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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724218/roadside-verges-as-habitats-for-endangered-lizard-orchids-himantoglossum-spp-ecological-traps-or-refuges
#1
Réka Fekete, Timea Nagy, Judit Bódis, Éva Biró, Viktor Löki, Kristóf Süveges, Attila Takács, Jácint Tökölyi, Attila Molnár V
Alterations in traditional land use practices have led to severe declines in the area of semi-natural grasslands, thereby seriously threatening plant and animal species dependent on these habitats. Small anthropogenic managed habitats, like roadsides can act as refuges and might play an important role in conserving these species. Colonization of roadside verges by endangered lizard orchids (Himantoglossum spp.) has long been known, but few studies have systematically explored the suitability of roadside habitats for these orchids and the impact of roads on them...
July 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717170/population-structure-of-an-orchid-mycorrhizal-fungus-with-genus-wide-specificity
#2
M P Ruibal, Y Triponez, L M Smith, R Peakall, C C Linde
Fundamental life history processes of mycorrhizal fungi with inconspicuous fruiting bodies can be difficult to elucidate. In this study we investigated the species identities and life history of the orchid mycorrhizal Tulasnella fungi, which associate with the south eastern Australia orchid genus Chiloglottis. Tulasnella prima was the primary partner and was found to be associated with all 17 Chiloglottis species across a range of >1000 km, and to occur in the two edaphic conditions investigated (soil and sphagnum hammocks)...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714217/evolutionary-relationships-among-pollinators-and-repeated-pollinator-sharing-in-sexually-deceptive-orchids
#3
R D Phillips, G R Brown, K W Dixon, C Hayes, C C Linde, R Peakall
The mechanism of pollinator attraction is predicted to strongly influence both plant diversification and the extent of pollinator sharing between species. Sexually deceptive orchids rely on mimicry of species-specific sex pheromones to attract their insect pollinators. Given that sex pheromones tend to be conserved among related species, we predicted that in sexually deceptive orchids, (i) pollinator sharing is rare, (ii) closely related orchids use closely related pollinators and (iii) there is strong bias in the wasp lineages exploited by orchids...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704518/photosynthetic-morphological-and-reproductive-variations-in-cypripedium-tibeticum-in-relation-to-different-light-regimes-in-a-subalpine-forest
#4
Bao-Qiang Zheng, Long-Hai Zou, Kui Li, Xiao Wan, Yan Wang
Cypripedium tibeticum, a subalpine orchid species, inhabits various habitats of subalpine forests, mainly including the forest edge (FE), forest gap (FG), and understory (UST), which have significantly different light intensities (FE > FG > UST). However, the ecological and physiological influences caused by different light regimes in this species are still poorly understood. In the present study, photosynthetic, morphological, and reproductive characteristics were comprehensively studied in plants of C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701376/the-nuclear-and-mitochondrial-genomes-of-the-facultatively-eusocial-orchid-bee-euglossa-dilemma
#5
Philipp Brand, Nicholas Saleh, Hailin Pan, Cai Li, Karen M Kapheim, Santiago R Ramírez
Bees provide indispensable pollination services to both agricultural crops and wild plant populations, and several species of bees have become important models for the study of learning and memory, plant-insect interactions and social behavior. Orchid bees (Apidae: Euglossini) are especially important to the fields of pollination ecology, evolution, and species conservation. Here we report the nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences of the orchid bee Euglossa dilemma Bembé & Eltz. Euglossa dilemma was selected because it is widely distributed, highly abundant, and it was recently naturalized in the southeastern United States...
July 12, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690630/lack-of-s-rnase-based-gametophytic-self-incompatibility-in-orchids-suggests-that-this-system-evolved-after-the-monocot-eudicot-split
#6
Shan-Ce Niu, Jie Huang, Yong-Qiang Zhang, Pei-Xing Li, Guo-Qiang Zhang, Qing Xu, Li-Jun Chen, Jie-Yu Wang, Yi-Bo Luo, Zhong-Jian Liu
Self-incompatibility (SI) is found in approximately 40% of flowering plant species and at least 100 families. Although orchids belong to the largest angiosperm family, only 10% of orchid species present SI and have gametophytic SI (GSI). Furthermore, a majority (72%) of Dendrobium species, which constitute one of the largest Orchidaceae genera, show SI and have GSI. However, nothing is known about the molecular mechanism of GSI. The S-determinants of GSI have been well characterized at the molecular level in Solanaceae, Rosaceae, and Plantaginaceae, which use an S-ribonuclease (S-RNase)-based system...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687774/andean-mountain-building-did-not-preclude-dispersal-of-lowland-epiphytic-orchids-in-the-neotropics
#7
Oscar Alejandro Pérez-Escobar, Marc Gottschling, Guillaume Chomicki, Fabien L Condamine, Bente B Klitgård, Emerson Pansarin, Günter Gerlach
The Andean uplift is one of the major orographic events in the New World and has impacted considerably the diversification of numerous Neotropical lineages. Despite its importance for biogeography, the specific role of mountain ranges as a dispersal barrier between South and Central American lowland plant lineages is still poorly understood. The swan orchids (Cycnoches) comprise ca 34 epiphytic species distributed in lowland and pre-montane forests of Central and South America. Here, we study the historical biogeography of Cycnoches to better understand the impact of the Andean uplift on the diversification of Neotropical lowland plant lineages...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685256/influence-of-host-tree-species-on-isolation-and-communities-of-mycorrhizal-and-endophytic-fungi-from-roots-of-a-tropical-epiphytic-orchid-dendrobium-sinense-orchidaceae
#8
Xiaoming Wang, Yijia Li, Xiqiang Song, Qianwan Meng, Jie Zhu, Ying Zhao, Wengang Yu
Most studies on the host preference of orchids have focused on the association between orchids and host characteristics, but little is known about the differences of mycorrhizal and endophytic fungal communities in epiphytic orchids growing on different host tree species. We selected Dendrobium sinense, a tropical epiphytic orchid, to determine if fungal endophytes from the roots of D. sinense were preferentially correlated with host tree species. Fifty-six fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from 36 host trees were identified...
July 6, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673037/phylogeny-of-the-orchid-like-bladderworts-gen-utricularia-sect-orchidioides-and-iperua-lentibulariaceae-with-remarks-on-the-stolon-tuber-system
#9
Fernanda Gomes Rodrigues, Néstor Franco Marulanda, Saura R Silva, Bartosz J Plachno, Lubomír Adamec, Vitor F O Miranda
Background and Aims: The 'orchid-like' bladderworts ( Utricularia ) comprise 15 species separated into two sections: Orchidioides and Iperua . These robust and mostly epiphytic species were originally grouped within the section Orchidioides by the first taxonomical systems. These species were later split into two sections when sect. Iperua was proposed. Due to the lack of strong evidence based on a robust phylogenetic perspective, this study presents a phylogenetic proposal based on four different DNA sequences (plastid and nuclear) and morphology to test the monophyly of the two sections...
June 30, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654160/pontamine-fast-scarlet-4b-bifluorescence-and-measurements-of-cellulose-microfibril-angles
#10
J Thomas, N A Idris, D A Collings
Pontamine fast scarlet 4B is a red paper and textiles dye that has recently been introduced as a fluorescent probe for plant cell walls. Pontamine exhibits bifluorescence, or fluorescence dependent on the polarization of the excitation light: Because cellulose is aligned within the cell wall, pontamine-labelled cell walls exhibit variable fluorescence as the excitation polarization is modulated. Thus, bifluorescence measurements require polarized excitation that can be directly or indirectly modulated. In our confocal microscopy observations of various cellulose samples labelled with pontamine, we modulated excitation polarization either through sample rotation or by the confocal's scanfield rotation function...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652582/the-timescale-of-emergence-and-spread-of-turnip-mosaic-potyvirus
#11
Ryosuke Yasaka, Hirofumi Fukagawa, Mutsumi Ikematsu, Hiroko Soda, Savas Korkmaz, Alireza Golnaraghi, Nikolaos Katis, Simon Y W Ho, Adrian J Gibbs, Kazusato Ohshima
Plant viruses have important global impacts on crops, and identifying their centre and date of emergence is important for planning control measures. Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is a member of the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae and is a major worldwide pathogen of brassica crops. For two decades, we have collected TuMV isolates, mostly from brassicas, in Turkey and neighbouring countries. This region is thought to be the centre of emergence of this virus. We determined the genomic sequences of 179 of these isolates and used these to estimate the timescale of the spread of this virus...
June 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644507/intrachromosomal-karyotype-asymmetry-in-orchidaceae
#12
Enoque Medeiros-Neto, Felipe Nollet, Ana Paula Moraes, Leonardo P Felix
The asymmetry indexes have helped cytotaxonomists to interpret and classify plant karyotypes for species delimitation efforts. However, there is no consensus about the best method to calculate the intrachromosomal asymmetry. The present study aimed to compare different intrachromosomal asymmetry indexes in order to indicate which are more efficient for the estimation of asymmetry in different groups of orchids. Besides, we aimed to compare our results with the Orchidaceae phylogenetic proposal to test the hypothesis of Stebbins (1971)...
June 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638388/using-in-situ-symbiotic-seed-germination-to-restore-over-collected-medicinal-orchids-in-southwest-china
#13
Shi-Cheng Shao, Kevin S Burgess, Jennifer M Cruse-Sanders, Qiang Liu, Xu-Li Fan, Hui Huang, Jiang-Yun Gao
Due to increasing demand for medicinal and horticultural uses, the Orchidaceae is in urgent need of innovative and novel propagation techniques that address both market demand and conservation. Traditionally, restoration techniques have been centered on ex situ asymbiotic or symbiotic seed germination techniques that are not cost-effective, have limited genetic potential and often result in low survival rates in the field. Here, we propose a novel in situ advanced restoration-friendly program for the endangered epiphytic orchid species Dendrobium devonianum, in which a series of in situ symbiotic seed germination trials base on conspecific fungal isolates were conducted at two sites in Yunnan Province, China...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631324/recent-origin-and-rapid-speciation-of-neotropical-orchids-in-the-world-s-richest-plant-biodiversity-hotspot
#14
Oscar Alejandro Pérez-Escobar, Guillaume Chomicki, Fabien L Condamine, Adam P Karremans, Diego Bogarín, Nicholas J Matzke, Daniele Silvestro, Alexandre Antonelli
The Andean mountains of South America are the most species-rich biodiversity hotspot worldwide with c. 15% of the world's plant species, in only 1% of the world's land surface. Orchids are a key element of the Andean flora, and one of the most prominent components of the Neotropical epiphyte diversity, yet very little is known about their origin and diversification. We address this knowledge gap by inferring the biogeographical history and diversification dynamics of the two largest Neotropical orchid groups (Cymbidieae and Pleurothallidinae), using two unparalleled, densely sampled orchid phylogenies (including more than 400 newly generated DNA sequences), comparative phylogenetic methods, geological and biological datasets...
July 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625782/complex-sexual-deception-in-an-orchid-is-achieved-by-co-opting-two-independent-biosynthetic-pathways-for-pollinator-attraction
#15
Haiyang Xu, Björn Bohman, Darren C J Wong, Claudia Rodriguez-Delgado, Adrian Scaffidi, Gavin R Flematti, Ryan D Phillips, Eran Pichersky, Rod Peakall
Sexually deceptive orchids lure their specific male pollinators using volatile semiochemicals that mimic female sex pheromones. To date, the semiochemicals known to be involved consist of blends of chemically and biosynthetically related compounds. In contrast, we report that (S)-β-citronellol and 2-hydroxy-6-methylacetophenone, two biosynthetically distinct compounds, are the active semiochemicals in Caladenia plicata, which is pollinated by male Zeleboria sp. thynnine wasps. They are also sex pheromone components of the female Zeleboria...
July 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608425/three-dimensional-visualization-of-ocellar-interneurons-of-the-orchid-bee-euglossa-imperialis-using-micro-x-ray-computed-tomography
#16
Willi Ribi, Jochen Zeil
We used contrast-optimized micro X-ray Computed Tomography (mCT) to trace the profiles of the full complement of large ocellar L-neurons in the male orchid bee Euglossa imperialis. We find that most L-neurons collect information from either the dorsal or the ventral retinae in both median and lateral ocelli, with only three neurons associated with the median ocellus having dendritic branches in both dorsal and ventral retina. In the median ocellus, we find also L-neurons that either collect information from the left or the right half of the ocellar plexus and two neurons that have a split dendritic tree in both halves...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597440/efficient-and-heritable-transformation-of-phalaenopsis-orchids
#17
Hong-Xian Hsing, Yi-Jyun Lin, Chii-Gong Tong, Min-Jeng Li, Yun-Jin Chen, Swee-Suak Ko
BACKGROUND: Phalaenopsis orchid (Phal. orchid) is visually attractive and it is important economic floriculture species. Phal. orchids have many unique biological features. However, investigation of these features and validation on their biological functions are limited due to the lack of an efficient transformation method. RESULTS: We developed a heritable and efficient Agrobacterium- mediated transformation using protocorms derived from tetraploid or diploid Phal...
December 2016: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597429/embryology-of-two-mycoheterotrophic-orchid-species-gastrodia-elata-and-gastrodia-nantoensis-ovule-and-embryo-development
#18
Yuan-Yuan Li, Xiao-Mei Chen, Shun-Xing Guo, Yung-I Lee
BACKGROUND: Gastrodia elata, a famous herbal medicine, has been received great attention on its treatments of headache, vertigo and epilepsy. Gastrodia nantoensis is a newly described species from central Taiwan with potential medicinal value. Gastrodia species are fully mycoheterotrophic orchids, and the courses of their seed development are more rapid as compared to the chlorophyllous orchids. A better understanding of their reproductive biology would provide insights into the propagation and conservation of the mycoheterotrophic orchid species...
December 2016: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575199/mixotrophy-in-pyroleae-ericaceae-from-estonian-boreal-forests-does-not-vary-with-light-or-tissue-age
#19
Félix Lallemand, Ülle Puttsepp, Mait Lang, Aarne Luud, Pierre-Emmanuel Courty, Cécile Palancade, Marc-André Selosse
Background and Aims: In temperate forests, some green plants, namely pyroloids (Pyroleae, Ericaceae) and some orchids, independently evolved a mode of nutrition mixing photosynthates and carbon gained from their mycorrhizal fungi (mixotrophy). Fungal carbon is more enriched in 13 C than photosynthates, allowing estimation of the proportion of carbon acquired heterotrophically from fungi in plant biomass. Based on 13 C enrichment, mixotrophic orchids have previously been shown to increase shoot autotrophy level over the growth season and with environmental light availability...
May 31, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550470/hormonal-and-morphological-changes-during-seed-development-of-cypripedium-japonicum
#20
Xiaona Yan, Min Tian, Fen Liu, Caixia Wang, Ying Zhang
With the goal of evaluating the factors that may be influencing the reproductive success of an endangered, terrestrial orchid Cypripedium japonicum Thunb., the anatomical and morphological characteristics of seed development were assessed, as were the levels of endogenous hormones to investigate the possible relationship between hormones and seed development. The results showed that morphological characteristics of seeds were changing from milky white and filiform to brown and fusiform. The development of ovule that initiated on the fertile valves only began after pollination, and a mature embryo sac was produced at 40 days after pollination (DAP)...
May 27, 2017: Protoplasma
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