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Soraya Aroonvilairat, Chanthana Tangjarukij, Thiwaree Sornprachum, Papada Chaisuriya, Taweeratana Siwadune, Kavi Ratanabanangkoon
Most Thai orchid farmers heavily used pesticide mixtures, and were shown to have various hematologic/immunologic alterations. The present study investigated the effect of exposure of male Wistar rats to a mixture of three pesticides (chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and captan) that are most often used by the farmers. Three groups of 10 rats were dermally exposed to three different doses (high, middle and low) for 28 consecutive days. The rats showed significant changes in body, liver, kidneys and adrenals weights...
March 2, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Carlos Eduardo Pereira Nunes, Pietro Kiyoshi Maruyama, Marianne Azevedo-Silva, Marlies Sazima
Nursery pollination involves pollinators that lay eggs on the flowers they pollinate and have their brood fed on flower parts or developing ovules [1-4]. Active pollination, a ritualistic behavioral sequence shown by nursery pollinators when transferring pollen from anthers to stigmas, is known in only four plant lineages [5-8], including the classical examples of fig trees-fig wasps and yuccas-yucca moths [5, 6]. We report in detail a system in which weevils actively pollinate orchids prior to having their larvae fed on the developing fruits...
March 1, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Dan Nybro Lindqvist, Henrik Ærenlund Pedersen, Lars Holm Rasmussen
The dominant components in floral nectar is fructose, glucose and sucrose. The concentration and the ratio between the sugars are indicative for plant species and play an important part in the interplay between plants and pollinators. In this paper we present a novel HPLC-ELSD based analytical method for sugar characterization of nectar from orchids. Nectar was collected on Whatman No. 1 paper and preserved in the field by 70 v/v% ethanol. The analytical method had a linear range up to at least 3000 mg L-1 for all 3 sugars with a precision of 1...
February 18, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Xu Zeng, Yuanyuan Li, Hong Ling, Juan Chen, Shunxing Guo
BACKGROUND: Gastrodia elata, a mycoheterotrophic orchid, is a well-known medicinal herb. In nature, the seed germination of G. elata requires proper fungal association, because of the absence of endosperm. To germinate successfully, G. elata obtains nutrition from mycorrhizal fungi such as Mycena. However, Mycena is not able to supply nutrition for the further development and enlargement of protocorms into tubers, flowering and fruit setting of G. elata. To date, current genomic studies on this topic are limited...
March 6, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
Jonas Morales-Linares, José G García-Franco, Alejandro Flores-Palacios, Jorge E Valenzuela-González, Martín Mata-Rosas, Cecilia Díaz-Castelazo
Most plants that inhabit in ant-gardens (AGs) are cultivated by ants. Some orchids occur in AGs, however, it is unknown if their seeds are dispersed by AG ants, because most of the orchid seeds are tiny and dispersed by wind. We performed in situ seed removal experiments, in which we simultaneously provided Azteca gnava ants with seeds of three AG orchid species and of another three AG epiphyte species (Bromeliaceae, Cactaceae and Gesneriaceae), as well as the non-AG orchid species Catasetum integerrimum. The seeds most removed were those of the bromeliad Aechmea tillandsioides and of the gesneriad Codonanthe uleana, while seeds of AG orchids Coryanthes picturata, Epidendrum flexuosum and Epidendrum pachyrachis were less removed...
March 5, 2018: Plant Biology
Benjamín Valencia-Nieto, Victoria Sosa, Judith Márquez-Guzmán
Background: Epidendreae is one of the most diverse tribes among the orchids with remarkable variation in life form, floral morphology and pollination syndromes. Its circumscription was recently revised and subtribes Agrostophyllinae and Calypsoinae were transferred into this tribe. One of the principal floral characters utilized in classification of orchids is the incumbency or bending of the column. This study records and compares late stages of anther, column and lip development, and discusses anther characters in fifteen representative taxa of five of the six subtribes in Epidendreae with respect to classification and pollination biology...
2018: PeerJ
Craig F Barrett, Susann Wicke, Chodon Sass
Heterotrophic plants provide excellent opportunities to study the effects of altered selective regimes on genome evolution. Plastid genome (plastome) studies in heterotrophic plants are often based on one or a few highly divergent species or sequences as representatives of an entire lineage, thus missing important evolutionary-transitory events. Here, we present the first infraspecific analysis of plastome evolution in any heterotrophic plant. By combining genome skimming and targeted sequence capture, we address hypotheses on the degree and rate of plastome degradation in a complex of leafless orchids (Corallorhiza striata) across its geographic range...
March 4, 2018: New Phytologist
Siddharthan Surveswaran, Vinita Gowda, Mei Sun
Spiranthes (∼ 36 species, Orchidaceae) is a small genus with a global distribution. It has a center of diversity in North America with only a few species occurring in Asia. This study focuses on the Asian Spiranthes with an emphasis on understanding their biogeographic relationships and species delimitations using molecular markers. Our phylogenetic trees based on nuclear (ITS) and chloroplast (trnL-trnLF, matK and trnS-G) sequences from samples across their range in Asia revealed the Asian Spiranthes are monophyletic...
March 1, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Frederico Valtuille Faleiro, André Nemésio, Rafael Loyola
Studies have tested whether model predictions based on species' occurrence can predict the spatial pattern of population abundance. The relationship between predicted environmental suitability and population abundance varies in shape, strength and predictive power. However, little attention has been paid to the congruence in predictions of different models fed with occurrence or abundance data, in particular when comparing metrics of climate change impact. Here, we used the ecological niche modeling fit with presence-absence and abundance data of orchid bees to predict the effect of climate change on species and assembly level distribution patterns...
March 2, 2018: Global Change Biology
Wan-Lin Dong, Ruo-Nan Wang, Na-Yao Zhang, Wei-Bing Fan, Min-Feng Fang, Zhong-Hu Li
Orchidaceae is the 3rd largest family of angiosperms, an evolved young branch of monocotyledons. This family contains a number of economically-important horticulture and flowering plants. However, the limited availability of genomic information largely hindered the study of molecular evolution and phylogeny of Orchidaceae. In this study, we determined the evolutionary characteristics of whole chloroplast (cp) genomes and the phylogenetic relationships of the family Orchidaceae. We firstly characterized the cp genomes of four orchid species: Cremastra appendiculata , Calanthe davidii , Epipactis mairei , and Platanthera japonica ...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hanako Shimura, Chikara Masuta, Yasunori Koda
In nature, mycorrhizal association with soilborne fungi is indispensable for orchid families. Fungal structures from compatible endo-mycorrhizal fungi in orchid cells are digested in cells to be supplied to orchids as nutrition. Because orchid seeds lack the reserves for germination, they keep receiving nutrition through mycorrhizal formation from seed germination until shoots develop (leaves) and become photoautotrophic. Seeds of all orchid species surely geminate with the help of their own fungal partners, and this specific partnership has been acquired for a long evolutional history between orchids and fungi...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Shikha Srivastava, Chris Kadooka, Janice Y Uchida
The recent surge in demand for exotic ornamental crops such as orchids has led to a rise in international production, and a sharp increase in the number of plant and plant products moving between countries. Along with the plants, diseases are also being transported and introduced into new areas. Fusarium is one of the major diseases causing pathogens infecting orchids that is spreading through international trade. Studies have identified several species of Fusarium associated with orchids, some are pathogenic and cause symptoms such as leaf and flower spots, leaf or sheath blights, pseudostem or root rots, and wilts...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
Shubin Yu, Zhongyuan Wang, Zijie Su, Jiaxing Song, Liang Zhou, Qi Sun, Shanshan Liu, Shiyue Li, Ying Li, Meina Wang, Guo-Qiang Zhang, Xue Zhang, Zhong-Jian Liu, Desheng Lu
BACKGROUND: Gigantol is a bibenzyl compound derived from several medicinal orchids. This biologically active compound has been shown to have promising therapeutic potential against cancer cells, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. METHODS: The inhibitory effect of gigantol on Wnt/β-catenin signaling was evaluated with the SuperTOPFlash reporter system. The levels of phosphorylated low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 6 (LRP6), total LRP6 and cytosolic β-catenin were determined by Western blot analysis...
February 14, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Yuki Ogura-Tsujita, Gerhard Gebauer, Hui Xu, Yu Fukasawa, Hidetaka Umata, Kenshi Tetsuka, Miho Kubota, Julienne M-I Schweiger, Satoshi Yamashita, Nitaro Maekawa, Masayuki Maki, Shiro Isshiki, Tomohisa Yukawa
The climbing orchid Erythrorchis altissima is the largest mycoheterotroph in the world. Although previous in vitro work suggests that E. altissima has a unique symbiosis with wood-decaying fungi, little is known about how this giant orchid meets its carbon and nutrient demands exclusively via mycorrhizal fungi. In this study, the mycorrhizal fungi of E. altissima were molecularly identified using root samples from 26 individuals. Furthermore, in vitro symbiotic germination with five fungi and stable isotope compositions in five E...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Fabiana Esposito, Nicolas J Vereecken, Maddalena Gammella, Rosita Rinaldi, Pascal Laurent, Daniel Tyteca
Platanthera bifolia and P. chlorantha are terrestrial and rewarding orchids with a wide Eurasian distribution. Although genetically closely related, they exhibit significant morphological, phenological and ecological differences that maintain reproductive isolation between the species. However, where both species co-occur, individuals with intermediate phenotypic traits, often considered as hybrids, are frequently observed. Here, we combined neutral genetic markers (AFLPs), morphometrics and floral scent analysis (GC-MS) to investigate two mixed Platanthera populations where morphologically intermediate plants were found...
2018: PeerJ
Orchid Ashraf, Maha Nasr, Marianne Nebsen, Azza Mohamed Ahmed Said, Omaima Sammour
Baicalin is a multi-purpose flavonoid used in the treatment of different ocular diseases. Owing to its poor stability in basic pH and its poor solubility, a suitable carrier system is needed to enhance its ocular therapeutic potential. Therefore, the objective of this work was to prepare and contrast different baicalin vesicular systems; namely liposomes, penetration enhancer vesicles PEVs and transfersomes. Results revealed that baicalin vesicles exhibited suitable particle size and zeta potential, high entrapment efficiency and controlled release...
January 24, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Bong-Hyung Lee, Woo-Jin Kwon, Jin-Young Kim, Jin-Seo Park, Ahn-Heum Eom
Orchidaceous plants have symbiotic relationships with endophytic fungi, including mycorrhizal fungi, which play important roles in the seed germination and growth of the host plants. In this study, endophytic fungal communities isolated from the roots of Cephalanthera longibracteata collected from three different sites in Korea were analyzed, and it was determined whether fungal communities were preferentially correlated with the sites. The fungal isolates were identified by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer regions of rDNA...
December 2017: Mycobiology
Armando Falcón-Brindis, Ricardo Ayala, María Luisa Jiménez, Ismael A Hinojosa-Díaz
Orchid bees are a conspicuous component of the neotropical bee fauna, with a few species reaching the northernmost natural distribution for the group in northwestern continental Mexico. Among them, Euglossa viridissima Friese is here reported for the first time in the Cape Region of the Baja California peninsula, Mexico, where no species of the group have been found previously. These records are presented, their biogeographical implications discussed, and some interpretations of the local factors that influence the bees is presented...
2018: ZooKeys
Elodie Chapurlat, Joseph Anderson, Jon Ågren, Magne Friberg, Nina Sletvold
Background and Aims: Floral scent is considered an integral component of pollination syndromes, and its composition and timing of emission are thus expected to match the main pollinator type and time of activity. While floral scent differences among plant species with different pollination systems can be striking, studies on intraspecific variation are sparse, which limits our understanding of the role of pollinators in driving scent divergence. Methods: Here, we used dynamic headspace sampling to quantify floral scent emission and composition during the day and at night in the natural habitat of six Scandinavian populations of the fragrant orchid Gymnadenia conopsea...
January 18, 2018: Annals of Botany
Hui-Ju Shen, Jen-Tsung Chen, Hsiao-Hang Chung, Wei-Chin Chang
BACKGROUND: Tolumnia genus (equitant Oncidium) is a group of small orchids with vivid flower color. Thousands of hybrids have been registered on Royal Horticulture Society and showed great potential for ornamental plant market. The aim of this study is to establish an efficient method for in vitro propagation. RESULTS: Leaf explants taken from in vitro-grown plants were used to induce direct somatic embryogenesis on a modified 1/2 MS medium supplemented with five kinds of cytokinins, 2iP, BA, kinetin, TDZ and zeatin at 0...
January 22, 2018: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
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