which is a major cause of treatment interruption in tuberculosis. This study is about the preventive effect of Salep on this side effect of isoniazid. Materials and methods: This study is an experimental study in which the preventive effect of salep on isoniazid hepatotoxicity is evaluated. In this study 56 rats were randomly placed in 7 eight members groups including: control group, sham, isoniazid and four isoniazid/salep groups...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Elena Martino, Emmanuelle Morin, Gwen-Aëlle Grelet, Alan Kuo, Annegret Kohler, Stefania Daghino, Kerrie W Barry, Nicolas Cichocki, Alicia Clum, Rhyan B Dockter, Matthieu Hainaut, Rita C Kuo, Kurt LaButti, Björn D Lindahl, Erika A Lindquist, Anna Lipzen, Hassine-Radhouane Khouja, Jon Magnuson, Claude Murat, Robin A Ohm, Steven W Singer, Joseph W Spatafora, Mei Wang, Claire Veneault-Fourrey, Bernard Henrissat, Igor V Grigoriev, Francis M Martin, Silvia Perotto
Some soil fungi in the Leotiomycetes form ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) symbioses with Ericaceae. In the harsh habitats in which they occur, ERM plant survival relies on nutrient mobilization from soil organic matter (SOM) by their fungal partners. The characterization of the fungal genetic machinery underpinning both the symbiotic lifestyle and SOM degradation is needed to understand ERM symbiosis functioning and evolution, and its impact on soil carbon (C) turnover. We sequenced the genomes of the ERM fungi Meliniomyces bicolor, M...
January 7, 2018: New Phytologist
Xu Zeng, Hong Ling, Jianwen Yang, Yuanyuan Li, Shunxing Guo
BACKGROUND: Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins were initially discovered about 35years ago as accumulating late in embryogenesis of cotton seeds. Although abundant in seeds and pollens, these proteins have been found to protect cells against desiccation, cold, high temperature, and high salinity. OBJECTIVE: Here, we present the first comprehensive survey of LEA proteins and their encoding genes in Gastrodia elata, a well-known medicinal orchid in China. Moreover, we researched on LEA family evolutionary relationships and functional characteristics...
January 3, 2018: Gene
N U Jasinge, T Huynh, A C Lawrie
Background and Aims: Wildfires are common in seasonally dry parts of the world with a Mediterranean climate. Prescribed burning is used to reduce fuel load and fire risk, but often without reliable information on its effects. This study investigated the effects of prescribed burns in different seasons on Pterostylis revoluta, an autumn-flowering Australian terrestrial orchid, and its orchid mycorrhizal fungi (OMFs) to find the least damaging season for a prescribed burn. Methods: Burns were conducted mid-season in spring and summer 2011 and autumn and winter 2012...
January 2, 2018: Annals of Botany
Hui Huang, Xiao-Meng Zi, Hua Lin, Jiang-Yun Gao
All orchids maintain an obligate relationship with mycorrhizal symbionts during seed germination. In most cases, germination-enhancing fungi have been isolated from roots of mature plants for conservation and cultivation purposes. To understand the germination biology of Dendrobium devonianum, an over-collected medicinal orchid, the seeds of D. devonianum were inoculated with a fungal strain (FDd1) isolated from naturally occurring protocorms of D. devonianum and two other germination-enhancing fungal strains (FDaI7 and FCb4) from D...
January 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Myung Soo Park, John A Eimes, Sang Hoon Oh, Hwa Jung Suh, Seung-Yoon Oh, Seobihn Lee, Ki Hyeong Park, Hyuk Joon Kwon, Soo-Young Kim, Young Woon Lim
While symbiotic fungi play a key role in the growth of endangered Calanthe orchid species, the relationship between fungal diversity and Calanthe species remains unclear. Here, we surveyed root associated fungal diversity of six Calanthe orchid species by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region using 454 pyrosequencing. Our results revealed that Paraboeremia and Coprinopsis are dominant fungal genera among Calanthe species. In terms of overall relative abundance, Paraboeremia was the most common fungal genus associated with Calanthe roots, followed by Coprinopsis...
January 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Catherine L Simmons, Robert W Lamont, Alison Shapcott
Premise of the study: The swamp orchid, Phaius australis (Orchidaceae), is nationally endangered due to illegal collection and habitat loss and fragmentation, resulting in a disjunct distribution in spring and coastal wetland ecotones along Australia's east coast. Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed to study genetic diversity and population structure for conservation and restoration purposes. Methods and Results: Illumina HiSeq high-throughput sequencing was used to develop 15 nuclear microsatellite markers, including 10 polymorphic markers for P...
December 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
Jing Li, Yibo Luo, Lingling Xu
Premise of the study: To investigate genetic diversity and structure, microsatellite markers were developed and characterized for Cypripedium tibeticum, an endangered orchid species, and their utility tested in two relatives: C. flavum and C. bardolphianum. Methods and Results: Candidate microsatellite loci were isolated based on next-generation sequencing. We identified 20 polymorphic loci with di- or trinucleotide repeats in three populations of C. tibeticum. Genotyping results showed the total number of alleles per locus varied from two to 21, and the observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0...
December 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
Attila Molnár V, Timea Nagy, Viktor Löki, Kristóf Süveges, Attila Takács, Judit Bódis, Jácint Tökölyi
Harvest of orchid tubers for salep production is widespread in southwestern Asia and the Balkans and constitutes a major conservation risk for wild orchid populations. Synanthropic habitats, such as graveyards, are important refuges for orchids and other organisms and could offer protection from salep harvesting because of their special cultural role. However, little is known about the occurrence and factors influencing harvesting of salep in graveyards. During field surveys of 474 graveyards throughout Turkey, we observed 333 graveyards with orchids, 311 graveyards with tuberous orchids, and salep harvest in 14 graveyards...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Haleigh A Ray, Charles J Stuhl, Jennifer L Gillett-Kaufman
South Florida is home to a number of native species of orchids. The Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge has 27 known species, including Prosthechea cochleata, the clamshell orchid, which is listed as endangered on Florida's Regulated Plant Index. In a prior study done on this species in Mexico, P. cochleata was found to produce no floral fragrance at the particular study location. However, blooming orchids of this species at the University of Florida in Gainesville, were noted to be fragrant. In this paper, we document the presence of floral fragrance compounds from P...
January 3, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Jellena V Düster, Maria H Gruber, Florian Karolyi, John D Plant, Harald W Krenn
Neotropical orchid bees (Euglossini) possess the longest proboscis among bees. In this study, we compared the feeding behavior and functional morphology of mouthparts in two similarly large-sized species of Euglossa that differ greatly in proboscis length. Feeding observations and experiments conducted under semi-natural conditions were combined with micro-morphological examination using LM, SEM and micro CT techniques. The morphometric comparison showed that only the components of the mouthparts that form the food tube differ in length, while the proximal components, which are responsible for proboscis movements, are similar in size...
December 14, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
Mohinder Sarna, Stephen B Lambert, Theo P Sloots, David M Whiley, Asma Alsaleh, Lebogang Mhango, Seweryn Bialasiewicz, David Wang, Michael D Nissen, Keith Grimwood, Robert S Ware
INTRODUCTION: Viral acute respiratory infections (ARIs) cause substantial child morbidity. Sensitive molecular-based assays aid virus detection, but the clinical significance of positive tests remains uncertain as some viruses may be found in both acutely ill and healthy children. We describe disease-pathogen associations of respiratory viruses and quantify virus-specific attributable risk of ARIs in healthy children during the first 2 years of life. METHODS: One hundred fifty-eight term newborn babies in Brisbane, Australia, were recruited progressively into a longitudinal, community-based, birth cohort study conducted between September 2010 and October 2014...
December 15, 2017: Thorax
Wen-Chieh Tsai, Anne Dievart, Chia-Chi Hsu, Yu-Yun Hsiao, Shang-Yi Chiou, Hsin Huang, Hong-Hwa Chen
Among 300,000 species in angiosperms, Orchidaceae containing 30,000 species is one of the largest families. Almost every habitats on earth have orchid plants successfully colonized, and it indicates that orchids are among the plants with significant ecological and evolutionary importance. So far, four orchid genomes have been sequenced, including Phalaenopsis equestris, Dendrobium catenatum, Dendrobium officinale, and Apostaceae shengen. Here, we review the current progress and the direction of orchid research in the post genomics era...
December 12, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Helena J R Einzmann, Gerhard Zotz
The ongoing destruction of old-growth forests puts tropical forest species under great pressure because of the resulting habitat loss. A pre-requisite for the maintenance of a viable metacommunity in a fragmented landscape is the connectivity between habitable patches. We experimentally studied four vital steps of epiphyte dispersal in different habitat types in western Panama. (i) Seed falling velocity (Vterm) is known to correlate with long-distance dispersal via convective updraft. All measured Vterm of bromeliad and orchid seeds fell into a range of velocities with a high chance of long-distance dispersal...
November 2017: AoB Plants
Kana Higaki, Kento Rammitsu, Yumi Yamashita, Tomohisa Yukawa, Yuki Ogura-Tsujita
BACKGROUND: Mycoheterotrophic plants are one of the most difficult plant groups to conserve because they are entirely dependent on symbiotic fungi. Establishment of viable culture systems would greatly aid their conservation. We describe a simple culture system for the mycoheterotrophic orchid, Gastrodia pubilabiata, that does not require laboratory facilities. The orchid is symbiotic with leaf-litter-decomposing fungi. RESULTS: Gastrodia pubilabiata seeds were incubated in plastic boxes or glass bottles filled with leaf litter collected from the natural habitat of the species...
December 8, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Katarina Bacevic, Robert Noble, Ahmed Soffar, Orchid Wael Ammar, Benjamin Boszonyik, Susana Prieto, Charles Vincent, Michael E Hochberg, Liliana Krasinska, Daniel Fisher
Adaptive therapy (AT) aims to control tumour burden by maintaining therapy-sensitive cells to exploit their competition with resistant cells. This relies on the assumption that resistant cells have impaired cellular fitness. Here, using a model of resistance to a pharmacological cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKi), we show that this assumption is valid when competition between cells is spatially structured. We generate CDKi-resistant cancer cells and find that they have reduced proliferative fitness and stably rewired cell cycle control pathways...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
Jie He, Regina M P Lim, Sabrina H J Dass, Tim W Yam
Grammatophyllum speciosum, a native species to Singapore, have become extinct mainly due to habitat loss. Recently, Singapore has reintroduced G. speciosum into the natural environment under the orchid conservation programme. In this study, leaves of G. speciosum grown under low light (LL) under natural conditions had faster expansion rate and higher specific leaf area than leaves grown under intermediate light (IL) and high light (HL). All leaves had more than 95% midday relative water content. Although midday Fv/Fm ratios were lower in HL leaves than in IL and LL leaves, none of them exhibited chronic photoinhibition...
December 5, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Yanwen Wang, Lu Liu, Shiyong Song, Yan Li, Lisha Shen, Hao Yu
FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in Arabidopsis encodes the florigen that moves from leaves to the shoot apical meristem to induce flowering, and this is partly mediated by FT-INTERACTING PROTEIN 1 (FTIP1). Although FT orthologs have been identified in some flowering plants, their endogenous roles in Orchidaceae, which is one of the largest families of flowering plants, are still largely unknown. In this study, we show that DOFT and DOFTIP1, the orchid orthologs of FT and FTIP1, respectively, play important roles in promoting flowering in the orchid Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Lawrence W Zettler, Landy Rajaovelona, Kazutomo Yokoya, Jonathan P Kendon, Andrew L Stice, Amanda E Wood, Viswambharan Sarasan
BACKGROUND: Tropical orchids need more study with respect to their mycorrhizal associations. For researchers in distant countries who aspire to study these orchids augmenting their conservation, the great distances involved, coupled with limited funds, pose formidable challenges. These challenges are sometimes exacerbated by political unrest, delays in securing permits, unexpected hardships, and the risk that the biological samples collected (e.g., roots harboring mycorrhizal fungi) will not survive long-distance transport...
November 28, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
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