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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103399/for-whom-does-time-heal-wounds-individual-differences-in-stability-and-change-in-posttraumatic-stress-after-the-2011-oslo-bombing
#1
Marianne Skogbrott Birkeland, Marianne Bang Hansen, Ines Blix, Øivind Solberg, Trond Heir
Prospective studies describing and predicting individual differences in the course of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) after disasters are scarce. The present study aimed to describe and predict individual differences in both the level and the rate of change in PTSS after the 2011 Oslo bombing, a terrorist attack directed at the Norwegian government. Survey data from ministerial employees (N = 256) were collected 10, 22, and 34 months after the bombing. We used latent growth modeling to examine the development of PTSS, and to identify the strength of predictor variables...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078658/the-past-does-matter-a-nursing-perspective-on-post-traumatic-slave-syndrome-ptss
#2
Ejim Sule, Ryan M Sutton, Debbie Jones, Ramel Moore, Imaculata Igbo, Lovell A Jones
Few have reviewed the impact of post traumatic slave syndrome (PTSS) on the issues of inequities, especially as it pertains to mental and physical health. Furthermore, the impact of PTSS on the social determinants of health is an area that has been researched by few investigators. The possibilities that the impact of slavery and/or major stress events in the life of a population can become trans-generational are lost to history. Think about what is taking place in cities around the country and then think about racist socialization (internalized racism) and its impact on our society...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049104/international-development-and-psychometric-properties-of-the-child-and-adolescent-trauma-screen-cats
#3
Cedric Sachser, Lucy Berliner, Tonje Holt, Tine K Jensen, Nathaniel Jungbluth, Elizabeth Risch, Rita Rosner, Lutz Goldbeck
BACKGROUND: Systematic screening is a powerful means by which children and adolescents with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) can be detected. Reliable and valid measures based on current diagnostic criteria are needed. AIM: To investigate the internal consistency and construct validity of the Child and Adolescent Trauma Screen (CATS) in three samples of trauma-exposed children in the US (self-reports: n=249; caregiver reports: n=267; pre-school n=190), in Germany (self-reports: n=117; caregiver reports: n=95) and in Norway (self-reports: n=109; caregiver reports: n=62)...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041823/changes-in-levels-of-parental-distress-after-their-child-with-atypical-genitalia-undergoes-genitoplasty
#4
Cortney Wolfe-Christensen, Amy B Wisniewski, Alexandria J Mullins, Kristy J Reyes, Paul Austin, Laurence Baskin, Kerlly Bernabé, Earl Cheng, Allyson Fried, Dominic Frimberger, Denise Galan, Lynette Gonzalez, Saul Greenfield, Thomas Kolon, Bradley Kropp, Yegappan Lakshmanan, Sabrina Meyer, Theresa Meyer, Natalie J Nokoff, Blake Palmer, Dix Poppas, Alethea Paradis, Elizabeth Yerkes, Larry L Mullins
BACKGROUND: The birth of a child with a disorder of sex development (DSD) and atypical genitalia can be traumatizing and isolating for families. Parents of children with DSD are at risk for increased levels of psychological distress, including depression, anxiety, illness uncertainty (IU), post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and impairments in quality of life (QOL). Our previous report indicated that although the majority of parents of children with atypical genitalia were coping well prior to the child's genitoplasty, approximately 25% of them reported experiencing some type of psychological distress...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995956/nanofocusing-of-the-free-space-optical-energy-with-plasmonic-tamm-states
#5
Linyu Niu, Yinxiao Xiang, Weiwei Luo, Wei Cai, Jiwei Qi, Xinzheng Zhang, Jingjun Xu
To achieve extreme electromagnetic enhancement, we propose a plasmonic Tamm states (PTSs) configuration based on the metal-insulator-metal Bragg reflector, which is realized by periodically modulating the width of the insulator. Both the thick (2D) and thin (3D) structures are discussed. Through optimization performed by the impedance-based transfer matrix method and the finite difference time domain method, we find that both the electric field and magnetic field intensities can be increased by three orders of magnitude...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966022/prevalence-and-predictors-of-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-in-parents-of-children-with-ongoing-treatment-for-cancer-in-south-china-a-multi-centered-cross-sectional-study
#6
Lei Shi, Yulin Gao, Jiubo Zhao, Ruiqing Cai, Ping Zhang, Yanqun Hu, Zhiying Li, Yajie Li
PURPOSE: Parents of children with ongoing cancer treatment are exposed to risks of developing posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), but little is known about the prevalence and predictors of PTSS among Chinese parents of children with cancer. This study aimed to examine the predictors of PTSS, and explored the correlation of depression, resilience, and family functions with severe PTSS. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted from May 2014 to September 2015 among the parents of cancer children treated in four general hospitals in South China...
December 13, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939648/clinically-speaking-psychological-abuse-matters
#7
Rita Começanha, Miguel Basto-Pereira, Ângela Maia
BACKGROUND: The adverse effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on mental health are well-established, except in the cases of psychological abuse and men's victimization. This research study examines the prevalence and the independent contribution of psychological IPV on mental health for both genders. METHODS: The initial sample comprises 661 college students from a Portuguese public university, who completed an e-survey. Statistical analysis focused on a subsample (n=364), 23% of which were men, after removing cases of physical and/or sexual abuse...
December 1, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936852/racial-ethnic-disparities-in-the-risk-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-among-mothers-of-children-diagnosed-with-cancer-and-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Leilani Greening, Laura Stoppelbein, Kara Cheek
OBJECTIVE: Research findings have indicated that mothers of children diagnosed with life-threatening illnesses can be at risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (PTSS), with African American mothers being especially vulnerable because of evidence suggesting higher rates of PTSD among both African Americans and women. Race/ethnicity, past trauma exposure and the interaction of these variables were evaluated as risk factors for PTSS, depression, and state and trait anxiety among African American and Caucasian mothers of chronically ill children...
December 12, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933610/resilience-mediates-impact-of-some-childhood-maltreatment-on-post-traumatic-stress-symptoms-in-conscripted-marines-in-the-republic-of-korea
#9
Heejung Kim, Sun Ah Kim, Seongsook Kong
Although it is known that post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) can result from military service, the variance in PTSS unexplained by military service warrants further investigation, and no researchers have investigated South Korean Marines' vulnerability during their 2-year conscripted service as the first line of national defense against threats from North Korea. This study was designed to examine whether resilience mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and PTSS in 169 Korean conscripts into the Marine Corps...
February 2017: Research in Nursing & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930959/social-support-negative-maltreatment-related-cognitions-and-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-in-children-and-adolescents
#10
A Münzer, H G Ganser, L Goldbeck
Social support by family, friends and significant others is known to buffer the impact of adverse life events on children's well-being and functioning, however little is known about pathways explaining this association. We investigated whether maltreatment-related cognitions mediate the association between social support and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Furthermore, age was introduced as moderator. We assessed the history of maltreatment in 200 maltreated children and adolescents (age 8-17 years) using a semi-structured interview...
January 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929329/parents-posttraumatic-stress-after-burns-in-their-school-aged-child-a-prospective-study
#11
Marthe R Egberts, Rens van de Schoot, Rinie Geenen, Nancy E E Van Loey
OBJECTIVE: This prospective study examined the course and potential predictors of parents' posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) after burn injury in their child (Age 8 to 18 years). METHOD: One hundred eleven mothers and 91 fathers, representing 118 children, participated in the study. Within the first month after the burn event and subsequently at 3, 12, and 18 months postburn, both parents completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES). Parental emotions related to the burn event and appraisal of threat to the child's life were assessed, which were investigated in a multilevel regression model...
December 8, 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928814/the-adrenal-gland-an-organ-neglected-in-pediatric-trauma-cases
#12
Bahattin Aydogdu, Mehmet Hanifi Okur, Serkan Arslan, Mehmet Serif Arslan, Hikmet Zeytun, Erol Basuguy, Mustafa Icer, Cemil Goya, Ibrahim Uygun, Murat Kemal Cigdem, Abdurrahman Onen, Selcuk Otcu
PURPOSE: Adrenal gland injury (AGI) caused by trauma may cause bleeding and life-threatening problems in children.The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of AGI in final diagnoses of trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records of 458 patients with abdominal trauma (out of a total 8,200 pediatric patientswith trauma of any sort), who were referred to our clinic between January 2009 and July 2014, were reviewed retrospectively.The numbers of patients with AGI and their ages, gender, trauma patterns, affected organs, pediatrictrauma scores (PTSs), and injury severity scores (ISSs) were recorded, as well as the associated ultrasound (US)and tomographic scan data, treatments, and complications...
8, 2016: Urology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916759/odour-as-a-determinant-of-persistent-symptoms-after-a-chemical-explosion-a-longitudinal-study
#13
Gro Tjalvin, Nils Magerøy, Magne Bråtveit, Stein Håkon Låstad Lygre, Bjørg Eli Hollund, Bente Elisabeth Moen
Foul-smelling environmental pollution was a major concern following a chemical workplace explosion. Malodorous pollution has previously been associated with aggravated physical and psychological health, and in persons affected by a trauma, an incidence-related odour can act as a traumatic reminder. Olfaction may even be of significance in the development and persistence of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). The present longitudinal study assessed whether perceived smell related to malodorous environmental pollution in the aftermath of the explosion was a determinant of subjective health complaints (SHC) and PTSS among gainfully employed adults, when the malodorous pollution was present, and after pollution clean-up...
December 2, 2016: Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880620/a-relational-model-for-the-intergenerational-transmission-of-captivity-trauma-a-23-year-longitudinal-study
#14
Gadi Zerach, Zahava Solomon
OBJECTIVES: The aversive, long-term toll of war captivity and fathers' combat-induced posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on adult offspring's secondary traumatization (ST) has been recently exemplified. However, the study of potential mechanisms of the intergenerational transmission of trauma to offspring is still lacking. This prospective study aimed to assess the role of fathers' PTSD symptoms (PTSS), paternal parenting, and adult offspring's attachment insecurities in adult offspring's PTSS...
2016: Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875034/risk-factors-of-post-traumatic-stress-symptoms-in-patients-with-cancer
#15
Yu-Hua Lin, Chia-Chan Kao, Shu-Fen Wu, Shu-Ling Hung, Hsing-Yu Yang, Hong-Yu Tung
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the level of PTSS and to identify demographics, disease history, and clinical symptoms that were associated with PTSS among gynecological, breast, or colorectal cancer patients in Taiwan. BACKGROUND: Literature indicated that 7.3 % to 35.2% of patients with cancer had experienced level of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). However, the PTSS among patients with cancer in Taiwan was not documented. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870527/indirect-exposure-to-captivity-details-is-not-related-to-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-among-the-spouses-and-offspring-of-former-prisoners-of-war
#16
Gadi Zerach, Zahava Solomon
Indirect exposure to the aversive details of the primary victim's traumatic event(s) has been introduced in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) as a new event criterion (Criterion A4). However, this new criterion has been criticized for its significant emphasis on the exposure to trauma "details" or trauma narrative. This study assessed the associations between reported exposure to details about captivity and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among 2 groups of family members of former prisoners of war (ex-POWs): spouses (n = 115) and adult offspring (n = 78)...
December 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862347/social-support-coping-and-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-in-female-sexual-assault-survivors-a-longitudinal-analysis
#17
Sarah E Ullman, Mark Relyea
Social support and coping affect each other after stressful life events, including sexual assault (Taylor & Stanton, 2007). The present study examined the associations among assault-specific support, maladaptive coping, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) over 3 years in a sample of female sexual assault survivors from a large metropolitan area (N = 1,863). A 3-wave cross-lagged panel model revealed significant weak-to-moderate reciprocal associations between maladaptive coping and PTSS (βs = .09 to ...
December 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859680/psychosocial-group-intervention-among-war-affected-children-an-analysis-of-changes-in-posttraumatic-cognitions
#18
Samuli Kangaslampi, Raija-Leena Punamäki, Samir Qouta, Marwan Diab, Kirsi Peltonen
Cognitive theories point to reduction in dysfunctional posttraumatic cognitions (PTCs) as one mechanism involved in recovery from posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), yet research findings have shown individual differences in the recovery process. We tested the cognitive mediation hypothesis above in a previously published psychosocial group intervention among war-affected children. We also examined heterogeneity in children's PTCs during the intervention. We used a cluster randomized trial of Smith et al...
December 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859442/couple-forgiveness-and-its-moderating-role-in-the-intergenerational-transmission-of-veterans-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms
#19
Xiao Zhou, Yafit Levin, Jacob Y Stein, Gadi Zerach, Zahava Solomon
This study examined the moderating effect couple forgiveness (as perceived by the wives/mothers) may have on the intergenerational transmission of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among families of combat veterans and former prisoners of war (ex-POWs). The sample included 123 (79 ex-POWs and 44 control combatants) Israeli father-mother-adult offspring triads. Self-report measures were administered at 2008 to veterans, at 2010-2011 to wives, and at 2013-2014 to offspring. The findings indicated that ex-POWs' PTSS were positively related to their offspring's PTSS, while couple forgiveness buffered this effect, particularly, and detrimentally, when couple forgiveness was low...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845522/trajectories-of-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-after-civilian-or-deployment-traumatic-event-experiences
#20
David S Fink, Sarah Lowe, Gregory H Cohen, Laura A Sampson, Robert J Ursano, Robert K Gifford, Carol S Fullerton, Sandro Galea
OBJECTIVE: Growth mixture model studies have observed substantial differences in the longitudinal patterns of posttraumatic stress symptom (PTSS) trajectories. This variability could represent chance iterations of some prototypical trajectories or measurable variability induced by some aspect of the source population or traumatic event experience. Testing the latter, the authors analyzed a nationally representative sample of U.S. Reserve and National Guard members to identify the influence of civilian versus deployment trauma on the number of PTSS trajectories, the nature of these trajectories, and the proportion of respondents in each trajectory...
June 16, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
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