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Flower structure, genetic regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137608/the-pennycress-thlaspi-arvense-l-nectary-structural-and-transcriptomic-characterization
#1
Jason B Thomas, Marshall E Hampton, Kevin M Dorn, M David Marks, Clay J Carter
BACKGROUND: Pennycress [Thlaspi arvense L (Brassicaceae)] is being domesticated as a renewable biodiesel feedstock that also provides crucial ecosystems services, including as a nutritional resource for pollinators. However, its flowers produce significantly less nectar than other crop relatives in the Brassicaceae. This study was undertaken to understand the basic biology of the pennycress nectary as an initial step toward the possibility of enhancing nectar output from its flowers. RESULTS: Pennycress flowers contain four equivalent nectaries located extrastaminally at the base of the insertion sites of short and long stamens...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123539/the-ap2-erf-transcription-factor-drnl-modulates-gynoecium-development-and-affects-its-response-to-cytokinin
#2
Yolanda Durán-Medina, Joanna Serwatowska, J Irepan Reyes-Olalde, Stefan de Folter, Nayelli Marsch-Martínez
The gynoecium is the female reproductive system in flowering plants. It is a complex structure formed by different tissues, some that are essential for reproduction and others that facilitate the fertilization process and nurture and protect the developing seeds. The coordinated development of these different tissues during the formation of the gynoecium is important for reproductive success. Both hormones and genetic regulators guide the development of the different tissues. Auxin and cytokinin in particular have been found to play important roles in this process...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992179/overexpression-of-the-class-d-mads-box-gene-sl-agl11-impacts-fleshy-tissue-differentiation-and-structure-in-tomato-fruits
#3
Baowen Huang, Jean-Marc Routaboul, Mingchun Liu, Wei Deng, Elie Maza, Isabelle Mila, Guojian Hu, Mohamed Zouine, Pierre Frasse, Julia T Vrebalov, James J Giovannoni, Zhengguo Li, Benoît van der Rest, Mondher Bouzayen
MADS-box transcription factors are key elements of the genetic networks controlling flower and fruit development. Among these, the class D clade gathers AGAMOUS-like genes which are involved in seed, ovule, and funiculus development. The tomato genome comprises two class D genes, Sl-AGL11 and Sl-MBP3, both displaying high expression levels in seeds and in central tissues of young fruits. The potential effects of Sl-AGL11 on fruit development were addressed through RNAi silencing and ectopic expression strategies...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961459/developmental-cartography-coordination-via-hormonal-and-genetic-interactions-during-gynoecium-formation
#4
REVIEW
Joyita Deb, Heather M Bland, Lars Østergaard
Development in multicellular organisms requires the establishment of tissue identity through polarity cues. The Arabidopsis gynoecium presents an excellent model to study this coordination, as it comprises a complex tissue structure which is established through multiple polarity systems. The gynoecium is derived from the fusion of two carpels and forms in the centre of the flower. Many regulators of carpel development also have roles in leaf development, emphasizing the evolutionary origin of carpels as modified leaves...
September 26, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843032/regulatory-network-and-genetic-interactions-established-by-osmads34-in-rice-inflorescence-and-spikelet-morphogenesis
#5
Qingcai Meng, Xiaofeng Li, Wanwan Zhu, Li Yang, Wanqi Liang, Ludovico Dreni, Dabing Zhang
Grasses display highly diversified inflorescence architectures that differ in the arrangement of spikelets and flowers and determine cereal yields. However, the molecular basis underlying grass inflorescence morphogenesis remains largely unknown. Here we investigate the role of a functionally diversified SEPALLATA MADS-box transcription factor, OsMADS34, in regulating rice (Oryza sativa L.) inflorescence and spikelet development. Microarray analysis showed that, at the very early stages of inflorescence formation, dysfunction of OsMADS34 caused altered expression of 379 genes that are associated with protein modification and degradation, transcriptional regulation, signaling and metabolism activity...
September 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633330/the-asparagine-rich-protein-nrp-interacts-with-the-verticillium-effector-pevd1-and-regulates-the-subcellular-localization-of-cryptochrome-2
#6
Ruimin Zhou, Tong Zhu, Lei Han, Mengjie Liu, Mengyuan Xu, Yanli Liu, Dandan Han, Dewen Qiu, Qingqiu Gong, Xinqi Liu
The soil-borne fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae infects a wide range of dicotyledonous plants including cotton, tobacco, and Arabidopsis. Among the effector proteins secreted by V. dahliae, the 16 kDa PevD1 induces a hypersensitive response in tobacco. Here we report the high-resolution structure of PevD1 with folds resembling a C2 domain-like structure with a calcium ion bound to the C-terminal acidic pocket. A yeast two-hybrid screen, designed to probe for molecular functions of PevD1, identified Arabidopsis asparagine-rich protein (NRP) as the interacting partner of PevD1...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615681/genome-wide-analysis-of-banana-mads-box-family-closely-related-to-fruit-development-and-ripening
#7
Juhua Liu, Jing Zhang, Jianbin Zhang, Hongxia Miao, Jingyi Wang, Pengzhao Gao, Wei Hu, Caihong Jia, Zhuo Wang, Biyu Xu, Zhiqiang Jin
Proteins encoded by MADS-box genes are important transcription factors involved in the regulation of flowering plant growth and development. Currently, no systematic information exists regarding the MADS-box family in the important tropical fruit banana. Ninety-six MADS-box genes were identified from the banana (Pahang) A genome. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Musa acuminata MCM1-AGAMOUS- DEFICIENS-SRF (MaMADS) could be divided into MIKC(c), MIKC*, Mα/β and Mγ groups. MIKC(c) could be further divided into 11 subfamilies, which was further supported by conserved motif and gene structure analyses...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604689/pyrazinamide-and-derivatives-block-ethylene-biosynthesis-by-inhibiting-acc-oxidase
#8
Xiangzhong Sun, Yaxin Li, Wenrong He, Chenggong Ji, Peixue Xia, Yichuan Wang, Shuo Du, Hongjiang Li, Natasha Raikhel, Junyu Xiao, Hongwei Guo
Ethylene is an important phytohormone that promotes the ripening of fruits and senescence of flowers thereby reducing their shelf lives. Specific ethylene biosynthesis inhibitors would help to decrease postharvest loss. Here, we identify pyrazinamide (PZA), a clinical drug used to treat tuberculosis, as an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana, using a chemical genetics approach. PZA is converted to pyrazinecarboxylic acid (POA) in plant cells, suppressing the activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO), the enzyme catalysing the final step of ethylene formation...
June 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424713/comprehensive-genomic-identification-and-expression-analysis-of-the-phosphate-transporter-pht-gene-family-in-apple
#9
Tingting Sun, Mingjun Li, Yun Shao, Lingyan Yu, Fengwang Ma
Elemental phosphorus (Pi) is essential to plant growth and development. The family of phosphate transporters (PHTs) mediates the uptake and translocation of Pi inside the plants. Members include five sub-cellular phosphate transporters that play different roles in Pi uptake and transport. We searched the Genome Database for Rosaceae and identified five clusters of phosphate transporters in apple (Malus domestica), including 37 putative genes. The MdPHT1 family contains 14 genes while MdPHT2 has two, MdPHT3 has seven, MdPHT4 has 11, and MdPHT5 has three...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348258/flower-development-from-morphodynamics-to-morphomechanics
#10
Ursula Abad, Massimiliano Sassi, Jan Traas
The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is a small population of stem cells that continuously generates organs and tissues. We will discuss here flower formation at the SAM, which involves a complex network of regulatory genes and signalling molecules. A major downstream target of this network is the extracellular matrix or cell wall, which is a local determinant for both growth rates and growth directions. We will discuss here a number of recent studies aimed at analysing the link between cell wall structure and molecular regulation...
May 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096190/gain-of-function-mutants-of-the-cytokinin-receptors-ahk2-and-ahk3-regulate-plant-organ-size-flowering-time-and-plant-longevity
#11
Isabel Bartrina, Helen Jensen, Ondřej Novák, Miroslav Strnad, Tomáš Werner, Thomas Schmülling
The phytohormone cytokinin is a regulator of numerous processes in plants. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the cytokinin signal is perceived by three membrane-located receptors named ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE KINASE2 (AHK2), AHK3, and AHK4/CRE1. How the signal is transmitted across the membrane is an entirely unknown process. The three receptors have been shown to operate mostly in a redundant fashion, and very few specific roles have been attributed to single receptors. Using a forward genetic approach, we isolated constitutively active gain-of-function variants of the AHK2 and AHK3 genes, named repressor of cytokinin deficiency2 (rock2) and rock3, respectively...
March 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869146/an-ortholog-of-leafy-in-jatropha-curcas-regulates-flowering-time-and-floral-organ-development
#12
Mingyong Tang, Yan-Bin Tao, Qiantang Fu, Yaling Song, Longjian Niu, Zeng-Fu Xu
Jatropha curcas seeds are an excellent biofuel feedstock, but seed yields of Jatropha are limited by its poor flowering and fruiting ability. Thus, identifying genes controlling flowering is critical for genetic improvement of seed yield. We isolated the JcLFY, a Jatropha ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana LEAFY (LFY), and identified JcLFY function by overexpressing it in Arabidopsis and Jatropha. JcLFY is expressed in Jatropha inflorescence buds, flower buds, and carpels, with highest expression in the early developmental stage of flower buds...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821409/the-evolution-of-inflorescence-diversity-in-the-nightshades-and-heterochrony-during-meristem-maturation
#13
Zachary H Lemmon, Soon Ju Park, Ke Jiang, Joyce Van Eck, Michael C Schatz, Zachary B Lippman
One of the most remarkable manifestations of plant evolution is the diversity for floral branching systems. These "inflorescences" arise from stem cell populations in shoot meristems that mature gradually to reproductive states in response to environmental and endogenous signals. The morphology of the shoot meristem maturation process is conserved across distantly related plants, raising the question of how diverse inflorescence architectures arise from seemingly common maturation programs. In tomato and related nightshades (Solanaceae), inflorescences range from solitary flowers to highly branched structures bearing hundreds of flowers...
December 2016: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815966/microrna-mediated-regulation-of-flower-development-in-grasses
#14
REVIEW
Aleksandra Smoczynska, Zofia Szweykowska-Kulinska
Flower structure in grasses is very unique. There are no petals or sepals like in eudicots but instead flowers develop bract-like structures - palea and lemma. Reproductive organs are enclosed by round lodicule that not only protects reproductive organs but also plays an important role during flower opening. The first genetic model for floral organ development was proposed 25 years ago and it was based on the research on model eudicots. Since then, studies have been carried out to answer the question whether this model could be applicable in the case of monocots...
2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807644/differential-proteome-analysis-during-early-somatic-embryogenesis-in-musa-spp-aaa-cv-grand-naine
#15
Marimuthu Kumaravel, Subbaraya Uma, Suthanthiram Backiyarani, Marimuthu Somasundaram Saraswathi, Muthu Mayil Vaganan, Muthusamy Muthusamy, Kallu Purayil Sajith
Endogenous hormone secretion proteins along with stress and defense proteins play predominant role in banana embryogenesis. This study reveals the underlying molecular mechanism during transition from vegetative to embryogenic state. Banana (Musa spp.) is well known globally as a food fruit crop for millions. The requirement of quality planting material of banana is enormous. Although mass multiplication through tissue culture is in vogue, high-throughput techniques like somatic embryogenesis (SE) as a mass multiplication tool needs to be improved...
January 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780845/the-c-terminus-of-pcf11-forms-a-novel-zinc-finger-structure-that-plays-an-essential-role-in-mrna-3-end-processing
#16
Fan Yang, Peter Hsu, Susan D Lee, Wen Yang, Derick Hoskinson, Weihao Xu, Claire Moore, Gabriele Varani
3'-End processing of pre-mRNAs prior to packaging and export to the cytoplasm of the mature transcript is a highly regulated process executed by several tens of protein factors that recognize poorly conserved RNA signals. Among them is Pcf11, a highly conserved, multidomain protein that links transcriptional elongation, 3'-end processing, and transcription termination. Here we report the structure and biochemical function of Pcf11's C-terminal domain, which is conserved from yeast to humans. We identify a novel zinc-finger fold, resembling a trillium flower...
January 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635336/identification-of-a-r2r3-myb-gene-regulating-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-and-relationships-between-its-variation-and-flower-color-difference-in-lotus-nelumbo-adans
#17
Shan-Shan Sun, Paul F Gugger, Qing-Feng Wang, Jin-Ming Chen
The lotus (Nelumbonaceae: Nelumbo Adans.) is a highly desired ornamental plant, comprising only two extant species, the sacred lotus (N. nucifera Gaerten.) with red flowers and the American lotus (N. lutea Willd.) with yellow flowers. Flower color is the most obvious difference of two species. To better understand the mechanism of flower color differentiation, the content of anthocyanins and the expression levels of four key structural genes (e.g., DFR, ANS, UFGT and GST) were analyzed in two species. Our results revealed that anthocyanins were detected in red flowers, not yellow flowers...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624833/enhancing-crop-yield-by-optimizing-plant-developmental-features
#18
REVIEW
Jyotirmaya Mathan, Juhi Bhattacharya, Aashish Ranjan
A number of plant features and traits, such as overall plant architecture, leaf structure and morphological features, vascular architecture and flowering time are important determinants of photosynthetic efficiency and hence the overall performance of crop plants. The optimization of such developmental traits thus has great potential to increase biomass and crop yield. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of these developmental traits in crop plants, summarizing their genetic regulation and highlighting the potential of manipulating these traits for crop improvement...
September 15, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591432/spatial-and-temporal-transcriptome-changes-occurring-during-flower-opening-and-senescence-of-the-ephemeral-hibiscus-flower-hibiscus-rosa-sinensis
#19
Alice Trivellini, Giacomo Cocetta, Donald A Hunter, Paolo Vernieri, Antonio Ferrante
Flowers are complex systems whose vegetative and sexual structures initiate and die in a synchronous manner. The rapidity of this process varies widely in flowers, with some lasting for months while others such as Hibiscus rosa-sinensis survive for only a day. The genetic regulation underlying these differences is unclear. To identify key genes and pathways that coordinate floral organ senescence of ephemeral flowers, we identified transcripts in H. rosa-sinensis floral organs by 454 sequencing. During development, 2053 transcripts increased and 2135 decreased significantly in abundance...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493658/a-r2r3-myb-transcription-factor-regulates-the-flavonol-biosynthetic-pathway-in-a-traditional-chinese-medicinal-plant-epimedium-sagittatum
#20
Wenjun Huang, A B M Khaldun, Jianjun Chen, Chanjuan Zhang, Haiyan Lv, Ling Yuan, Ying Wang
Flavonols as plant secondary metabolites with vital roles in plant development and defense against UV light, have been demonstrated to be the main bioactive components (BCs) in the genus Epimedium plants, several species of which are used as materials for Herba Epimedii, an important traditional Chinese medicine. The flavonol biosynthetic pathway genes had been already isolated from Epimedium sagittatum, but a R2R3-MYB transcription factor regulating the flavonol synthesis has not been functionally characterized so far in Epimedium plants...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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