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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353396/the-differences-in-the-assessments-of-side-effects-at-an-oncology-outpatient-clinic
#1
A Bayraktar-Ekincioglu, E Kucuk
Background There is a growing interest in the use of targeted and immunotherapies in oncology. However, the assessment of side effects can be different due to interpretation of patients' health status by healthcare professionals in oncology outpatient clinics. Objective To demonstrate the differences in the assessments of side effects conducted independently by a clinical pharmacist and nurses in patients who receive targeted therapies at an oncology outpatient clinic. Setting The study was conducted at the University Oncology Hospital in an outpatient clinic from October 2015 to March 2016...
January 20, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350175/update-on-the-nephrotoxicity-of%C3%A2-novel%C3%A2-anticancer-agents%C3%A2
#2
Eliezer Zachary Nussbaum, Mark A Perazella
Anticancer drug-induced kidney disease is a problem commonly encountered by nephrologists. The number of medications employed by oncologists causing acute and chronic kidney injury as well as electrolyte and acid-base disturbances has increased significantly over the past several decades. While conventional chemotherapeutic drugs induce a number of kidney lesions, emergence of very effective and well-tolerated targeted therapies and novel immunotherapies has increased the occurrence of drug-induced acute and chronic kidney injury in cancer patients...
January 19, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348890/adoptive-immunotherapy-shows-encouraging-benefit-on-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Binghao Zhao, Wenxiong Zhang, Dongliang Yu, Jianjun Xu, Yiping Wei
Although adoptive immunotherapy (AIT) is a novel emerging target treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), its actual efficacy remains controversial. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of AIT for NSCLC. We systematically searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline, and Web of Science for relevant parallel randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and high-quality observation studies of AIT without any language restrictions. Two investigators reviewed all the texts and extracted information regarding overall survival rate (OS), progression-free survival rate (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and disease control rate (DCR) from eligible studies; sensitivity analyses and subgroup analyses were also conducted to reduce heterogeneity Of 319 suitable studies, 15 studies (13 RCTs and 2 observation studies) involving 1684 patients were finally included...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346301/braf-and-mek-inhibitors-influence-the-function-of-reprogrammed-t-cells-consequences-for-adoptive-t-cell-therapy
#4
Jan Dörrie, Lek Babalija, Stefanie Hoyer, Kerstin F Gerer, Gerold Schuler, Lucie Heinzerling, Niels Schaft
BRAF and MEK inhibitors (BRAFi/MEKi), the standard treatment for patients with BRAFV600 mutated melanoma, are currently explored in combination with various immunotherapies, notably checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive transfer of receptor-transfected T cells. Since two BRAFi/MEKi combinations with similar efficacy are approved, potential differences in their effects on immune cells would enable a rational choice for triple therapies. Therefore, we characterized the influence of the clinically approved BRAFi/MEKi combinations dabrafenib (Dabra) and trametinib (Tram) vs...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345149/medical-management-of-brain-metastases-and-leptomeningeal-disease-in-patients-with-breast-carcinoma
#5
Kelsey M Bowman, Priya Kumthekar
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and accounts for the second highest number of cancer-related deaths. With patients surviving longer due to advances in systemic control, the incidence of CNS involvement is increasing; however, the management of CNS metastases has not undergone parallel advancements. The blood-brain barrier limits the efficacy of most systemic chemotherapies, and the utilization of surgery and radiation beyond first-line therapy is limited. We will explore the recent developments in the medical management of breast cancer brain metastasis...
January 18, 2018: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345001/wheat-oral-immunotherapy-was-moderately-successful-but-was-associated-with-very-frequent-adverse-events-in-children-aged-6-18-years
#6
Petri Kulmala, Anna S Pelkonen, Mikael Kuitunen, Marita Paassilta, Sami Remes, Rüdiger Schultz, Teija Dunder, Sami Turunen, Mika J Mäkelä
AIM: This study investigated oral immunotherapy for children aged 6-18 years with wheat allergies. METHODS: Well-cooked wheat spaghetti was given to 100 children with wheat allergies every day for 17 weeks, increasing from 0.3mg to 2,000mg of wheat protein, followed by three-month and nine-month maintenance phases. Blood samples were taken before therapy and at follow-up visits. The study was carried out in 2009-2015 in four Finnish paediatric allergology units...
January 18, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343281/p-mapa-immunotherapy-potentiates-the-effect-of-cisplatin-on-serous-ovarian-carcinoma-through-targeting-tlr4-signaling
#7
Luiz Gustavo de Almeida Chuffa, Grazielle de Moura Ferreira, Luiz Antonio Lupi, Iseu da Silva Nunes, Wagner José Fávaro
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are transmembrane proteins expressed on the surface of ovarian cancer (OC) and immune cells. Identifying the specific roles of the TLR-mediated signaling pathways in OC cells is important to guide new treatments. Because immunotherapies have emerged as the adjuvant treatment for patients with OC, we investigated the effect of a promising immunotherapeutic strategy based on protein aggregate magnesium-ammonium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride (P-MAPA) combined with cisplatin (CIS) on the TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathways via myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and TLR-associated activator of interferon (TRIF) in an in vivo model of OC...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343260/liquid-biomarkers-in-melanoma-detection-and-discovery
#8
REVIEW
Su Yin Lim, Jenny H Lee, Russell J Diefenbach, Richard F Kefford, Helen Rizos
A vast array of tumor-derived genetic, proteomic and cellular components are constantly released into the circulation of cancer patients. These molecules including circulating tumor DNA and RNA, proteins, tumor and immune cells are emerging as convenient and accurate liquid biomarkers of cancer. Circulating cancer biomarkers provide invaluable information on cancer detection and diagnosis, prognosticate patient outcomes, and predict treatment response. In this era of effective molecular targeted treatments and immunotherapies, there is now an urgent need to implement use of these circulating biomarkers in the clinic to facilitate personalized therapy...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340102/the-impact-of-antibiotic-usage-on-the-efficacy-of-chemoimmunotherapy-is-contingent-on-the-source-of-tumor-reactive-t-cells
#9
Michal P Kuczma, Zhi-Chun Ding, Tao Li, Tsadik Habtetsion, Tingting Chen, Zhonglin Hao, Locke Bryan, Nagendra Singh, James N Kochenderfer, Gang Zhou
In recent years the combined use of chemotherapy and immunotherapy, collectively termed chemoimmunotherapy, has emerged as a promising treatment option for patients with cancer. Antibiotics are commonly used to reduce infection-related complications in patients undergoing chemotherapy. Intriguingly, accumulating evidence has implicated gut microbiota as a critical determinant of host antitumor immune responses, raising the question as to whether the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics would invariably diminish tumor response to chemoimmunotherapies...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337870/glioblastoma-under-siege-an-overview-of-current-therapeutic-strategies
#10
REVIEW
Mayra Paolillo, Cinzia Boselli, Sergio Schinelli
Glioblastoma is known to be one of the most lethal and untreatable human tumors. Surgery and radiotherapy in combination with classical alkylating agents such as temozolomide offer little hope to escape a poor prognosis. For these reasons, enormous efforts are currently devoted to refine in vivo and in vitro models with the specific goal of finding new molecular aberrant pathways, suitable to be targeted by a variety of therapeutic approaches, including novel pharmaceutical formulations and immunotherapy strategies...
January 16, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336888/lxr-apoe-activation-restricts-innate-immune-suppression-in-cancer
#11
Masoud F Tavazoie, Ilana Pollack, Raissa Tanqueco, Benjamin N Ostendorf, Bernardo S Reis, Foster C Gonsalves, Isabel Kurth, Celia Andreu-Agullo, Mark L Derbyshire, Jessica Posada, Shugaku Takeda, Kimia N Tafreshian, Eric Rowinsky, Michael Szarek, Roger J Waltzman, Elizabeth A Mcmillan, Connie Zhao, Monica Mita, Alain Mita, Bartosz Chmielowski, Michael A Postow, Antoni Ribas, Daniel Mucida, Sohail F Tavazoie
Therapeutic harnessing of adaptive immunity via checkpoint inhibition has transformed the treatment of many cancers. Despite unprecedented long-term responses, most patients do not respond to these therapies. Immunotherapy non-responders often harbor high levels of circulating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs)-an immunosuppressive innate cell population. Through genetic and pharmacological approaches, we uncovered a pathway governing MDSC abundance in multiple cancer types. Therapeutic liver-X nuclear receptor (LXR) agonism reduced MDSC abundance in murine models and in patients treated in a first-in-human dose escalation phase 1 trial...
January 9, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334771/development-of-anti-human-mesothelin-targeted-chimeric-antigen-receptor-car-messenger-rna-mrna-transfected-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-carma-hmeso-for-ovarian-cancer-therapy
#12
Chien-Fu Hung, Xuequn Xu, Linhong Li, Ying Ma, Qiu Jin, Angelia Viley, Cornell Allen, Pachai Natarajan, Rama Shivakumar, Madhusudan V Peshwa, Leisha A Emens
CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) engineered T/natural kill (NK)-cell therapies can result in durable clinical responses in B-cell malignancies. However, CAR-based immunotherapies have been much less successful in solid cancers, in part due to 'on-target off-tumor' toxicity related to expression of target tumor antigens on normal tissue. Based on preliminary observations of safety and clinical activity in proof-of-concept clinical trials, tumor antigen-specific messenger RNA (mRNA) CAR transfection into selected, activated, and expanded T/NK-cells may permit prospective control of 'on-target off-tumor toxicity'...
January 15, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331888/a-longitudinal-analysis-of-ido-and-pdl1-expression-during-immune-or-targeted-therapy-in-advanced-melanoma
#13
Lukas Krähenbühl, Simone M Goldinger, Joanna Mangana, Katrin Kerl, Ines Chevolet, Liève Brochez, Christine Horak, Mitch Levesque, Reinhard Dummer, Phil F Cheng
A deepened understanding of the cellular and molecular processes in the tumor microenvironment is necessary for the development of precision immunotherapy (IT). We simultaneously investigated CD3, PDL1, and IDO by immunohistochemistry in paired biopsies from various organs of 43 metastatic melanoma patients treated with IT and targeted therapy (TT). Intraindividual biopsies taken after a period of weeks to months demonstrate discordant results in 30% of the cases. Overlap of IDO and PDL1 increased after therapy...
January 11, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331646/progress-in-the-management-of-advanced-thoracic-malignancies-in-2017
#14
REVIEW
Roberto Ferrara, Laura Mezquita, Benjamin Besse
The treatment paradigm of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) underwent a major revolution during the course of 2017. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) brought remarkable improvements in response and overall survival (OS) both in unselected pretreated patients and in untreated patients with PD-L1 expression ≥50%. Furthermore, compelling preliminary results were reported for new combinations of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 agents with chemotherapy or anti-CTLA4 inhibitors. The success of the ICIs appeared to extend to patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), mesothelioma or thymic tumors...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330552/dosimetry-prediction-for-clinical-translation-of-64cu-pembrolizumab-immunopet-targeting-human-pd-1-expression
#15
Arutselvan Natarajan, Chirag B Patel, Frezghi Habte, Sanjiv S Gambhir
The immune checkpoint programmed death 1 receptor (PD-1) expressed on some tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, and its ligand (PD-L1) expressed on tumor cells, enable cancers to evade the immune system. Blocking PD-1 with the monoclonal antibody pembrolizumab is a promising immunotherapy strategy. Thus, noninvasively quantifying the presence of PD-1 expression in the tumor microenvironment prior to initiation of immune checkpoint blockade may identify the patients likely to respond to therapy. We have developed a 64Cu-pembrolizumab radiotracer and evaluated human dosimetry...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329556/cancer-immunotherapy-beyond-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#16
REVIEW
Julian A Marin-Acevedo, Aixa E Soyano, Bhagirathbhai Dholaria, Keith L Knutson, Yanyan Lou
Malignant cells have the capacity to rapidly grow exponentially and spread in part by suppressing, evading, and exploiting the host immune system. Immunotherapy is a form of oncologic treatment directed towards enhancing the host immune system against cancer. In recent years, manipulation of immune checkpoints or pathways has emerged as an important and effective form of immunotherapy. Agents that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) are the most widely studied and recognized...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329208/advances-in-molecular-profiling-and-categorisation-of-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-and-the-implications-for-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Rille Pihlak, Jamie M J Weaver, Juan W Valle, Mairéad G McNamara
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) continues to be a disease with poor outcomes and short-lived treatment responses. New information is emerging from genome sequencing identifying potential subgroups based on somatic and germline mutations. A variety of different mutations and mutational signatures have been identified; the driver mutation in around 93% of PDAC is KRAS, with other recorded alterations being SMAD4 and CDKN2A. Mutations in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage repair pathway have also been investigated in PDAC and multiple clinical trials are ongoing with DNA-damaging agents...
January 12, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329202/epcam-immunotherapy-versus-specific-targeted-delivery-of-drugs
#18
REVIEW
Joanna Macdonald, Justin Henri, Kislay Roy, Emma Hays, Michelle Bauer, Rakesh Naduvile Veedu, Normand Pouliot, Sarah Shigdar
The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), or CD326, was one of the first cancer associated biomarkers to be discovered. In the last forty years, this biomarker has been investigated for use in personalized cancer therapy, with the first monoclonal antibody, edrecolomab, being trialled in humans more than thirty years ago. Since then, several other monoclonal antibodies have been raised to EpCAM and tested in clinical trials. However, while monoclonal antibody therapy has been investigated against EpCAM for almost 40 years as primary or adjuvant therapy, it has not shown as much promise as initially heralded...
January 12, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329113/therapeutic-hiv-1-vaccine-time-for-immunomodulation-and-combinatorial-strategies
#19
Nabila Seddiki, Yves Lévy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose is to recall some of the key immunological elements that are at the crossroad and need to be combined for developing a potent therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine. RECENT FINDINGS: Therapeutic vaccines and cytokines have been commonly used to enhance and/or recall preexisting HIV-1 specific cell-mediated immune responses aiming to suppress virus replication. While the vaccine is important to stimulate HIV-1 specific T-cell responses, the cytokine may support the expansion of the stimulated virus-specific T cells...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329112/master-protocols-in-lung-cancer-experience-from-lung-master-protocol
#20
Vincent K Lam, Vassiliki Papadimitrakopoulou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Contemporary advances in the understanding of the molecular and immunologic basis of metastatic lung cancer have firmly changed its treatment paradigm to a personalized, biomarker-driven approach. However, the majority of lung-cancer patients [especially lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC)] still do not have effective targeted therapeutic options. Master protocols, such as Lung-MAP, represent an innovative clinical trial approach designed to accelerate evaluation of novel biomarker-driven therapies...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
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