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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102007/effects-of-diet-restriction-and-diet-complexity-on-life-history-strategies-in-side-blotched-lizards-uta-stansburiana
#1
Heather M Skinner, Andrew M Durso, Lorin A Neuman-Lee, Susan L Durham, Sarah D Mueller, Susannah S French
Organisms must balance energy invested into self-maintenance, reproduction, and somatic growth over their lifetime. In this study, the effects of diet restriction and diet complexity on side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) were analyzed. Thirty male lizards, housed in the laboratory, were fed either an ad libitum or a restricted diet for 18 days (phase 1). Individuals from both treatments were then assigned to a diet of the same quantity of food that was either simple (only crickets) or complex (crickets, cockroaches, waxworms, and mealworms) for 35 days (phase 2)...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088127/cerebral-laterality-for-language-is-related-to-adult-salivary-testosterone-levels-but-not-digit-ratio-2d-4d-in-men-a-functional-transcranial-doppler-ultrasound-study
#2
Marietta Papadatou-Pastou, Maryanne Martin
The adequacy of three competing theories of hormonal effects on cerebral laterality are compared using functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD). Thirty-three adult males participated in the study (21 left-handers). Cerebral lateralization was measured by fTCD using an extensively validated word generation task. Adult salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations were measured by luminescence immunoassay and prenatal T exposure was indirectly estimated by the somatic marker of 2nd to 4th digit length ratio (2D:4D)...
January 11, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087978/identification-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-metabolites-in-greyhound-urine
#3
David Palmer, Katie Rademaker, Ingrid Martin, Joan Hessell, Rob Howitt
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a 10-residue peptide hormone that induces secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone into the blood from the pituitary gland. In males, LH acts on the testes to produce testosterone. The performance enhancing potential of testosterone makes administration of exogenous GnRH a concern in sports doping control. Detection of GnRH abuse is challenging owing to its rapid clearance from the body and degradation in urine. Following recent investigations of GnRH abuse in racing greyhounds in New Zealand, we carried out a GnRH administration study in greyhounds in an attempt to identify GnRH metabolites that might provide more facile detection of GnRH abuse; little information is available on in vivo metabolites of exogenous GnRH in any species and none in dogs...
January 14, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073837/chronic-co-species-housing-mice-and-rats-increased-the-competitiveness-of-male-mice
#4
Ying-Juan Liu, Lai-Fu Li, Yao-Hua Zhang, Hui-Fen Guo, Min Xia, Meng-Wei Zhang, Xiao-Yuan Jing, Jing-Hua Zhang, Jian-Xu Zhang
Rats are predators of mice in nature. Nevertheless, it is a common practice to house mice and rats in a same room in some laboratories. In this study, we investigated the behavioral and physiological responsively of mice in long-term co-species housing conditions. Twenty-four male mice were randomly assigned to their original raising room (control) or a rat room (co-species-housed) for more than 6 weeks. In the open-field and light-dark box tests, the behaviors of the co-species-housed mice and controls were not different...
January 10, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073285/muscle-nerve-muscle-grafting-for-facial-reanimation-in-rats
#5
Steven J Charous, Jeffery M Hotaling, Bridget D Burgess, Joshua M Sappington, James Park, Grant Turek, Eileen M Foecking
OBJECTIVE: Facial paralysis is a devastating condition leaving patients with a myriad of aesthetic and functional consequences. Muscle-nerve-muscle (MNM) neurotization is a reinnervation technique that involves implanting an autogenous nerve graft as a conduit between an innervated "donor" muscle and a denervated "recipient" muscle. We investigated the use of MNM reinnervation, alone or in combination with electrical stimulation (ES) and testosterone propionate (TP) in comparison to nerve reanastomosis (RE), on functional recovery following rat facial nerve injury...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039451/high-throughput-proteome-analysis-reveals-targeted-trpm8-degradation-in-prostate-cancer
#6
Swapna Asuthkar, Lusine Demirkhanyan, Samuel Robert Mueting, Alejandro Cohen, Eleonora Zakharian
The Ca2+-permeable ion channel TRPM8 is a hallmark of the prostate epithelium. We recently discovered that TRPM8 is an ionotropic testosterone receptor. This finding suggested that testosterone-induced TRPM8 activity regulates Ca2+ homeostasis in the prostate epithelium. Since androgens are significantly implicated in prostate cancer development, the role of the novel testosterone receptor TRPM8 in cancer was assessed in our study. Although TRPM8 mRNA levels increase at the early prostate cancer stages, we found that it is not proportionally translated into TRPM8 protein levels...
December 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003008/glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-receptor-agonists-in-the-treatment-of-obese-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#7
Themistoklis Tzotzas, Spyridon N Karras, Niki Katsiki
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in females and is often associated with a number of cardiometabolic disorders such as central obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia, glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a gut hormone secreted after a meal, enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and additionally suppresses appetite and gastric motility. Most studies found impaired GLP-1 kinetics in obese individuals, whereas small studies in PCOS reported reduced, normal or even elevated GLP-1 levels...
December 21, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994160/hierarchy-stability-moderates-the-effect-of-status-on-stress-and-performance-in-humans
#8
Erik L Knight, Pranjal H Mehta
High social status reduces stress responses in numerous species, but the stress-buffering effect of status may dissipate or even reverse during times of hierarchical instability. In an experimental test of this hypothesis, 118 participants (57.3% female) were randomly assigned to a high- or low-status position in a stable or unstable hierarchy and were then exposed to a social-evaluative stressor (a mock job interview). High status in a stable hierarchy buffered stress responses and improved interview performance, but high status in an unstable hierarchy boosted stress responses and did not lead to better performance...
January 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993043/mechanisms-of-action-of-compounds-that-enhance-storage-lipid-accumulation-in-daphnia-magna
#9
Rita Jordão, Bruno Campos, Benjamín Piña, Romà Tauler, Amadeu M V M Soares, Carlos Barata
Accumulation of storage lipids in the crustacean Daphnia magna can be altered by a number of exogenous and endogenous compounds, like 20-hydroxyecdysone (natural ligand of the ecdysone receptor, EcR), methyl farnesoate, pyrirproxyfen (agonists of the methyl farnesoate receptor, MfR), and tributyltin (agonist of the retinoid X acid receptor, RXR). This effect, analogous to the obesogenic disruption in mammals, alters Daphnia's growth and reproductive investment. Here we propose that storage lipid accumulation in droplets is regulated in Daphnia by the interaction between the nuclear receptor heterodimer EcR:RXR and MfR...
December 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990161/sex-hormone-binding-globulin-modifies-testosterone-action-and-metabolism-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#10
Huika Li, Thy Pham, Brett C McWhinney, Jacobus P Ungerer, Carel J Pretorius, Derek J Richard, Robin H Mortimer, Michael C d'Emden, Kerry Richard
Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) is the major serum carrier of sex hormones. However, growing evidence suggests that SHBG is internalised and plays a role in regulating intracellular hormone action. This study was to determine whether SHBG plays a role in testosterone uptake, metabolism, and action in the androgen sensitive LNCaP prostate cancer cell line. Internalisation of SHBG and testosterone, the effects of SHBG on testosterone uptake, metabolism, regulation of androgen responsive genes, and cell growth were assessed...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976631/sertraline-induced-reproductive-toxicity-in-male-rats-evaluation-of-possible-underlying-mechanisms
#11
Ozlem Atli, Merve Baysal, Gozde Aydogan-Kilic, Volkan Kilic, Seyda Ucarcan, Burak Karaduman, Sinem Ilgin
This study was conducted to clarify the toxic effects of sertraline (SRT) on the reproductive system of male rats and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Rats were treated orally with SRT at doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg kg-1 for 28 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment period, sperm concentration, sperm motility, and sperm morphology were investigated by computer-assisted sperm analysis system whereas sperm DNA damage was detected by comet assay. The oxidative status of the testes was investigated, and a histopathological examination was conducted...
December 13, 2016: Asian Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956226/sex-differences-in-immune-responses-hormonal-effects-antagonistic-selection-and-evolutionary-consequences
#12
REVIEW
Jacob Roved, Helena Westerdahl, Dennis Hasselquist
Males and females differ in both parasite load and the strength of immune responses and these effects have been verified in humans and other vertebrates. Sex hormones act as important modulators of immune responses; the male sex hormone testosterone is generally immunosuppressive while the female sex hormone estrogen tends to be immunoenhancing. Different sets of T-helper cells (Th) have important roles in adaptive immunity, e.g. Th1 cells trigger type 1 responses which are primarily cell-mediated, and Th2 cells trigger type 2 responses which are primarily humoral responses...
December 9, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941626/the-protective-effect-of-selenium-on-chronic-zearalenone-induced-reproductive-system-damage-in-male-mice
#13
Miao Long, Shuhua Yang, Yuan Wang, Peng Li, Yi Zhang, Shuang Dong, Xinliang Chen, Jiayi Guo, Jianbin He, Zenggui Gao, Jun Wang
This study aims to explore the protective effect of selenium (Se) on chronic zearalenone (ZEN)-induced reproductive system damage in male mice and the possible protective molecular mechanism against this. The chronic ZEN-induced injury mouse model was established with the continuous intragastric administration of 40 mg/kg body mass (B.M.) ZEN for 28 days. Then, interventions with different doses (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg B.M.) of Se were conducted on mice to analyse the changes in organ indexes of epididymis and testis, antioxidant capability of testis, serum level of testosterone, sperm concentration and motility parameters, and the expression levels of apoptosis-associated genes and blood testis barrier- (BTB) related genes...
December 7, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926439/competition-testosterone-and-adult-neurobehavioral-plasticity
#14
A B Losecaat Vermeer, I Riečanský, C Eisenegger
Motivation in performance is often measured via competitions. Winning a competition has been found to increase the motivation to perform in subsequent competitions. One potential neurobiological mechanism that regulates the motivation to compete involves sex hormones, such as the steroids testosterone and estradiol. A wealth of studies in both nonhuman animals and humans have shown that a rise in testosterone levels before and after winning a competition enhances the motivation to compete. There is strong evidence for acute behavioral effects in response to steroid hormones...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913139/estimating-heritable-genetic-contributions-to-innate-immune-and-endocrine-phenotypic-correlations-a-need-to-explore-repeatability
#15
REVIEW
Timothy J Greives, Ned A Dochtermann, Emily C Stewart
The immune system plays an important role in enhancing an individual's ability to survive in a world inhabited by pathogens and parasites. The innate immune system is regulated by processes encoded in an individual's genome, providing an avenue for selection to act on this system, as well as the phenotypic relationships generated between this system and other traits of interest. While relationships between innate immunity and endocrine traits (e.g. testosterone) have been reported often in the literature, these relationships are complex and may differ under varying environmental conditions...
November 29, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889121/increasing-estrus-expression-in-the-lactating-dairy-cow
#16
J A Sauls, B E Voelz, S L Hill, L G D Mendonça, J S Stevenson
Using an activity monitoring system (AMS) equipped with an accelerometer, 2 experiments were conducted to test the hypotheses that (1) enhancing progesterone before inducing luteolysis or (2) exposing cows to estradiol cypionate (ECP) or testosterone propionate (TP) after luteolysis would increase occurrence and intensity of estrus. Our goal was to determine if more cows could be detected in estrus by an AMS compared with other estrus-detection aids. In experiment 1, cows (n=154) were fitted with both an AMS collar and a pressure-sensitive, rump-mounted device (HeatWatch; HW) and assigned to 3 treatments: (1) no CL + progesterone insert (CIDR) for 5d, (2) CL only, or (3) CL + 2 CIDR inserts for 5d to achieve a range in concentrations of progesterone...
January 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886378/interactive-effect-of-corticosterone-and-lactate-on-regulation-of-testosterone-production-in-rat-leydig-cells
#17
Chih-Chieh Chen, Chien-Wei Chen, Po-Han Lin, Jou-Chun Chou, Ting-Chun Weng, Cai-Yun Jian, Sindy Hu, Wei-Ho Lai, Fu-Kong Lieu, Shyi-Wu Wang, Paulus S Wang
The increasing intensity of exercise enhanced corticosterone and lactate production in both humans and rodents. Our previous studies also demonstrated that lactate could stimulate testosterone production in vivo and in vitro. However, the production of testosterone in response to combined corticosterone and lactate on Leydig cells, and underlying molecular mechanisms are remained unclear. This study investigated the changes in testosterone levels of Leydig cells upon exposure to lactate, corticosterone or combination of both, and revealed the detailed mechanisms...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870425/sex-and-the-development-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Christian J Pike
Men and women exhibit differences in the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The factors underlying the sex differences in AD are not well understood. This Review emphasizes the contributions of sex steroid hormones to the relationship between sex and AD. In women, events that decrease lifetime exposure to estrogens are generally associated with increased AD risk, whereas estrogen-based hormone therapy administered near the time of menopause may reduce AD risk. In men, estrogens do not exhibit age-related reduction and are not significantly associated with AD risk...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866977/the-anti-hyperplasia-anti-oxidative-and-anti-inflammatory-properties-of-qing-ye-dan-and-swertiamarin-in-testosterone-induced-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-in-rats
#19
Xinying Wu, Ye Gu, Lun Li
Qing Ye Dan (QYD) is the whole plant of Swertia mileensis and used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and so on. This study was to investigate the effects of QYD and its main component swertiamarin on BPH induced by testosterone in rats. The prostatic expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (βFGF) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were detected by immunohistochemistry assay...
January 4, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865788/testosterone-and-immune-reproductive-tradeoffs-in-healthy-women
#20
Tierney K Lorenz, Julia R Heiman, Gregory E Demas
Although testosterone (T) has been characterized as universally immunosuppressive across species and sexes, recent ecoimmunology research suggests that T's immunomodulatory effects (enhancing/suppressing) depend on the organism's reproductive context. Very little is known about the immune effects of T in healthy females, and even less about how reproductive effort modulates the immune effects of T in humans. We investigated how the interaction between endogenous T and sexual activity predicted menstrual cycle-related changes in several measures of immunity: inflammation (indexed by interleukin-6, IL-6), adaptive immunity (indexed by immunoglobulin A, IgA), and functional immunity (indexed by bactericidal assay)...
November 17, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
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