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Flower structure, genetic regulation

Shan-Shan Sun, Paul F Gugger, Qing-Feng Wang, Jin-Ming Chen
The lotus (Nelumbonaceae: Nelumbo Adans.) is a highly desired ornamental plant, comprising only two extant species, the sacred lotus (N. nucifera Gaerten.) with red flowers and the American lotus (N. lutea Willd.) with yellow flowers. Flower color is the most obvious difference of two species. To better understand the mechanism of flower color differentiation, the content of anthocyanins and the expression levels of four key structural genes (e.g., DFR, ANS, UFGT and GST) were analyzed in two species. Our results revealed that anthocyanins were detected in red flowers, not yellow flowers...
2016: PeerJ
Jyotirmaya Mathan, Juhi Bhattacharya, Aashish Ranjan
A number of plant features and traits, such as overall plant architecture, leaf structure and morphological features, vascular architecture and flowering time are important determinants of photosynthetic efficiency and hence the overall performance of crop plants. The optimization of such developmental traits thus has great potential to increase biomass and crop yield. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of these developmental traits in crop plants, summarizing their genetic regulation and highlighting the potential of manipulating these traits for crop improvement...
September 15, 2016: Development
Alice Trivellini, Giacomo Cocetta, Donald A Hunter, Paolo Vernieri, Antonio Ferrante
Flowers are complex systems whose vegetative and sexual structures initiate and die in a synchronous manner. The rapidity of this process varies widely in flowers, with some lasting for months while others such as Hibiscus rosa-sinensis survive for only a day. The genetic regulation underlying these differences is unclear. To identify key genes and pathways that coordinate floral organ senescence of ephemeral flowers, we identified transcripts in H. rosa-sinensis floral organs by 454 sequencing. During development, 2053 transcripts increased and 2135 decreased significantly in abundance...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Wenjun Huang, A B M Khaldun, Jianjun Chen, Chanjuan Zhang, Haiyan Lv, Ling Yuan, Ying Wang
Flavonols as plant secondary metabolites with vital roles in plant development and defense against UV light, have been demonstrated to be the main bioactive components (BCs) in the genus Epimedium plants, several species of which are used as materials for Herba Epimedii, an important traditional Chinese medicine. The flavonol biosynthetic pathway genes had been already isolated from Epimedium sagittatum, but a R2R3-MYB transcription factor regulating the flavonol synthesis has not been functionally characterized so far in Epimedium plants...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Philippe Gallusci, Charlie Hodgman, Emeline Teyssier, Graham B Seymour
Fruit ripening is a developmental process that results in the leaf-like carpel organ of the flower becoming a mature ovary primed for dispersal of the seeds. Ripening in fleshy fruits involves a profound metabolic phase change that is under strict hormonal and genetic control. This work reviews recent developments in our understanding of the epigenetic regulation of fruit ripening. We start by describing the current state of the art about processes involved in histone post-translational modifications and the remodeling of chromatin structure and their impact on fruit development and ripening...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Taeko Shibaya, Kiyosumi Hori, Eri Ogiso-Tanaka, Utako Yamanouchi, Koka Shu, Noriyuki Kitazawa, Ayahiko Shomura, Tsuyu Ando, Kaworu Ebana, Jianzhong Wu, Toshimasa Yamazaki, Masahiro Yano
Flowering time is one of the most important agronomic traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.), because it defines harvest seasons and cultivation areas, and affects yields. We used a map-based strategy to clone Heading date 18 (Hd18). The difference in flowering time between the Japanese rice cultivars Koshihikari and Hayamasari was due to a single nucleotide polymorphism within the Hd18 gene, which encodes an amine oxidase domain-containing protein and is homologous to Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS D (FLD). The Hayamasari Hd18 allele and knockdown of Hd18 gene expression delayed the flowering time of rice plants regardless of the day-length condition...
September 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
Sandra Poyatos-Pertíñez, Muriel Quinet, Ana Ortíz-Atienza, Sandra Bretones, Fernando J Yuste-Lisbona, Rafael Lozano
Genetic interactions of UFD gene support its specific function during reproductive development of tomato; in this process, UFD could play a pivotal role between inflorescence architecture and flower initiation genes. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is a major vegetable crop that also constitutes a model species for the study of plant developmental processes. To gain insight into the control of flowering and floral development, a novel tomato mutant, unfinished flower development (ufd), whose inflorescence and flowers were unable to complete their normal development was characterized using double mutant and gene expression analyses...
September 2016: Plant Reproduction
Dhananjay K Pandey, Bhupendra Chaudhary
BACKGROUND: Plant profilin genes encode core cell-wall structural proteins and are evidenced for their up-regulation under cotton domestication. Notwithstanding striking discoveries in the genetics of cell-wall organization in plants, little is explicit about the manner in which profilin-mediated molecular interplay and corresponding networks are altered, especially during cellular signalling of apical meristem determinacy and flower development. RESULTS: Here we show that the ectopic expression of GhPRF1 gene in tobacco resulted in the hyperactivation of apical meristem and early flowering phenotype with increased flower number in comparison to the control plants...
2016: BMC Plant Biology
Anne L Robertson, Nikolay V Ogryzko, Katherine M Henry, Catherine A Loynes, Matthew J Foulkes, Marco M Meloni, Xingang Wang, Christopher Ford, Malcolm Jackson, Philip W Ingham, Heather L Wilson, Stuart N Farrow, Roberto Solari, Roderick J Flower, Simon Jones, Moira K B Whyte, Stephen A Renshaw
Neutrophils are essential for host defence and are recruited to sites of inflammation in response to tissue injury or infection. For inflammation to resolve, these cells must be cleared efficiently and in a controlled manner, either by apoptosis or reverse migration. If the inflammatory response is not well-regulated, persistent neutrophils can cause damage to host tissues and contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, which respond poorly to current treatments. It is therefore important to develop drug discovery strategies that can identify new therapeutics specifically targeting neutrophils, either by promoting their clearance or by preventing their recruitment...
June 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Fiammetta Alagna, Marco Cirilli, Giulio Galla, Fabrizio Carbone, Loretta Daddiego, Paolo Facella, Loredana Lopez, Chiara Colao, Roberto Mariotti, Nicolò Cultrera, Martina Rossi, Gianni Barcaccia, Luciana Baldoni, Rosario Muleo, Gaetano Perrotta
The identification and characterization of transcripts involved in flower organ development, plant reproduction and metabolism represent key steps in plant phenotypic and physiological pathways, and may generate high-quality transcript variants useful for the development of functional markers. This study was aimed at obtaining an extensive characterization of the olive flower transcripts, by providing sound information on the candidate MADS-box genes related to the ABC model of flower development and on the putative genetic and molecular determinants of ovary abortion and pollen-pistil interaction...
2016: PloS One
Jie Qu, Shin Gene Kang, Cyrus Hah, Jyan-Chyun Jang
GA and ABA play antagonistic roles in numerous cellular processes essential for growth, development, and stress responses. GASA4 and GASA6 belong to a family of GA-Stimulated transcripts in Arabidopsis, known as GA-inducible and ABA-repressible. We have found that GASA4 and GASA6 expression is likely mediated through a repressor of GA responses, GA INSENSITIVE (GAI) protein. Moreover, GASA4 and GASA6 are in general up regulated by growth hormones (auxin, BR, cytokinin, and GA) and down regulated by stress hormones (ABA, JA, and SA), indicating a role of GASA4 and GASA6 in hormone crosstalk...
May 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Inés Casimiro-Soriguer, Eduardo Narbona, M L Buide, José C Del Valle, Justen B Whittall
Flower color polymorphisms are widely used as model traits from genetics to ecology, yet determining the biochemical and molecular basis can be challenging. Anthocyanin-based flower color variations can be caused by at least 12 structural and three regulatory genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (ABP). We use mRNA-Seq to simultaneously sequence and estimate expression of these candidate genes in nine samples of Silene littorea representing three color morphs (dark pink, light pink and white) across three developmental stages in hopes of identifying the cause of flower color variation...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Haiyan Zhang, Zhiyong Ni, Quanjia Chen, Zhongjun Guo, Wenwei Gao, Xiujuan Su, Yanying Qu
Drought, one of the most widespread factors reducing agricultural crop productivity, affects biological processes such as development, architecture, flowering and senescence. Although protein analysis techniques and genome sequencing have made facilitated the proteomic study of cotton, information on genetic differences associated with proteomic changes in response to drought between different cotton genotypes is lacking. To determine the effects of drought stress on cotton seedlings, we used two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry to comparatively analyze proteome of drought-responsive proteins during the seedling stage in two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L...
June 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Fanny Moreau, Emmanuel Thévenon, Robert Blanvillain, Irene Lopez-Vidriero, Jose Manuel Franco-Zorrilla, Renaud Dumas, François Parcy, Patrice Morel, Christophe Trehin, Cristel C Carles
Higher plants continuously and iteratively produce new above-ground organs in the form of leaves, stems and flowers. These organs arise from shoot apical meristems whose homeostasis depends on coordination between self-renewal of stem cells and their differentiation into organ founder cells. This coordination is stringently controlled by the central transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS), which is both necessary and sufficient for stem cell specification in Arabidopsis thaliana ULTRAPETALA1 (ULT1) was previously identified as a plant-specific, negative regulator of WUS expression...
April 1, 2016: Development
Samuel Crowell, Pavel Korniliev, Alexandre Falcão, Abdelbagi Ismail, Glenn Gregorio, Jason Mezey, Susan McCouch
Rice panicle architecture is a key target of selection when breeding for yield and grain quality. However, panicle phenotypes are difficult to measure and susceptible to confounding during genetic mapping due to correlation with flowering and subpopulation structure. Here we quantify 49 panicle phenotypes in 242 tropical rice accessions with the imaging platform PANorama. Using flowering as a covariate, we conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS), detect numerous subpopulation-specific associations, and dissect multi-trait peaks using panicle phenotype covariates...
2016: Nature Communications
Risper Auma Magwa, Hu Zhao, Yongzhong Xing
BACKGROUND: Seed dormancy is an adaptive trait employed by flowering plants to avoid harsh environmental conditions for the continuity of their next generations. In cereal crops, moderate seed dormancy could help prevent pre-harvest sprouting and improve grain yield and quality. We performed a genome wide association study (GWAS) for dormancy, based on seed germination percentage (GP) in freshly harvested seeds (FHS) and after-ripened seeds (ARS) in 350 worldwide accessions that were characterized with strong population structure of indica, japonica and Aus subpopulations...
2016: BMC Genetics
Marcus T Brock, Lauren K Lucas, Nickolas A Anderson, Matthew J Rubin, R J Cody Markelz, Michael F Covington, Upendra K Devisetty, Clint Chapple, Julin N Maloof, Cynthia Weinig
Floral attraction traits can significantly affect pollinator visitation patterns, but adaptive evolution of these traits may be constrained by correlations with other traits. In some cases, molecular pathways contributing to floral attraction are well characterized, offering the opportunity to explore loci potentially underlying variation among individuals. Here, we quantify the range of variation in floral UV patterning (i.e. UV 'bulls-eye nectar guides) among crop and wild accessions of Brassica rapa. We then use experimental crosses to examine the genetic architecture, candidate loci and biochemical underpinnings of this patterning as well as phenotypic manipulations to test the ecological impact...
March 2016: Molecular Ecology
Dmytro Kryvokhyzha, Karl Holm, Jun Chen, Amandine Cornille, Sylvain Glémin, Stephen I Wright, Ulf Lagercrantz, Martin Lascoux
Population structure is a potential problem when testing for adaptive phenotypic differences among populations. The observed phenotypic differences among populations can simply be due to genetic drift, and if the genetic distance between them is not considered, the differentiation may be falsely interpreted as adaptive. Conversely, adaptive and demographic processes might have been tightly associated and correcting for the population structure may lead to false negatives. Here, we evaluated this problem in the cosmopolitan weed Capsella bursa-pastoris...
March 2016: Molecular Ecology
Luis Matías-Hernández, Andrea E Aguilar-Jaramillo, Riccardo Aiese Cigliano, Walter Sanseverino, Soraya Pelaz
Gibberellins (GAs) and cytokinins (CKs) are plant hormones that act either synergistically or antagonistically during the regulation of different developmental processes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, GAs and CKs overlap in the positive regulation of processes such as the transition from the vegetative to the reproductive phase and the development of epidermal adaxial trichomes. Despite the fact that both developmental processes originate in the rosette leaves, they occur separately in time and space. Here we review how, as genetic and molecular mechanisms are being unraveled, both processes might be closely related...
March 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yanzhao Zhang, Yanwei Cheng, Huiyuan Ya, Shuzhen Xu, Jianming Han
The pigmented cells in defined region of a petal constitute the petal spots. Petal spots attract pollinators and are found in many angiosperm families. Several cultivars of tree peony contain a single red or purple spot at the base of petal that makes the flower more attractive for the ornamental market. So far, the understanding of the molecular mechanism of spot formation is inadequate. In this study, we sequenced the transcriptome of the purple spot and the white non-spot of tree peony flower. We assembled and annotated 67,892 unigenes...
2015: Frontiers in Plant Science
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