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Chirag J Patel

Adam S Brown, Chirag J Patel
OBJECTIVE: Drug repositioning is a promising methodology for reducing the cost and duration of the drug discovery pipeline. We sought to develop a computational repositioning method leveraging annotations in the literature, such as Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms. METHODS: We developed software to determine significantly co-occurring drug-MeSH term pairs and a method to estimate pair-wise literature-derived distances between drugs. RESULTS: We found that literature-based drug-drug similarities predicted the number of shared indications across drug-drug pairs...
September 27, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Ryan T Lewinson, Isabelle A Vallerand, Kelsey H Collins, J Preston Wiley, Victor M Y Lun, Chirag Patel, Linda J Woodhouse, Raylene A Reimer, Jay T Worobets, Walter Herzog, Darren J Stefanyshyn
Wedged insoles are believed to be of clinical benefit to individuals with knee osteoarthritis by reducing the knee adduction moment (KAM) during gait. However, previous clinical trials have not specifically controlled for KAM reduction at baseline, thus it is unknown if reduced KAMs actually confer a clinical benefit. Forty-eight participants with medial knee osteoarthritis were randomly assigned to either a control group where no footwear intervention was given, or a wedged insole group where KAM reduction was confirmed at baseline...
August 26, 2016: Gait & Posture
Samir V Patel, Sunny Jhamnani, Palak Patel, Rajesh Sonani, Chirag Savani, Nilay Patel, Nileshkumar J Patel, Sidakpal S Panaich, Mihir Patel, Schreiber Theodore, Cindy Grines, Apurva O Badheka
BACKGROUND: Since elective transcatheter aortic valve replacements (TAVRs) can be performed on the day of admission, i.e., Day 0, or on the next day of admission, i.e., Day 1, we sought to investigate if there is an advantage to either approach. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study, using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's Nationwide Inpatient Sample database of 2012 and identified subjects undergoing endovascular (Transfemoral/Transaortic) TAVRs using the ICD-9-CM procedure code of 35...
October 2016: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
Chirag J Patel, Jianguang Ji, Jan Sundquist, John P A Ioannidis, Kristina Sundquist
It is a public health priority to identify the adverse and non-adverse associations between pharmaceutical medications and cancer. We search for and evaluate associations between all prescribed medications and longitudinal cancer risk in participants of the Swedish Cancer Register (N = 9,014,975). We associated 552 different medications with incident cancer risk (any, breast, colon, and prostate) during 5.5 years of follow-up (7/1/2005-12/31/2010) in two types of statistical models, time-to-event and case-crossover...
2016: Scientific Reports
Denise P McGinnis, John S Brownstein, Chirag J Patel
Identifying environmental exposures associated with blood pressure is a priority. Recently, we proposed the environment-wide association study to search for and replicate environmental factors associated with phenotypes. We conducted the environment-wide association study (EWAS) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1999-2012) which evaluated a total of 71,916 participants to prioritize environmental factors associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We searched for factors on participants from survey years 1999-2006 and tentatively replicated findings in participants from years 2007-2012...
2016: Scientific Reports
Chi Gao, Chirag J Patel, Kyriaki Michailidou, Ulrike Peters, Jian Gong, Joellen Schildkraut, Fredrick R Schumacher, Wei Zheng, Paolo Boffetta, Isabelle Stucker, Walter Willett, Stephen Gruber, Douglas F Easton, David J Hunter, Thomas A Sellers, Christopher Haiman, Brian E Henderson, Rayjean J Hung, Christopher Amos, Brandon L Pierce, Sara Lindström, Peter Kraft
BACKGROUND: Adiposity traits have been associated with risk of many cancers in observational studies, but whether these associations are causal is unclear. Mendelian randomization (MR) uses genetic predictors of risk factors as instrumental variables to eliminate reverse causation and reduce confounding bias. We performed MR analyses to assess the possible causal relationship of birthweight, childhood and adult body mass index (BMI), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) on the risks of breast, ovarian, prostate, colorectal and lung cancers...
June 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Benjamin S Glicksberg, Li Li, Marcus A Badgeley, Khader Shameer, Roman Kosoy, Noam D Beckmann, Nam Pho, Jörg Hakenberg, Meng Ma, Kristin L Ayers, Gabriel E Hoffman, Shuyu Dan Li, Eric E Schadt, Chirag J Patel, Rong Chen, Joel T Dudley
MOTIVATION: Underrepresentation of racial groups represents an important challenge and major gap in phenomics research. Most of the current human phenomics research is based primarily on European populations; hence it is an important challenge to expand it to consider other population groups. One approach is to utilize data from EMR databases that contain patient data from diverse demographics and ancestries. The implications of this racial underrepresentation of data can be profound regarding effects on the healthcare delivery and actionability...
June 15, 2016: Bioinformatics
R Shane Tubbs, Chirag Patel, Marios Loukas, Rod J Oskouian, Jens R Chapman
BACKGROUND: Traumatic atlanto-occipital dislocation is an uncommon, severely unstable pathology, which can lead to detrimental or even fatal neurological impairment. Specifically, children have consistently been reported to be more susceptible to this type of injury because of their disproportionately larger head, ligament laxity, and injury mechanisms. However, to date, rates of missed injury and outcomes including neurologic recovery of pediatric and adult populations following this insult have not been comparatively evaluated...
August 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Sidakpal S Panaich, Nilay Patel, Shilpkumar Arora, Nileshkumar J Patel, Samir V Patel, Chirag Savani, Vikas Singh, Rajesh Sonani, Abhishek Deshmukh, Michael Cleman, Abeel Mangi, John K Forrest, Apurva O Badheka
Hospital volume is regarded amongst many in the medical community as an important quality metric. This is especially true in more complicated and less commonly performed procedures such as structural heart disease interventions. Seminal work on hospital volume relationships was done by Luft et al more than 4 decades ago, when they demonstrated that hospitals performing > 200 surgical procedures a year had 25%-41% lower mortality than those performing fewer procedures. Numerous volume-outcome studies have since been done for varied surgical procedures...
April 26, 2016: World Journal of Cardiology
Ila Cote, Melvin E Andersen, Gerald T Ankley, Stanley Barone, Linda S Birnbaum, Kim Boekelheide, Frederic Y Bois, Lyle D Burgoon, Weihsueh A Chiu, Douglas Crawford-Brown, Kevin M Crofton, Michael DeVito, Robert B Devlin, Stephen W Edwards, Kathryn Z Guyton, Dale Hattis, Richard S Judson, Derek Knight, Daniel Krewski, Jason Lambert, Elizabeth Anne Maull, Donna Mendrick, Gregory M Paoli, Chirag Jagdish Patel, Edward J Perkins, Gerald Poje, Christopher J Portier, Ivan Rusyn, Paul A Schulte, Anton Simeonov, Martyn T Smith, Kristina A Thayer, Russell S Thomas, Reuben Thomas, Raymond R Tice, John J Vandenberg, Daniel L Villeneuve, Scott Wesselkamper, Maurice Whelan, Christine Whittaker, Ronald White, Menghang Xia, Carole Yauk, Lauren Zeise, Jay Zhao, Robert S DeWoskin
BACKGROUND: The Next Generation (NexGen) of Risk Assessment effort is a multiyear collaboration among several organizations evaluating new, potentially more efficient molecular, computational and systems biology approaches to risk assessment. This paper summarizes our findings, suggests applications to risk assessment, and identifies strategic research directions. OBJECTIVE: Our specific objectives were to test whether advanced biological data and methods could better inform our understanding of public health risks posed by environmental exposures...
April 19, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Kaitlyn Sadtler, Kenneth Estrellas, Brian W Allen, Matthew T Wolf, Hongni Fan, Ada J Tam, Chirag H Patel, Brandon S Luber, Hao Wang, Kathryn R Wagner, Jonathan D Powell, Franck Housseau, Drew M Pardoll, Jennifer H Elisseeff
Immune-mediated tissue regeneration driven by a biomaterial scaffold is emerging as an innovative regenerative strategy to repair damaged tissues. We investigated how biomaterial scaffolds shape the immune microenvironment in traumatic muscle wounds to improve tissue regeneration. The scaffolds induced a pro-regenerative response, characterized by an mTOR/Rictor-dependent T helper 2 pathway that guides interleukin-4-dependent macrophage polarization, which is critical for functional muscle recovery. Manipulating the adaptive immune system using biomaterials engineering may support the development of therapies that promote both systemic and local pro-regenerative immune responses, ultimately stimulating tissue repair...
April 15, 2016: Science
Kristen N Pollizzi, Im-Hong Sun, Chirag H Patel, Ying-Chun Lo, Min-Hee Oh, Adam T Waickman, Ada J Tam, Richard L Blosser, Jiayu Wen, Greg M Delgoffe, Jonathan D Powell
The asymmetric partitioning of fate-determining proteins has been shown to contribute to the generation of CD8(+) effector and memory T cell precursors. Here we demonstrate the asymmetric partitioning of mTORC1 activity after the activation of naive CD8(+) T cells. This results in the generation of two daughter T cells, one of which shows increased mTORC1 activity, increased glycolytic activity and increased expression of effector molecules. The other daughter T cell has relatively low mTORC1 activity and increased lipid metabolism, expresses increased amounts of anti-apoptotic molecules and subsequently displays enhanced long-term survival...
June 2016: Nature Immunology
Chirag J Patel, Arjun K Manrai, Erik Corona, Isaac S Kohane
BACKGROUND: It is hypothesized that environmental exposures and behaviour influence telomere length, an indicator of cellular ageing. We systematically associated 461 indicators of environmental exposures, physiology and self-reported behaviour with telomere length in data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 1999-2002. Further, we tested whether factors identified in the NHANES participants are also correlated with gene expression of telomere length modifying genes...
April 8, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Apurva O Badheka, Sidakpal S Panaich, Shilpkumar Arora, Nilay Patel, Nileshkumar J Patel, Chirag Savani, Abhishek Deshmukh, Mauricio G Cohen
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is an integral treatment modality for acute coronary syndromes (ACS) as well as chronic stable coronary artery disease (CAD) not responsive to optimal medical therapy. This coupled with studies on the feasibility and safety of performing PCI in centers without on-site surgical backup led to widespread growth of PCI centers. However, this has been accompanied by a recent steep decline in the volume of PCIs at both the operator and hospital level, which raises concerns regarding minimal procedural volumes required to maintain necessary skills and favorable clinical outcomes...
April 2016: Current Cardiology Reports
Chirag Patel, Endashaw Omer, Sarah J Diamond, Stephen A McClave
Traditional tools and scoring systems for nutritional assessment have focused solely on parameters of poor nutritional status in the past, in an effort to define the elusive concept of malnutrition. Such tools fail to account for the contribution of disease severity to overall nutritional risk. High nutritional risk, caused by either deterioration of nutritional status or greater disease severity (or a combination of both factors), puts the patient in a metabolic stress state characterized by adverse outcome and increased complications...
April 2016: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Shilpkumar Arora, Sidakpal S Panaich, Nilay Patel, Nileshkumar J Patel, Sopan Lahewala, Badal Thakkar, Chirag Savani, Sunny Jhamnani, Vikas Singh, Nish Patel, Samir Patel, Rajesh Sonani, Achint Patel, Byomesh Tripathi, Abhishek Deshmukh, Ankit Chothani, Jay Patel, Parth Bhatt, Tamam Mohamad, Michael S Remetz, Jeptha P Curtis, Ramak R Attaran, Carlos I Mena, Theodore Schreiber, Cindy Grines, Michael Cleman, John K Forrest, Apurva O Badheka
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to study the impact of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPI) on in-hospital outcomes. BACKGROUND: There is paucity of data regarding the impact of GPI on the outcomes following peripheral endovascular interventions. METHODS: The study cohort was derived from Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database between the years 2006 and 2011. Peripheral endovascular interventions and GPI utilization were identified using appropriate ICD-9 Diagnostic and procedural codes...
February 23, 2016: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Adam S Brown, Sek Won Kong, Isaac S Kohane, Chirag J Patel
BACKGROUND: Repositioning approved drug and small molecules in novel therapeutic areas is of key interest to the pharmaceutical industry. A number of promising computational techniques have been developed to aid in repositioning, however, the majority of available methodologies require highly specific data inputs that preclude the use of many datasets and databases. There is a clear unmet need for a generalized methodology that enables the integration of multiple types of both gene expression data and database schema...
2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Chirag J Patel
It seems intuitive that disease risk is influenced by the interaction between inherited genetic variants and environmental exposure factors; however, we have few documented interactions between variants and exposures. Advances in technology may enable the simultaneous measurement (i.e., on the same individuals in an epidemiological study) of millions of genome variants with thousands of environmental "exposome" factors, significantly increasing the number of possible factor pairs available for testing for the presence of interactions...
March 2016: Current Environmental Health Reports
Nileshkumar J Patel, Sushruth Edla, Abhishek Deshmukh, Nikhil Nalluri, Nilay Patel, Kanishk Agnihotri, Achint Patel, Chirag Savani, Nish Patel, Ronak Bhimani, Badal Thakkar, Shilpkumar Arora, Deepak Asti, Apurva O Badheka, Valay Parikh, Raul D Mitrani, Peter Noseworthy, Hakan Paydak, Juan Viles-Gonzalez, Paul A Friedman, Marcin Kowalski
Prior studies have highlighted disparities in cardiac lifesaving procedure utilization, particularly among women and in minorities. Although there has been a significant increase in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) insertion, socioeconomic disparities still exist in the trend of ICD utilization. With the use of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2003 through 2011, we identified subjects with ICD insertion (procedure code 37.94) and cardiac resynchronization defibrillator (procedure code 00.50, 00...
February 2016: Clinical Cardiology
Nish Patel, Nileshkumar J Patel, Badal Thakkar, Vikas Singh, Shilpkumar Arora, Nilay Patel, Chirag Savani, Abhishek Deshmukh, Udho Thadani, Apurva O Badheka, Carlos Alfonso, Gregg C Fonarow, Mauricio G Cohen
Fibrinolytic therapy is still used in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) when the primary percutaneous coronary intervention cannot be provided in a timely fashion. Management strategies and outcomes in transferred fibrinolytic-treated STEMI patients have not been well assessed in real-world settings. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2008 to 2012, we identified 18 814 patients with STEMI who received fibrinolytic therapy and were transferred to a different facility within 24 hours...
January 2016: Clinical Cardiology
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