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A Casellas-Grau, E C Sumalla, M Lleras, J Vives, A Sirgo, C León, A Rodríguez, G Campos, Y Valverde, J M Borràs, C Ochoa
OBJECTIVE: Changes perceived as both positive (e.g., post-traumatic growth [PTG]) and negative (e.g. post-traumatic stress symptoms [PTSS]) have been associated with intensive internet use among breast cancer survivors. In this multi-center study, we analyzed the role of PTG and PTSS on the amount of time spent looking for online cancer information, its content, and its psychological impact. METHODS: PTSS and PTG were assessed in 182 breast cancer survivors using the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist and Post-traumatic Growth Inventory questionnaires...
May 8, 2018: Psycho-oncology
Meghan D Caulfield, Catherine E Myers
Many individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) report experiencing frequent intrusive memories of the original traumatic event (e.g., flashbacks). These memories can be triggered by situations or stimuli that reflect aspects of the trauma and may reflect basic processes in learning and memory, such as generalization. It is possible that, through increased generalization, non-threatening stimuli that once evoked normal memories become associated with traumatic memories. Previous research has reported increased generalization in PTSD, but the role of visual discrimination processes has not been examined...
2018: PeerJ
Belinda L Dow, Justin A Kenardy, Deborah A Long, Robyne M Le Brocque
This study aimed to explore children's experiences and memories of the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and identify the relative importance of premorbid, trauma, and cognitive/affective variables associated with acute posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Participants were 95 children aged 6-16 years admitted to the PICU and their parents. Children completed questionnaires and an interview assessing PTSS, peritrauma affect, and their memory of the admission 3 weeks following discharge. Medical data were extracted from patient charts...
May 7, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Jessica E Lambert, Alyssa Banford Witting, Spencer James, Lakmal Ponnamperuma, Thulitha Wickrama
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we applied conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, 1989) to explain high rates of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among war- and disaster-affected Tamil widows in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka. We hypothesized exposure to potentially traumatic events and severity of current contextual problems would influence PTSS and depressive symptoms directly and indirectly through loss of psychological (view of self), environmental (sense of community), and energy (physical health) resources...
May 7, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Els P M van Meijel, Maj R Gigengack, Eva Verlinden, Alida F W van der Steeg, J Carel Goslings, Frank W Bloemers, Jan S K Luitse, Frits Boer, Martha A Grootenhuis, Ramón J L Lindauer
Previous research suggests that acute pain is a risk factor for later posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). In a prospective cohort study, we examined the association between acute pain from accidental injury and PTSS in children and adolescents, taking into account factors potentially related to pain or posttraumatic stress. Participants were 135 children and adolescents, 8-18 years old. We measured the worst experienced pain since the accident took place with a visual analogue scale. Three months after the accident, posttraumatic stress was assessed with a self-report measure...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
Matthew W Gallagher, Laura J Long, William Tsai, Annette L Stanton, Qian Lu
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the impact of expressive writing on reducing posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS) and facilitating posttraumatic growth (PTG) in Chinese American breast cancer survivors. METHOD: Ninety-six women who had completed primary treatments for breast cancer were randomly assigned to a cancer experience facts condition, an emotional disclosure condition, or a self-regulation condition and wrote on three occasions over 3 weeks...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Ragnhildur Gudmundsdottir, Christina M Hultman, Unnur Valdimarsdottir
AIMS: Following the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami, Swedish authorities received public criticism for slow implementation of rescue work. Meanwhile, data are scarce on survivors' perspectives and potential mental health symptoms associated with timing of evacuation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate survivors' contentment with evacuation time and whether duration at disaster site following the 2004 tsunami was associated with post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and psychological morbidity...
April 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Jillian Vinall, Melanie Noel, Timothy Disher, Kim Caddell, Marsha Campbell-Yeo
OBJECTIVES: The birth of a preterm infant and witnessing ones' infant in pain is remembered by parents as being one of the most stressful aspects of the neonatal care intensive unit (NICU). Elevated symptoms of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are highly prevalent among mothers of preterm infants, however, little is known about mothers' memories of invasive procedures in the NICU and how these memories may contribute to the development of PTSS. We examined the relationships between number of invasive procedures, mothers' memories of these procedures, and their PTSS at discharge from the NICU...
April 25, 2018: Clinical Journal of Pain
Betty S Lai, Melissa C Osborne, Jennifer Piscitello, Shannon Self-Brown, Mary Lou Kelley
Background : Children are a vulnerable population following a natural disaster, due to their age and dependence on adults. The primary presenting problem children report after disasters is posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Prior research suggests that PTSS is inversely related to social support, which is often disrupted after a disaster. Objective : This study examined the relationship between social support (from parents, teachers, and peers) and PTSS in children affected by Hurricane Katrina. The research contributes to the literature by examining the mechanisms that drive this relationship over time...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Tessa K Kritikos, Jonathan S Comer, Meiqi He, Laura C Curren, Martha C Tompson
In this meta-analysis, we review findings on the relationships between parental combat exposure and PTSD/PTSS in military-serving families and (1) parenting problems, (2) family maladjustment, and (3) offspring problems. We systematically searched for studies in PsycInfo, PsychArticles, Psychology and Behavior Sciences Collection, Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress (PILOTS), and PubMed/Medline as well as conducted manual searches. Search procedures identified 22 eligible studies, including 20 studies examining relationships between parental PTSD/PTSS and parenting, family, and/or offspring outcomes and 8 studies examining relationships between parental combat exposure and parenting, family, and/or offspring outcomes...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Lisa Ljungman, Martin Cernvall, Ata Ghaderi, Gustaf Ljungman, Louise von Essen, Brjánn Ljótsson
Objective: A subgroup of parents of children who have been treated for childhood cancer report high levels of psychological distress. To date there is no empirically supported psychological treatment targeting cancer-related psychological distress in this population. The aim of the current study was to test the feasibility and preliminarily evaluate the effect of individualized face-to-face cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for parents of children after the end of treatment for childhood cancer...
2018: PeerJ
Elisa Pfeiffer, Cedric Sachser, Friederike Rohlmann, Lutz Goldbeck
BACKGROUND: As access to evidence-based treatments for young refugees with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) is limited, we developed the trauma-focused group intervention Mein Weg to be delivered by trained social workers. A recently published pilot study delivered preliminary evidence of the intervention with regard to symptom reduction and its feasibility. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine whether the intervention, in addition to usual care (UC), is more effective in reducing PTSS (primary outcome) compared to UC alone...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Patricia Moreland, Sheila Judge Santacroce
BACKGROUND: Young adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) are at risk for chronic illness uncertainty in 4 domains: ambiguity about the state of their illness; lack of information about the disease, its treatment, and comorbidities; complexity of the healthcare system and relationship with healthcare providers; and unpredictability of the illness course and outcome. Chronic uncertainty has been associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
Elena Santoro, Elisa Stagni-Brenca, Maria G Olivari, Emanuela Confalonieri, Paola Di Blasio
OBJECTIVE: To examine cognitive, emotional, and perceptual differences in the childbirth narratives of women with high levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) compared with women with low levels of PTSS in the postpartum period. DESIGN: A cross-sectional design. Participants were retrospectively assigned to the high or low PTSS group on the basis of their scores on the Perinatal Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Questionnaire (PPQ) administered at 1 week and 3 months after childbirth...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
Junghyun Lee, Seongjin Hong, Bong-Oh Kwon, Seung Ah Cha, Hee-Dong Jeong, Won Keun Chang, Jongseong Ryu, John P Giesy, Jong Seong Khim
Complexity of anthropogenic influences on coastal ecosystems necessitates use of an integrated assessment strategy for effective interpretation and subsequent management. In this study a multiple lines of evidence (LOE) approach for sediment assessment, that combined use of chemistry, toxicity, and benthic community structure in the sediment quality triad was used to assess spatiotemporal changes and potential risks of persistent toxic substances (PTSs) in sediments of Masan Bay highlighting "long-term changes" between 1998 and 2014...
March 21, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Brian J Albanese, Richard J Macatee, Nicholas P Allan, Nicole A Short, Aaron M Norr, Norman B Schmidt
OBJECTIVE: High anxiety sensitivity (AS) and poor attention control (AC) are established risk factors for posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), but little is known about the combined influence of these variables. Consistent with dual-systems models suggesting facets of executive function (e.g., AC) will modulate the effects of other risk factors (e.g., AS), the current study evaluated the singular and interactive effects of these variables on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms...
March 22, 2018: Psychiatry
Sophie Lykkegaard Ravn, Henrik Bjarke Vaegter, Thomas Cardel, Tonny Elmose Andersen
Objectives: Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are highly prevalent in chronic pain patients and may affect pain symptomatology negatively, but there is still a great need to explore exactly how this occurs. Therefore, this study investigated differences in pain intensity, pain-related disability, and psychological distress between chronic pain patients not exposed to a trauma, patients exposed to a trauma with no PTSS, and patients exposed to a trauma with PTSS. Moreover, the moderating effects of PTSS on the associations between pain intensity and pain-related disability and psychological distress were investigated...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Sanju Silwal, Ragnhild Dybdahl, Roshan Chudal, Andre Sourander, Lars Lien
BACKGROUND: In 2015, Nepal was hit by two major earthquakes, which caused 8900 deaths and displaced more than 450,000 people. We assessed the prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and depressive symptoms and explored potential risk factors among adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 893 students aged 11-17 in school grades 7-10. They lived in two districts affected by the earthquakes: Sindhupalchok and Kathmandu. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed using Child PTSD symptom scale and Depression Self-Rating Scale...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Elisavet Moschopoulou, Iain Hutchison, Kamaldeep Bhui, Ania Korszun
PURPOSE: Head and neck cancer (HNC) diagnosis and treatment are distressing and have immediate detrimental impacts on functioning and quality of life (QoL). Nevertheless, little is known about long-term psychosocial effects. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of clinical post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and subclinical post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in HNC patients surviving more than 2 years since treatment and in their partners. METHODS: HNC survivors identified from the cancer registry of a London hospital and their partners completed measures of PTSS, depression and anxiety, fear of cancer recurrence, social support, appearance concerns and health-related QoL...
March 15, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Tine K Jensen, Tonje Holt, Silje Mørup Ormhaug, Krister W Fjermestad, Tore Wentzel-Larsen
Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are associated with serious impairments in psychological, social, and academic functioning in youth. The aim of this study was to investigate whether changes in posttraumatic cognitions mediate treatment effects. Participants were multitraumatized youth (N = 156, mean age = 15.1 years, range = 10-18; 79.5% girls) randomly assigned to receive trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) or treatment-as-usual (TAU). Mixed-effects models were applied to investigate the impact of treatment conditions on posttraumatic cognitions...
March 2018: Journal of Counseling Psychology
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