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Mediastinal germ cell tumor

Ichiro Chihara, Satoshi Nitta, Tomokazu Kimura, Shuya Kandori, Takashi Kawahara, Natsui Waku, Takahiro Kojima, Akira Joraku, Jun Miyazaki, Hitoshi Iwasaki, Hiroaki Suzuki, Koji Kawai, Hiroyuki Nishiyama
We reported two cases of hyperthyroidism that developed during induction chemotherapy for advanced germ cell tumors with high serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels. Case 1 : An 18-year-old man with mediastinal choriocarcinoma complained of tachycardia and tremor. His pretreatment serum hCG level was 1.37 million mIU/ml. The free thyroxine (fT4) level measured on day 2 of the first course of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) was elevated to 7.8 ng/dl (<1.7 ng/dl), whereasthe thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH) level was undetectable...
September 2016: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
Zuzana Sestakova, Katarina Kalavska, Lenka Hurbanova, Dana Jurkovicova, Jan Gursky, Michal Chovanec, Daniela Svetlovska, Vera Miskovska, Jana Obertova, Patrik Palacka, Katarina Rejlekova, Zuzana Sycova-Mila, Silvia Cingelova, Stanislav Spanik, Jozef Mardiak, Miroslav Chovanec, Michal Mego
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are extraordinarily sensitive to cisplatin (CDDP)-based chemotherapy. DNA damage represents one of the most important factors contributing to toxic effects of CDDP-based chemotherapy. This study was aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of DNA damage level in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from chemo-naïve GCT patients. PBLs isolated from 59 chemotherapy-naïve GCT patients were included into this prospective study. DNA damage levels in PBLs were evaluated by the Comet assay and scored as percentage tail DNA by the Metafer-MetaCyte analyzing software...
October 7, 2016: Oncotarget
Faten Fedhila, Samar Rhayem, Habiba Hafsi, Wiem Douira, Raoudha Doghri, Monia Khemiri, Karima Mrad, Ibtissem Bellagha, Bechir Zouari, Sihem Barsaoui
Background Extracranial Germ cell tumors (GCT) are a rare and a heterogeneous group of pediatric cancers but highly curable. Aim We aimed to review management, outcome and prognostic factors that influence overall survival (OS) in a pediatric Tunisian oncologic unit. Methods We retrospectively evaluated between January 1998 and December 2012, 33 patients affected by extracranial germ cell tumors and treated according to TGM95 protocol established by the SFOPin a pediatric Tunisian oncologic unit. Results Patients had a mean age of 57 months (ranges: 1 day-13 years)...
April 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
Andrea Necchi, Rosalba Miceli, Karima Oualla, Guru Sonpavde, Patrizia Giannatempo, Daniele Raggi, Nicola Nicolai, Roberto Boffi, Alessandra Busia, Luigi Mariani, Roberto Salvioni
BACKGROUND: Limited information is available about the effect of bleomycin administration on the development of pulmonary toxicity in metastatic germ cell tumors (GCT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A literature search was conducted to identify randomized trials of first-line chemotherapy for GCT. We conducted univariate and multivariate analyses using random effects models to evaluate the predictive role of bleomycin administration in the development of all Grade and Grade 3 to 4 (G3-4) pulmonary toxicity...
September 8, 2016: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Jinchen Du, Qingxin Li, Dong Chao, Yulian Ban, Qunqun Li
Primary mediastinal seminoma is a kind of germ cell malignancy outside the gonads, and it's rarer with sarcoma component. This disease which has no special clinical manifestations and imaging characteristics is difficult to identify with other mediastinal tumors and mediastinal type lung cancer. This paper reported a case of primary mediastinal seminoma with mediastinal sarcoma. Through the analysis of the diagnosis and treatment process in this patient, we will make a comprehensive review of the disease.
September 20, 2016: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
Aditya Bagrodia, Byron H Lee, William Lee, Eugene K Cha, John P Sfakianos, Gopa Iyer, Eugene J Pietzak, Sizhi Paul Gao, Emily C Zabor, Irina Ostrovnaya, Samuel D Kaffenberger, Aijazuddin Syed, Maria E Arcila, Raju S Chaganti, Ritika Kundra, Jana Eng, Joseph Hreiki, Vladimir Vacic, Kanika Arora, Dayna M Oschwald, Michael F Berger, Dean F Bajorin, Manjit S Bains, Nikolaus Schultz, Victor E Reuter, Joel Sheinfeld, George J Bosl, Hikmat A Al-Ahmadie, David B Solit, Darren R Feldman
PURPOSE: Owing to its exquisite chemotherapy sensitivity, most patients with metastatic germ cell tumors (GCTs) are cured with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. However, up to 30% of patients with advanced GCT exhibit cisplatin resistance, which requires intensive salvage treatment, and have a 50% risk of cancer-related death. To identify a genetic basis for cisplatin resistance, we performed whole-exome and targeted sequencing of cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant GCTs. METHODS: Men with GCT who received a cisplatin-containing chemotherapy regimen and had available tumor tissue were eligible to participate in this study...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Annikka Weissferdt, Neda Kalhor, Jaime Rodriguez Canales, Junya Fujimoto, Ignacio I Wistuba, Cesar A Moran
Primary mediastinal germ cell tumors are uncommon tumors that can pose diagnostic difficulties due to their morphologic spectrum and unusual site. Immunohistochemistry plays an increasing role in the diagnosis of these tumors. Whereas the immunophenotype of testicular yolk sac tumors (YST) is rather well known, the opposite is true for primary mediastinal YST leading us to investigate the immunohistochemical features of 14 such neoplasms. Fourteen cases of primary mediastinal YST were reviewed and representative whole tissue sections were selected for immunohistochemical analysis using antibodies directed against CAM5...
September 16, 2016: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Gabriele Calaminus, Jonathan Joffe
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) represent a group of biologically complex malignancies that affect patients at different sites within the body and at different ages. The varying nature of these tumors reflects their cell of origin which is the primordial germ cell, which normally gives rise to ovarian and testicular egg and sperm producing cells. These cells retain an ability to give rise to all types of human tissues, and this is illustrated by the different kinds of GCTs that occur. In adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients, GCTs predominantly present as testicular, ovarian or mediastinal primary GCTs, and represent some of the most complex therapeutic challenges within any AYA practice...
2016: Progress in Tumor Research
Andrea Necchi, Gregory R Pond, Nicola Nicolai, Patrizia Giannatempo, Daniele Raggi, Nabil Adra, Nasser H Hanna, Roberto Salvioni, Lawrence H Einhorn, Costantine Albany
BACKGROUND: The International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) classification has been used since 1997 to allocate metastatic germ cell tumors (GCTs), but its applicability needs an update. We aimed to revisit the outcomes of intermediate and poor risk nonseminomatous GCTs (NSGCTs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Individual patient-level data from the databases of 2 institutions were collected. Outcomes of consecutive patients who received first-line chemotherapy from 1990 to 2014 were used...
August 8, 2016: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
F Bremmer, P Ströbel
The mediastinum is among the most frequent anatomic region in which germ cell tumors (GCT) arise, second only to the gonads. Mediastinal GCT (mGCT) account for 16 % of all mediastinal neoplasms. Although the morphology and (according to all available data) the molecular genetics of mediastinal and gonadal GCT are identical, a number of unique aspects exist. There is a highly relevant bi-modal age distribution. In pre-pubertal children of both sexes, mGCT consist exclusively of teratomas and yolk sac tumors...
September 2016: Der Pathologe
R J Rieker, A Marx, A Agaimy, P Ströbel
Mesenchymal neoplasms of the thymus and mediastinum account for only 2 % of neoplasms of the mediastinum and are therefore very rare. With very few exceptions the histology, immunohistochemistry and (based on current knowledge) molecular biology of mediastinal soft tissue tumors are not different from their counterparts in other organs. Characteristic features are more concerned with clinical epidemiological and therapeutic aspects as well as the multitude of possible differential diagnoses. With the exception of organ-specific tumors, such as gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), virtually all entities encountered in peripheral soft tissues can also arise in the mediastinum...
September 2016: Der Pathologe
Mark R Wick
Dr. Juan Rosai is one of the most prolific contributors to the literature on mediastinal pathology, and he has added steadily to that body of work over a 50-year period. Rosai has written several landmark articles in this topical area, including articles on thymic epithelial lesions, mediastinal neuroendocrine tumors, mediastinal lymphoma and other hematopoietic lesions, thymolipoma, thymoliposarcoma, mediastinal solitary fibrous tumor, intrathymic langerhans-cell histiocytosis, mediastinal germ cell neoplasms, and multilocular thymic cyst...
September 2016: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Sergio Piña-Oviedo, Cesar A Moran
Primary mediastinal Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) is rare. Nodular sclerosis CHL (NS-CHL) is the most common subtype involving the anterior mediastinum and/or mediastinal lymph nodes. Primary thymic CHL is exceedingly rare. The disease typically affects young women and is asymptomatic in 30% to 50% of patients. Common symptoms include fatigue, chest pain, dyspnea and cough, but vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. B-symptoms develop in 30% of cases. By imaging, primary mediastinal CHL presents as mediastinal widening/mediastinal mass that does not invade adjacent organs but may compress vital structures as bulky disease...
September 2016: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Edward Willems, Sebastiaan Martens, Roel Beelen
Mediastinal teratomata are rare, extragonadal germ cell tumors, which can occur at any age and are often asymptomatic. We present the case of a 57-year-old female with chronic cough diagnosed with a mass in the anterior mediastinum. The mass was successfully resected using the Intuitive Da Vinci® robotic system. The patient had an uneventful recovery. Review of the literature demonstrates that robotic surgery of the mediastinum is a safe and feasible alternative in selected cases.
May 26, 2016: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
Osama M Mustafa, Shamayel F Mohammed, Ali Aljubran, Waleed N Saleh
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) represent a well-recognized group of heterogeneous neoplasms with diverse clinical, histopathological, diagnostic, and prognostic characteristics. We present a rare case of a locally aggressive, chemotherapy-resistant immature mediastinal teratoma with a peculiar histological finding of a multilineage somatic-type malignant degeneration. A 21-year-old male patient presented with a 3-week history of persistent, blood-tinged productive cough and shortness of breath. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest showed a heterogeneous mass occupying the right hemithorax and abutting on adjacent structures...
June 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jun Suzuki, Hiroyuki Oizumi, Hirohisa Kato, Makoto Endoh, Hikaru Watarai, Akira Hamada, Katsuyuki Suzuki, Kenta Nakahashi, Takayuki Sasage, Mitsuaki Sadahiro
A 17-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for the abnormal chest shadow. Chest computed tomography(CT) demonstrated mediastinal tumor, measuring 13 cm in diameter with high serum level of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The lesions were diagnosed as mixed germ cell tumors including a non-seminomatous malignant component by CT guided needle biopsy. After 5 courses of chemotherapy, the serum AFP and hCG were decreased almost normal level but the tumor size was not changed...
July 2016: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
Luis Gorospe, Alberto Cabañero-Sánchez, Gemma María Muñoz-Molina, María Eugenia Olmedo-García, Raúl Hernanz de Lucas, Mónica García-Cosío
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Liping Liu, Mark E Jentoft, Jennifer M Boland
Herein we present the case of a 42-year-old man who presented with an anterior mediastinal mass, which was found to represent a mature teratoma. Within it, there was a secondary somatic malignant glial neoplasm with mitotic activity and necrosis, compatible with glioblastoma. He experienced early local recurrence and lymph node metastasis, but is alive and well 3 1/2 years after diagnosis. Neither the teratoma nor the glioblastoma components had abnormalities of chromosome 12, which may implicate that this teratoma was more closely related to those arising along the midline of infants and children (type I germ cell tumor) than to the typically malignant testicular examples, which often contain mixed germ cell elements (type II germ cell tumor)...
October 2016: Human Pathology
Charles Lu, Peter Riedell, Christopher A Miller, Ian S Hagemann, Peter Westervelt, Bradley A Ozenberger, Michelle O'Laughlin, Vincent Magrini, Ryan T Demeter, Eric J Duncavage, Malachi Griffith, Obi L Griffith, Lukas D Wartman
We report the findings from a patient who presented with a concurrent mediastinal germ cell tumor (GCT) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Bone marrow pathology was consistent with a diagnosis of acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AML M7), and biopsy of an anterior mediastinal mass was consistent with a nonseminomatous GCT. Prior studies have described associations between hematological malignancies, including AML M7 and nonseminomatous GCTs, and it was recently suggested that a common founding clone initiated both cancers...
January 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
Masakuni Sakaguchi, Toshiya Maebayashi, Takuya Aizawa, Naoya Ishibashi, Shoko Fukushima, Tsutomu Saito
A woman in her 60s was evaluated for anterior chest pain. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a 50 mm mass with irregular contrast enhancement in the anterior mediastinum. α-fetoprotein (AFP) level was elevated to 1188 ng/mL. A germ cell tumor was diagnosed, mostly comprising of a yolk sac tumor (YST). Two courses of chemotherapy with cisplatin (CDDP) and etoposide (VP16) were administered and surgical tumor resection was then performed. The final diagnosis was YST. CDDP and VP16 were continued postoperatively; however, because the AFP level increased about six months after surgery, the chemotherapy regimen was altered to bleomycin and CPT-11...
April 26, 2016: Thoracic Cancer
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