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Flower structure, genetic regulation

Leandro H Estornell, Katarina Landberg, Izabela Cierlik, Eva Sundberg
In flowering plants, mature sperm cells are enclosed in pollen grains formed in structures called anthers. Several cell layers surrounding the central sporogenous cells of the anther are essential for directing the developmental processes that lead to meiosis, pollen formation, and the subsequent pollen release. The specification and function of these tissues are regulated by a large number of genetic factors. Additionally, the plant hormone auxin has previously been shown to play important roles in the later phases of anther development...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Diarmuid S Ó'Maoiléidigh, Darragh Stewart, Beibei Zheng, George Coupland, Frank Wellmer
As originally proposed by Goethe in 1790, floral organs are derived from leaf-like structures. The conversion of leaves into different types of floral organs is mediated by floral homeotic proteins, which - as described by the ABCE model of flower development - act in a combinatorial manner. However, how these transcription factors bring about this transformation process is currently not well understood. We have previously shown that floral homeotic proteins are involved in suppressing the formation of branched trichomes, a hallmark of leaf development, on reproductive floral organs of Arabidopsis Here, we present evidence that the activities of the C function gene AGAMOUS (AG) and the related SHATTERPROOF1/2 genes are superimposed onto the regulatory network that controls the distribution of trichome formation in an age-dependent manner...
January 18, 2018: Development
Shamitha Rao Morey, Tatsuro Hirose, Yoichi Hashida, Akio Miyao, Hirohiko Hirochika, Ryu Ohsugi, Junko Yamagishi, Naohiro Aoki
BACKGROUND: Rice is a major crop feeding the majority of the global population, and increasing its sink strength is one of the modes to alleviate the declining availability of food for the rapidly growing world population. We demonstrate a role for an important rice vacuolar invertase isoform, OsINV3, in sink strength determination. RESULTS: OsINV3 mutants showed shorter panicles with lighter and smaller grains, owing to a smaller cell size on the outer and inner surfaces of the palea and lemma as observed by scanning electron microscopy...
January 17, 2018: Rice
Fang Du, Junmiao Fan, Ting Wang, Yun Wu, Donald Grierson, Zhongshan Gao, Yiping Xia
BACKGROUND: Lily is an economically important plant, with leaves and bulbs consisting of overlapping scales, large ornamental flowers and a very large genome. Although it is recognized that flowers and bulb scales are modified leaves, very little is known about the genetic control and biochemical differentiation underlying lily organogenesis and development. Here we examined the differentially expressed genes in flower, leaf and scale of lily, using RNA-sequencing, and identified organ-specific genes, including transcription factors, genes involved in photosynthesis in leaves, carbohydrate metabolism in bulb scales and scent and color production in flowers...
November 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
Jason B Thomas, Marshall E Hampton, Kevin M Dorn, M David Marks, Clay J Carter
BACKGROUND: Pennycress [Thlaspi arvense L (Brassicaceae)] is being domesticated as a renewable biodiesel feedstock that also provides crucial ecosystems services, including as a nutritional resource for pollinators. However, its flowers produce significantly less nectar than other crop relatives in the Brassicaceae. This study was undertaken to understand the basic biology of the pennycress nectary as an initial step toward the possibility of enhancing nectar output from its flowers. RESULTS: Pennycress flowers contain four equivalent nectaries located extrastaminally at the base of the insertion sites of short and long stamens...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Yolanda Durán-Medina, Joanna Serwatowska, J Irepan Reyes-Olalde, Stefan de Folter, Nayelli Marsch-Martínez
The gynoecium is the female reproductive system in flowering plants. It is a complex structure formed by different tissues, some that are essential for reproduction and others that facilitate the fertilization process and nurture and protect the developing seeds. The coordinated development of these different tissues during the formation of the gynoecium is important for reproductive success. Both hormones and genetic regulators guide the development of the different tissues. Auxin and cytokinin in particular have been found to play important roles in this process...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Baowen Huang, Jean-Marc Routaboul, Mingchun Liu, Wei Deng, Elie Maza, Isabelle Mila, Guojian Hu, Mohamed Zouine, Pierre Frasse, Julia T Vrebalov, James J Giovannoni, Zhengguo Li, Benoît van der Rest, Mondher Bouzayen
MADS-box transcription factors are key elements of the genetic networks controlling flower and fruit development. Among these, the class D clade gathers AGAMOUS-like genes which are involved in seed, ovule, and funiculus development. The tomato genome comprises two class D genes, Sl-AGL11 and Sl-MBP3, both displaying high expression levels in seeds and in central tissues of young fruits. The potential effects of Sl-AGL11 on fruit development were addressed through RNAi silencing and ectopic expression strategies...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Joyita Deb, Heather M Bland, Lars Østergaard
Development in multicellular organisms requires the establishment of tissue identity through polarity cues. The Arabidopsis gynoecium presents an excellent model to study this coordination, as it comprises a complex tissue structure which is established through multiple polarity systems. The gynoecium is derived from the fusion of two carpels and forms in the centre of the flower. Many regulators of carpel development also have roles in leaf development, emphasizing the evolutionary origin of carpels as modified leaves...
September 26, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Qingcai Meng, Xiaofeng Li, Wanwan Zhu, Li Yang, Wanqi Liang, Ludovico Dreni, Dabing Zhang
Grasses display highly diversified inflorescence architectures that differ in the arrangement of spikelets and flowers and determine cereal yields. However, the molecular basis underlying grass inflorescence morphogenesis remains largely unknown. Here we investigate the role of a functionally diversified SEPALLATA MADS-box transcription factor, OsMADS34, in regulating rice (Oryza sativa L.) inflorescence and spikelet development. Microarray analysis showed that, at the very early stages of inflorescence formation, dysfunction of OsMADS34 caused altered expression of 379 genes that are associated with protein modification and degradation, transcriptional regulation, signaling and metabolism activity...
September 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
Ruimin Zhou, Tong Zhu, Lei Han, Mengjie Liu, Mengyuan Xu, Yanli Liu, Dandan Han, Dewen Qiu, Qingqiu Gong, Xinqi Liu
The soil-borne fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae infects a wide range of dicotyledonous plants including cotton, tobacco, and Arabidopsis. Among the effector proteins secreted by V. dahliae, the 16 kDa PevD1 induces a hypersensitive response in tobacco. Here we report the high-resolution structure of PevD1 with folds resembling a C2 domain-like structure with a calcium ion bound to the C-terminal acidic pocket. A yeast two-hybrid screen, designed to probe for molecular functions of PevD1, identified Arabidopsis asparagine-rich protein (NRP) as the interacting partner of PevD1...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Juhua Liu, Jing Zhang, Jianbin Zhang, Hongxia Miao, Jingyi Wang, Pengzhao Gao, Wei Hu, Caihong Jia, Zhuo Wang, Biyu Xu, Zhiqiang Jin
Proteins encoded by MADS-box genes are important transcription factors involved in the regulation of flowering plant growth and development. Currently, no systematic information exists regarding the MADS-box family in the important tropical fruit banana. Ninety-six MADS-box genes were identified from the banana (Pahang) A genome. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Musa acuminata MCM1-AGAMOUS- DEFICIENS-SRF (MaMADS) could be divided into MIKC(c), MIKC*, Mα/β and Mγ groups. MIKC(c) could be further divided into 11 subfamilies, which was further supported by conserved motif and gene structure analyses...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xiangzhong Sun, Yaxin Li, Wenrong He, Chenggong Ji, Peixue Xia, Yichuan Wang, Shuo Du, Hongjiang Li, Natasha Raikhel, Junyu Xiao, Hongwei Guo
Ethylene is an important phytohormone that promotes the ripening of fruits and senescence of flowers thereby reducing their shelf lives. Specific ethylene biosynthesis inhibitors would help to decrease postharvest loss. Here, we identify pyrazinamide (PZA), a clinical drug used to treat tuberculosis, as an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana, using a chemical genetics approach. PZA is converted to pyrazinecarboxylic acid (POA) in plant cells, suppressing the activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO), the enzyme catalysing the final step of ethylene formation...
June 12, 2017: Nature Communications
Tingting Sun, Mingjun Li, Yun Shao, Lingyan Yu, Fengwang Ma
Elemental phosphorus (Pi) is essential to plant growth and development. The family of phosphate transporters (PHTs) mediates the uptake and translocation of Pi inside the plants. Members include five sub-cellular phosphate transporters that play different roles in Pi uptake and transport. We searched the Genome Database for Rosaceae and identified five clusters of phosphate transporters in apple (Malus domestica), including 37 putative genes. The MdPHT1 family contains 14 genes while MdPHT2 has two, MdPHT3 has seven, MdPHT4 has 11, and MdPHT5 has three...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ursula Abad, Massimiliano Sassi, Jan Traas
The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is a small population of stem cells that continuously generates organs and tissues. We will discuss here flower formation at the SAM, which involves a complex network of regulatory genes and signalling molecules. A major downstream target of this network is the extracellular matrix or cell wall, which is a local determinant for both growth rates and growth directions. We will discuss here a number of recent studies aimed at analysing the link between cell wall structure and molecular regulation...
May 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Isabel Bartrina, Helen Jensen, Ondřej Novák, Miroslav Strnad, Tomáš Werner, Thomas Schmülling
The phytohormone cytokinin is a regulator of numerous processes in plants. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the cytokinin signal is perceived by three membrane-located receptors named ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE KINASE2 (AHK2), AHK3, and AHK4/CRE1. How the signal is transmitted across the membrane is an entirely unknown process. The three receptors have been shown to operate mostly in a redundant fashion, and very few specific roles have been attributed to single receptors. Using a forward genetic approach, we isolated constitutively active gain-of-function variants of the AHK2 and AHK3 genes, named repressor of cytokinin deficiency2 (rock2) and rock3, respectively...
March 2017: Plant Physiology
Mingyong Tang, Yan-Bin Tao, Qiantang Fu, Yaling Song, Longjian Niu, Zeng-Fu Xu
Jatropha curcas seeds are an excellent biofuel feedstock, but seed yields of Jatropha are limited by its poor flowering and fruiting ability. Thus, identifying genes controlling flowering is critical for genetic improvement of seed yield. We isolated the JcLFY, a Jatropha ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana LEAFY (LFY), and identified JcLFY function by overexpressing it in Arabidopsis and Jatropha. JcLFY is expressed in Jatropha inflorescence buds, flower buds, and carpels, with highest expression in the early developmental stage of flower buds...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Zachary H Lemmon, Soon Ju Park, Ke Jiang, Joyce Van Eck, Michael C Schatz, Zachary B Lippman
One of the most remarkable manifestations of plant evolution is the diversity for floral branching systems. These "inflorescences" arise from stem cell populations in shoot meristems that mature gradually to reproductive states in response to environmental and endogenous signals. The morphology of the shoot meristem maturation process is conserved across distantly related plants, raising the question of how diverse inflorescence architectures arise from seemingly common maturation programs. In tomato and related nightshades (Solanaceae), inflorescences range from solitary flowers to highly branched structures bearing hundreds of flowers...
December 2016: Genome Research
Aleksandra Smoczynska, Zofia Szweykowska-Kulinska
Flower structure in grasses is very unique. There are no petals or sepals like in eudicots but instead flowers develop bract-like structures - palea and lemma. Reproductive organs are enclosed by round lodicule that not only protects reproductive organs but also plays an important role during flower opening. The first genetic model for floral organ development was proposed 25 years ago and it was based on the research on model eudicots. Since then, studies have been carried out to answer the question whether this model could be applicable in the case of monocots...
2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Marimuthu Kumaravel, Subbaraya Uma, Suthanthiram Backiyarani, Marimuthu Somasundaram Saraswathi, Muthu Mayil Vaganan, Muthusamy Muthusamy, Kallu Purayil Sajith
Endogenous hormone secretion proteins along with stress and defense proteins play predominant role in banana embryogenesis. This study reveals the underlying molecular mechanism during transition from vegetative to embryogenic state. Banana (Musa spp.) is well known globally as a food fruit crop for millions. The requirement of quality planting material of banana is enormous. Although mass multiplication through tissue culture is in vogue, high-throughput techniques like somatic embryogenesis (SE) as a mass multiplication tool needs to be improved...
January 2017: Plant Cell Reports
Fan Yang, Peter Hsu, Susan D Lee, Wen Yang, Derick Hoskinson, Weihao Xu, Claire Moore, Gabriele Varani
3'-End processing of pre-mRNAs prior to packaging and export to the cytoplasm of the mature transcript is a highly regulated process executed by several tens of protein factors that recognize poorly conserved RNA signals. Among them is Pcf11, a highly conserved, multidomain protein that links transcriptional elongation, 3'-end processing, and transcription termination. Here we report the structure and biochemical function of Pcf11's C-terminal domain, which is conserved from yeast to humans. We identify a novel zinc-finger fold, resembling a trillium flower...
January 2017: RNA
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