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Donna Pettey, Tim Aubry
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of tobacco use and overall smoking behaviors within a sample of individuals with a serious mental illness who were homeless or vulnerably housed and receiving community mental health services. METHODS: In 2010, individuals (N = 639) were interviewed, and identified smokers completed the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and additional questions related to their smoking behaviors...
May 21, 2018: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
Muhammad Hassaan Ali, Samreen Jamal, Muhammad Ather Rashid, Usman Javaid, Nadeem Hafeez Butt
Moebius syndrome is a rare cause of congenital facial and abducens palsy.  It is sometimes associated with musculoskeletal abnormalities and other cranial nerve palsies. Genetics and ischemic insults to the fetus are considered to be the cause of this syndrome. We report here a 12-year-old female patient who was presented to us with poor cosmesis of her face, with associated decreased vision and lagophthalmos in her left eye. She didn't have any signs of exposure keratopathy in the affected eye. Her best-corrected vision was 20/20 and 20/60 in right and left eyes respectively...
March 16, 2018: Curēus
Warwick Butt, Anna Butlinski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Katrin Hufnagel, Smiths Lueong, Martina Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Agnes Hotz-Wagenblatt, Beiping Miao, Andrea Bauer, Angelika Michel, Julia Butt, Michael Pawlita, Jörg D Hoheisel, Tim Waterboer
Using Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) as a complex model organism, we describe a method to generate bacterial whole-proteome microarrays using cell-free, on-chip protein expression. Expression constructs were generated by two successive PCRs directly from bacterial genomic DNA. Bacterial proteins expressed on microarrays display antigenic epitopes, thereby providing an efficient method for immunoprofiling of patients and allowing de novo identification of disease-related serum antibodies. Through comparison of antibody reactivity patterns, we newly identified antigens recognized by known Ct-seropositive samples, and antigens reacting only with samples from cervical cancer (CxCa) patients...
May 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Meghnath Dhimal, Sushma Dahal, Mandira Lamichhane Dhimal, Shiva Raj Mishra, Khem B Karki, Krishna Kumar Aryal, Ubydul Haque, Md Iqbal Kabir, Pradeep Guin, Azeem Mehmood Butt, Harapan Harapan, Qi-Yong Liu, Cordia Chu, Doreen Montag, David Alexander Groneberg, Basu Dev Pandey, Ulrich Kuch, Ruth Müller
Asia and its Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is particularly vulnerable to environmental change, especially climate and land use changes further influenced by rapid population growth, high level of poverty and unsustainable development. Asia has been a hotspot of dengue fever and chikungunya mainly due to its dense human population, unplanned urbanization and poverty. In an urban cycle, dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes which are also competent vectors of Zika virus (ZIKV)...
May 15, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Athina Vidaki, Vivian Kalamara, Elena Carnero-Montoro, Timothy D Spector, Jordana T Bell, Manfred Kayser
Monozygotic (MZ) twins are typically indistinguishable via forensic DNA profiling. Recently, we demonstrated that epigenetic differentiation of MZ twins is feasible; however, proportions of twin differentially methylated CpG sites (tDMSs) identified in reference-type blood DNA were not replicated in trace-type blood DNA. Here we investigated buccal swabs as typical forensic reference material, and saliva and cigarette butts as commonly encountered forensic trace materials. As an analog to a forensic case, we analyzed one MZ twin pair...
May 14, 2018: Genes
J Weickenmeier, M Kurt, E Ozkaya, R de Rooij, T C Ovaert, R L Ehman, K Butts Pauly, E Kuhl
Alterations in brain rheology are increasingly recognized as a diagnostic marker for various neurological conditions. Magnetic resonance elastography now allows us to assess brain rheology repeatably, reproducibly, and non-invasively in vivo. Recent elastography studies suggest that brain stiffness decreases one percent per year during normal aging, and is significantly reduced in Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. While existing studies successfully compare brain stiffnesses across different populations, they fail to provide insight into changes within the same brain...
April 22, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Mohamed Elsherif, Muhammad Umair Hassan, Ali K Yetisen, Haider Butt
Low-cost, robust, and reusable continuous glucose monitoring systems that can provide quantitative measurements at point-of-care settings is an unmet medical need. Optical glucose sensors require complex and time-consuming fabrication process and their readouts are not practical for quantitative analyses. Here, a wearable contact lens optical sensor was created for the continuous quantification of glucose at physiological conditions, simplifying the fabrication process and facilitating smartphone readouts. A photonic microstructure having a periodicity of 1...
May 11, 2018: ACS Nano
Amanda J Foss, Jeffery Butt, Mark T Aubel
In 2016, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection conducted a limited survey of streams in the Susquehanna River basin in Pennsylvania, USA, to screen for microcystins/nodularins and anatoxin-a (ATX) and homoanatoxin-a (HTX). Testing revealed the presence of HTX in samples collected from the Pine Creek basin, with ATX present at lower levels. Microcystins/nodularins (MCs/NODs) were also tested and found to be concomitant, with NOD-R confirmed present by LC-MS/MS.
May 7, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Xinxin Ding, Leah M Pervere, Carl Bascom, Jeffrey P Bibeau, Sakshi Khurana, Allison M Butt, Robert G Orr, Patrick J Flaherty, Magdalena Bezanilla, Luis Vidali
Our ability to identify genes that participate in cell growth and division is limited because their loss often leads to lethality. A solution to this is to isolate conditional mutants where the phenotype is visible under restrictive conditions. Here, we capitalize on the haploid growth-phase of the moss Physcomitrella patens to identify conditional loss-of-growth (CLoG) mutants with impaired growth at high temperature. We used whole-genome sequencing of pooled segregants to pinpoint the lesion of one of these mutants (clog1) and validated the identified mutation by rescuing the conditional phenotype by homologous recombination...
May 2018: PLoS Genetics
Mary E Ingle, Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón, Courtney C Carignan, Craig M Butt, Heather M Stapleton, Paige L Williams, Jennifer B Ford, Russ Hauser, John D Meeker
BACKGROUND: The use of PFRs has steadily increased as brominated compounds have been or are being phased out. Human exposure is widespread and animal studies have shown adverse impacts on male reproduction, but human data are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between urinary concentrations of phosphorous-containing flame retardant (PFR) metabolites and semen parameters. METHODS: A subset of 220 men from an existing longitudinal cohort of couples were recruited from Massachusetts General Hospital fertility clinic between 2005 and 2015...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
M U Beg, S A Butt, S Al-Dufaileej, Q Karam, T K Al-Sharrah, T Saeed
The health of a marine ecosystem can effectively be monitored by studying the levels of biomarkers in a representative species. A change in background level of a biomarker indicates exposure to a specific type of pollutants. It also identifies bioavailability and the organism response to the causative agent among the compounds present in the surrounding water body. Yellowfin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus), a local variety of fish, was examined for parent PAHs in the liver, its metabolites in bile by the GC-MS method as exposure biomarkers and cytochrome P4501A1 by assay of ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) in the liver as an effect biomarker...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Adriano R Paula, Leila E I Silva, Anderson Ribeiro, Tariq M Butt, Carlos P Silva, Richard I Samuels
BACKGROUND: Entomopathogenic fungi are highly promising agents for controlling Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Deploying fungus-impregnated black cloths in PET traps efficiently reduced Ae. aegypti female survival rates under intra-domicile conditions. With the aim of further increasing the effectiveness of the traps, the addition of attractive lures to fungus-impregnated traps was evaluated. METHODS: Black cloths were suspended inside 2 l plastic bottles called "PET traps"...
May 4, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Xisca Sureda, Usama Bilal, Esteve Fernández, Roberto Valiente, Francisco J Escobar, Ana Navas-Acien, Manuel Franco
INTRODUCTION: After the implementation of smoke-free policies in indoor hospitality venues (including bars, cafeterias, restaurants, and pubs), smokers may have been displaced to their outdoor areas. We aimed to study smoking visibility and second-hand smoke exposure in outdoor hospitality venues. METHODS: We collected information on signs of tobacco consumption on entrances and terraces of hospitality venues in 2016 in the city of Madrid, Spain. We further measured airborne nicotine concentrations and particulate matter of less than 2...
May 1, 2018: Environmental Research
Simon E Tröder, Lena K Ebert, Linus Butt, Sonja Assenmacher, Bernhard Schermer, Branko Zevnik
Electroporation of zygotes represents a rapid alternative to the elaborate pronuclear injection procedure for CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in mice. However, current protocols for electroporation either require the investment in specialized electroporators or corrosive pre-treatment of zygotes which compromises embryo viability. Here, we describe an easily adaptable approach for the introduction of specific mutations in C57BL/6 mice by electroporation of intact zygotes using a common electroporator with synthetic CRISPR/Cas9 components and minimal technical requirement...
2018: PloS One
Vincent C Marconi, Meredith S Duncan, Kaku So-Armah, Vincent Lo Re, Joseph K Lim, Adeel A Butt, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Maria C Rodriguez-Barradas, Charles W Alcorn, Jeffrey Lennox, Joshua A Beckman, Amy Justice, Matthew Freiberg
BACKGROUND: Bilirubin may protect against cardiovascular disease (CVD) by reducing oxidative stress. Whether elevated bilirubin reduces the risk of CVD events among HIV+ individuals and if this differs from uninfected individuals remain unclear. We assessed whether bilirubin independently predicted the risk of CVD events among HIV+ and uninfected participants in VACS (Veterans Aging Cohort Study). METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a prospective cohort study using VACS participants free of baseline CVD...
May 2, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Jin Li, Tao Pu, Jilin Zheng, Yunshan Zhang, Yuechun Shi, Huatao Zhu, Yuandong Li, Xin Zhang, Guowang Zhao, Yuke Zhou, Xiangfei Chen
Photonic generation of linearly chirped microwave waveforms (LCMWs) using a monolithic integrated three-section laser is experimentally demonstrated in this work. All three sections of the laser cavity, including the front DFB section, phase section and rear DFB section, have the same active layer, which can avoid the butt-joint re-growth process. The gratings in both DFB sections are fabricated by the Reconstruction Equivalent Chirp technique, which can significantly decrease the difficulties in realizing precise grating structure...
April 16, 2018: Optics Express
Hai-Zhong Weng, Yue-De Yang, Jin-Long Xiao, You-Zeng Hao, Yong-Zhen Huang
Spectral engineering has been demonstrated for the circular-side square microlasers with an output waveguide butt-coupled to one vertex. By carefully optimizing deformation parameter and waveguide connection angle, undesired high-order transverse modes are suppressed while the mode Q factors and the transverse-mode intervals are enhanced simultaneously for the low-order transverse modes. Dual-mode lasing with pure lasing spectra is realized experimentally for the circular-side square microlasers with side lengths of 16 μm, and the transverse mode intervals can be adjusted from 0...
April 16, 2018: Optics Express
M Obopile, G Segoea, K Waniwa, D S Ntebela, K Moakofhi, M Motlaleng, T Mosweunyane, J K Edwards, J Namboze, W Butt, M Manzi, K C Takarinda, P Owiti
Setting: Larviciding has potential as a component of integrated vector management for the reduction of malaria transmission in Botswana by complementing long-lasting insecticide nets and indoor residual sprays. Objective: To evaluate the susceptibility of local Anopheles to commonly used larvicides. Design: This field test of the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israliensis vs. Anopheles was performed by measuring larval density before treatment and 24 h and 48 h after treatment in seven sites of Bobirwa district, eastern Botswana, in 2012 and 2013...
April 25, 2018: Public Health Action
K Moakofhi, J K Edwards, M Motlaleng, J Namboze, W Butt, M Obopile, T Mosweunyane, M Manzi, K C Takarinda, P Owiti
Background: Malaria elimination requires infection detection using quality assured diagnostics and appropriate treatment regimens. Although Botswana is moving towards malaria elimination, reports of unconfirmed cases may jeopardise this effort. This study aimed to determine the proportion of cases treated for malaria that were confirmed by rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) and/or microscopy. Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study using routine national data from the integrated disease surveillance and case-based surveillance systems from 2008 to 2014...
April 25, 2018: Public Health Action
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