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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791756/interactions-between-insulin-and-diet-on-striatal-dopamine-uptake-kinetics-in-rodent-brain-slices
#1
Jyoti C Patel, Melissa A Stouffer, Maria Mancini, Charles Nicholson, Kenneth D Carr, Margaret E Rice
Diet influences dopamine transmission in motor- and reward-related basal ganglia circuitry. In part, this reflects diet-dependent regulation of circulating and brain insulin levels. Activation of striatal insulin receptors amplifies axonal dopamine release in brain slices, and regulates food preference in vivo. The effect of insulin on dopamine release is indirect, and requires striatal cholinergic interneurons that express insulin receptors. However, insulin also increases dopamine uptake by promoting dopamine transporter (DAT) surface expression, which counteracts enhanced dopamine release...
May 23, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789702/parallel-descending-dopaminergic-connectivity-of-a13-cells-to-the-brainstem-locomotor-centers
#2
Sandeep Sharma, Linda H Kim, Kyle A Mayr, David A Elliott, Patrick J Whelan
The mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) is an important integrative area for the initiation and modulation of locomotion. Recently it has been realized that dopamine (DA) projections from the substantia nigra pars compacta project to the MLR. Here we explore DA projections from an area of the medial zona incerta (ZI) known for its role in motor control onto the MLR. We provide evidence that dopaminergic (DAergic) A13 neurons have connectivity to the cuneiform nucleus (CnF) and pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) of the MLR...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788902/dystonia-deafness-syndrome-caused-by-actb-p-arg183trp-heterozygosity-shows-striatal-dopaminergic-dysfunction-and-response-to-pallidal-stimulation
#3
Inger Marie Skogseid, Oddveig Røsby, Ane Konglund, James P Connelly, Bård Nedregaard, Greg Eigner Jablonski, Nadja Kvernmo, Asbjørg Stray-Pedersen, Joel C Glover
BACKGROUND: Dystonia-deafness syndrome is a well-known clinical entity, with sensorineural deafness typically manifesting earlier than dystonia. ACTB p.Arg183Trp heterozygosity has been reported in six patients to cause combined infant-onset deafness and dystonia manifesting in adolescence or young adulthood. Three of these have received beneficial pallidal stimulation. Brain imaging to assess striatal function has not been reported previously, however. Nor has a comprehensive hypothesis been presented for how the pleiotropic manifestations of this specific beta-actin gene mutation originate developmentally...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782942/effects-of-light-and-dark-phase-testing-on-the-investigation-of-behavioural-paradigms-in-mice-relevance-for-behavioural-neuroscience
#4
Juliet Richetto, Marcello Polesel, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer
Different timing and light phases are critical factors in behavioural neuroscience, which can greatly affect the experimental outcomes of the performed tests. Despite the fact that time of testing is one of the most common factors that varies across behavioural laboratories, knowledge about the consequences of testing time on behavioural readouts is limited. Thus, in this study we systematically assessed the effect of this factor on the readout of a variety of elementary and recurrent behavioural paradigms in C57Bl/6 mice...
May 18, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782864/are-dopamine-receptor-and-transporter-changes-in-rett-syndrome-reflected-in-mecp2-deficient-mice
#5
Dean F Wong, Mary E Blue, James R Brašić, Ayon Nandi, Heather Valentine, Kirstie H Stansfield, Olivier Rousset, Genila Bibat, Mary E Yablonski, Michael V Johnston, Albert Gjedde, SakkuBai Naidu
In the present study we tested the claim that the dopaminergic dysfunction of Rett Syndrome (RTT) also occurs in Mecp2-deficient mice that serve as a model of the syndrome. We used positron emission tomography (PET) to image dopamine D2 receptors (D2 R) and transporters (DAT) in women with RTT and in Mecp2-deficient mice, and D1 R and D2 R density was measured in postmortem human tissue by autoradiography. Results showed 1) significantly reduced D2 R density in the striatum of women with RTT compared to control subjects...
May 18, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779223/gene-editing-vectors-for-studying-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-cholinergic-transmission
#6
Can Peng, Yijin Yan, Veronica J Kim, Staci E Engle, Jennifer N Berry, J Michael McIntosh, Rachael L Neve, Ryan M Drenan
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), prototype members of the cys-loop ligand gated ion channel family, are key mediators of cholinergic transmission in the central nervous system. Despite their importance, technical gaps exist in our ability to dissect the function of individual subunits in the brain. To overcome these barriers, we designed CRISPR/Cas9 small guide RNA sequences (sgRNAs) for production of loss-of-function alleles in mouse nAChR genes. These sgRNAs were validated in vitro via deep sequencing...
May 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774458/effects-of-rs591323-on-serotonin-transporter-availability-in-healthy-male-subjects
#7
Kyoungjune Pak, Hyun-Yeol Nam, Seunghyeon Shin, Keunyoung Kim, Myung Jun Lee, Eun-Joo Kim, Jae Meen Lee, Seong-Jang Kim, In Joo Kim
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the association between genetic factors of SNPs dopamine transporter (DAT) and serotonin transporter (SERT) availabilities in healthy controls. METHODS: The study population consisted of healthy controls with screening 123 I-FP-CIT single-photon emission computed tomography. Specific binding of 123 I-FP-CIT regarding DAT and SERT was calculated using a region of interest analysis. VOI template was applied to measure specific binding ratios (SBRs) of caudate nucleus, putamen, striatum, midbrain, and pons...
May 17, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772497/the-role-of-the-vasopressin-system-and-dopamine-d1-receptors-in-the-effects-of-social-housing-condition-on-morphine-reward
#8
M L Shawn Bates, Rebeca S Hofford, Michael A Emery, Paul J Wellman, Shoshana Eitan
BACKGROUND: The association with opioid-abusing individuals or even the perception of opioid abuse by peers are risk factors for the initiation and escalation of abuse. Similarly, we demonstrated that morphine-treated animals housed with only morphine-treated animals (referred to as morphine only) acquire morphine conditioned place-preference (CPP) more readily than morphine-treated animals housed with drug-naïve animals (referred to as morphine cage-mates). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are still elusive...
April 22, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748936/semi-quantitative-dopamine-transporter-standardized-uptake-value-in-comparison-with-conventional-specific-binding-ratio-in-123i-fp-cit-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-datscan
#9
Yuichi Wakabayashi, Ryuichi Takahashi, Tomonori Kanda, Feibi Zeng, Munenobu Nogami, Kazunari Ishii, Takamichi Murakami
PURPOSE: We developed a new analytical method to quantify the dopamine transporter (DAT) radiation dose in the striatum on [123 I] FP-CIT single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). This method is based on the dopamine transporter standardized uptake value (DaTSUV). The purpose of this study was to compare DaTSUV with the classical specific binding ratio (SBR) in the discrimination of dopaminergic neurodegenerative diseases (dNDD) from non-dNDD. METHOD: Seventy-seven consecutive patients who underwent DaTscan were included...
May 10, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744803/prediction-of-future-weight-change-with-the-dopamine-transporter
#10
Kyoungjune Pak, Keunyoung Kim, Myung Jun Lee, Jae Meen Lee, Bum Soo Kim, Seong-Jang Kim, In Joo Kim
The brain plays a critical role in controlling and inhibiting pre-potent responses to foods. We investigated the predictive value of dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in the striatum of healthy subjects using 123 I-FP-CIT single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In total, 84 participants with available data on their weight for the 60 months after SPECT were included. Specific binding of 123 I-FP-CIT to DAT was calculated using region-of-interest analysis, and the putamen-to-caudate nucleus ratio (PCR) was determined...
May 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739866/region-specific-regulation-of-presynaptic-dopamine-homeostasis-by-d2-autoreceptors-shapes-the-in-vivo-impact-of-the-neuropsychiatric-disease-associated-dat-variant-val559
#11
Raajaram Gowrishankar, Paul J Gresch, Gwynne L Davis, Rania M Katamish, Justin R Riele, Adele M Stewart, Roxanne A Vaughan, Maureen K Hahn, Randy D Blakely
Disruptions of dopamine (DA) signaling contribute to a broad spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Despite evidence that risk for these disorders derives from heritable variation in DA-linked genes, a better understanding is needed of the molecular and circuit context through which gene variation drives distinct disease traits. Previously, we identified the DA transporter (DAT) variant Val559 in subjects with ADHD and established that the mutation supports anomalous DAT-mediated DA efflux (ADE)...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729891/functional-connectivity-behavioral-and-dopaminergic-alterations-24-hours-following-acute-exposure-to-synthetic-bath-salt-drug-methylenedioxypyrovalerone
#12
Luis M Colon-Perez, Jose A Pino, Kaustuv Saha, Marjory Pompilus, Sherman Kaplitz, Nafisa Choudhury, Darin A Jagnarine, Jean R Geste, Brandon A Levin, Isaac Wilks, Barry Setlow, Adriaan W Bruijnzeel, Habibeh Khoshbouei, Gonzalo E Torres, Marcelo Febo
Among cathinone drugs known as bath salts, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) exerts its potent actions via the dopamine (DA) system, and at intoxicating doses may produce adverse behavioral effects. Previous work by our group suggests that prolonged alterations in correlated neural activity between cortical and striatal areas could underlie, at least in part, the adverse reactions to this bath salt drug. In the present study, we assessed the effect of acute MDPV administration on brain functional connectivity at 1 and 24 h in rats...
May 3, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728749/the-role-of-18f-fp-cit-pet-in-differentiation-of-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-and-frontotemporal-dementia-in-the-early-stage
#13
Han Soo Yoo, Seok Jong Chung, Soo-Jong Kim, Jung Su Oh, Jae Seung Kim, Byoung Seok Ye, Young Ho Sohn, Phil Hyu Lee
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the pattern of striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability could differentiate between progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in the first few years of the disease. METHODS: We enrolled patients who had Parkinsonism and frontal dysfunction and/or language deficit, visited the clinic within 2 years of the onset of symptoms, and had been followed-up for longer than 5 years; thus resulting in 26 patients with PSP and 24 patients with FTD...
May 4, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720959/role-of-neuroimaging-as-a-biomarker-for-neurodegenerative-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Soichiro Shimizu, Daisuke Hirose, Hirokuni Hatanaka, Naoto Takenoshita, Yoshitsugu Kaneko, Yusuke Ogawa, Hirofumi Sakurai, Haruo Hanyu
It has recently been recognized that neurodegenerative diseases are caused by common cellular and molecular mechanisms including protein aggregation and inclusion body formation. Each type of neurodegenerative disease is characterized by the specific protein that aggregates. In these days, the pathway involved in protein aggregation has been elucidated. These are leading to approaches toward disease-modifying therapies. Neurodegenerative diseases are fundamentally diagnosed pathologically. Therefore, autopsy is essential for a definitive diagnosis of a neurodegenerative disease...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713996/the-effects-of-exposure-to-mephedrone-during-adolescence-on-brain-neurotransmission-and-neurotoxicity-in-adult-rats
#15
Katarzyna Kamińska, Karolina Noworyta-Sokołowska, Anna Górska, Joanna Rzemieniec, Agnieszka Wnuk, Adam Wojtas, Grzegorz Kreiner, Małgorzata Kajta, Krystyna Gołembiowska
According to the European Drug Report (2016), the use of synthetic cathinones, such as mephedrone, among young people has rapidly increased in the last years. Studies in humans indicate that psychostimulant drug use in adolescence increases risk of drug abuse in adulthood. Mephedrone by its interaction with transporters for dopamine (DAT) and serotonin (SERT) stimulates their release to the synaptic cleft. In animal studies, high repeated doses of mephedrone given to adolescent but not adult mice or rats induced toxic changes in 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurons...
April 30, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709939/a-case-of-fatal-familial-insomnia-initially-developing-parkinsonism-mimicking-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#16
Takuya Fukuoka, Yoshihiko Nakazato, Masaomi Yamamoto, Akifumi Miyake, Takashi Mitsufuji, Toshimasa Yamamoto
We report a rare case of fatal familial insomnia in a 58-year-old man who initially developed parkinsonism, secondary dementia, and visual hallucinations that were suspected to be due to dementia with Lewy bodies. We evaluated the function of the striatum via dopamine transporter SPECT using 123 I-ioflupane and found marked presynaptic dopamine dysfunction in the bilateral striatum. This is the first reported case in which the initial symptom of fatal familial insomnia was parkinsonism and in which the dopamine transporter function was evaluated by DAT SPECT...
April 27, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705185/plasma-%C3%AE-synuclein-and-cognitive-impairment-in-the-parkinson-s-associated-risk-syndrome-a-pilot-study
#17
Hua Wang, Anzari Atik, Tessandra Stewart, Carmen Ginghina, Patrick Aro, Kathleen F Kerr, John Seibyl, Danna Jennings, Poul Henning Jensen, Kenneth Marek, Min Shi, Jing Zhang
Plasma total and nervous system derived exosomal (NDE) α-synuclein have been determined as potential biomarkers of Parkinson's disease (PD). To explore the utility of plasma α-synuclein in the prodromal phase of PD, plasma total and NDE α-synuclein were evaluated in baseline and 2-year follow-up samples from 256 individuals recruited as part of the Parkinson's Associated Risk Syndrome (PARS) study. The results demonstrated that baseline and longitudinal increases in total α-synuclein predicted progression of cognitive decline in hyposmic individuals with dopamine transporter (DAT) binding reduction...
April 26, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698491/brief-exposure-to-obesogenic-diet-disrupts-brain-dopamine-networks
#18
Robert L Barry, Nellie E Byun, Jason M Williams, Michael A Siuta, Mohammed N Tantawy, Nicole K Speed, Christine Saunders, Aurelio Galli, Kevin D Niswender, Malcolm J Avison
OBJECTIVE: We have previously demonstrated that insulin signaling, through the downstream signaling kinase Akt, is a potent modulator of dopamine transporter (DAT) activity, which fine-tunes dopamine (DA) signaling at the synapse. This suggests a mechanism by which impaired neuronal insulin receptor signaling, a hallmark of diet-induced obesity, may contribute to impaired DA transmission. We tested whether a short-term (two-week) obesogenic high-fat (HF) diet could reduce striatal Akt activity, a marker of central insulin, receptor signaling and blunt striatal and dopaminergic network responsiveness to amphetamine (AMPH)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697951/effects-of-n-alkyl-4-methylamphetamine-optical-isomers-on-plasma-membrane-monoamine-transporters-and-abuse-related-behavior
#19
Umberto Maria Battisti, Ramsey Sitta, Alan Harris, Farhana Sakloth, Donna Walther, Iwona Ruchala, Sidney Negus, Michael H Baumann, Richard A Glennon, Jose Miguel Eltit
4-Methylamphetamine (4-MA) is an emerging drug of abuse that acts as a substrate at plasma membrane transporters for dopamine (DAT), norepinephrine (NET) and serotonin (SERT), thereby causing non-exocytotic release of monoamine transmitters via reverse transport. Prior studies show that increasing the N-alkyl chain length of 4-MA converts the agent from a transportable substrate (i.e., releaser) at DAT and NET to a non-transported blocker at these sites. Here we studied the effects of stereoisomers of N-methyl-, N-ethyl-, and N-n-propyl 4-MA on monoamine transporters and abuse-related behavior in rats...
April 26, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694913/effects-of-taurine-on-striatal-dopamine-transporter-expression-and-dopamine-uptake-in-shr-rats
#20
Vincent Chin-Hung Chen, Chun-Ching Chiu, Li-Jeng Chen, Tsai-Ching Hsu, Bor-Show Tzang
Dopaminergic deficits in the prefrontal cortex and striatum have been attributed to the pathogenesis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Our recent study revealed that high-dose taurine improves hyperactive behavior and brain-functional signals in SHR rats. This study investigates the effect of taurine on the SHR striatum by detecting the spontaneous alternation, DA transporter (DAT) level, dopamine uptake and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. A significant increase in the total arm entries was detected in both WKY and SHR rats fed with low-dose taurine but not in those fed with high-dose taurine...
April 22, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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